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Humanity's use of mushrooms extends back to Paleolithic times.

Few people—even anthropologists—comprehend how influ-| ential mushrooms have been in affecting the course of human j evolution. Mushrooms have played pivotal roles in ancient Greece, India and Mesoamerica. True to their beguiling nature, fungi have j always elicited deep emoaonal responses: from adulation by those | who understand them to outright fear by those who do not.

The historical record reveals that mushrooms have been used for j less than benign purposes. Claudius II and Pope Clement VII were both killed by enemies who poisoned them with deadly Amanitas. j | Buddha died, according to legend, from a mushroom that grew underground. Buddha was given the mushroom by a peasant who | believed it to be a delicacy. In ancient verse, that mushroom was linked to the phrase "pig's foot" but has never been identified. (Although truffles grow underground and pigs are used to find them, no deadly j poisonous species are known.)

Mushroom Stones Guatemala
Figure 2. Cruz Stamets holding a Mesoamerican Mushroom Stone, circa 500 B.C.

The oldest archaeological record of mushroom use is probably a Tassili image from a cave dating back S000 years B. C. (Figure 1). The artist's intent is clear. Mushrooms with electrified auras are depicted outlining a dancing shaman. The spiritual i nterpretation of this image transcends time and is obvious. No wonder that the word "bemushroomed" has evolved to reflect the devout mushroom iover's state of mind.

In the spring of 1.991, hikers :n the Ita);-in Alps came across the well-preserved remains of a man who died over 5300 years ago, approximately 1700 years later than the Tassili cave artist. Dubbed the "Iceman" by the news media, he was well equipped with a knapsack, flint axe, a string of dried Birch Polypores (Piptoporus betulinus) and another as yet unidentified mushroom. The polypores can be used as tinder for starting fires and as medi cine for treating wounds. Further, a rich tea wi',h immuno-enhancing properties can be prepared by boiling these mushrooms. Equipped for traversing the wilderness, this i.itrepid ad venturer had discovered the value of the noble polypores. Even today, this knowledge can be life-saving for anyone astray in the wilderness

Fear of mushroom poisoning pervades every culture, some mes reaching phobic extremes. The term mycophobic describes those individuals and cultures where fungi are looked upon with fear and loathing. Mycophobic cultures are epitomized by the English and Irish. In contrast, mycophilic so cieties can be found throughout Asia and eastern Europe, especially amongst Polish, Russian and Italian peoples. These societies have enjoyed a long history of mushroom use, with as many as a hundred common names to describe the mushroom varieties they loved.

The use of mushrooms by diverse cultures was intensively studied by an investment banker named R. Gordon Wasson. His studies concentrated on the use of mushrooms by Mesoamerican, Russian, English and Indian cultures. With the French mycologist Dr. Roger Heim, Wasson published research on Psilocybe mushrooms ir| Mesoamerica, and on Amanita mushrooms in Euro-Asi, 7Sibe :a. Wasson's studies spanned a lifetime marked by a passionate love for fungi. His publications include: Mushrooms, Russia m History, The Wondrous Mushroom: Mycolatry in Mesoamerica; Maria SabiraandherMazatecMushroomVelada\ and Persephone's Quest: Entheogens and the Origins of Religion. More than any individual of the 20th century. Wasson kindled inte-est in ethnomycology to its present state of intense study. Wasson died on Christmas Day : 11986.

One of Wasson's most provocative findings can be found in Soma: Divine Mushroom of iH^ EC —Mi—

Immortality (1976) where he postulated that the mysterious SOMA in the Vedic literature, a red fruit leae ng to spontaneous enlightenment for those who ingested it, was actually a mushroom. The Vedic symbolism carefully disguised its true identity: Amanita muscaria the hallucinogenic Fly Agaric. Many cultures portray Amanita muscaria as the archetypal mushroom. Al though some Vedic scholars disagree with his : iterpretation. Wasson's exhaust:ve research:f 11 stands. (See Brough( 1971) andWasson (1972)).

Aristotle, Plato. Homer, and Sophocles ail participated in religious ceremonies ai Eleusis where an unusual temple honored Demeter, the Goddess of Earth. For over two m;,lennia, thousands of pilgrims journeyed fourteen miles from Athens to Eleusis paying the equivalent of a month s wage for the privilege of attending the annua) ceremony. The pilgrims were ritually harassed on their journey to the temple, apparently in good humor.

Upon trriving at the temple, they gathered in the initiaiijn hall, a great telestrion. Inside the temple, pilgrims sat in rows that descended step-wise to a hidden, central chamber from wh' ch a fungal concoction was served. An odd feature was an array of columns, beyond any apparent structural need, whose designed purpose escapes archaeologists The pilgrims spent the night together and reportedly came away forever changed. In this pavilion crowded with pillars, ceremonies occurred, known by h storians as the Eleusinian Mysteries. No revelation of the ceremony's secrets could be mentioned under the punishment of imprisonment or death. These ceremonies continued until repressed in the early centuries of the Christian era.

In 1977, at a mushroom conference on the Olympic Peninsula, R. Gordon Wasson, Albert

Mayan Mushroom Drug Stones
Figures 3, 4, 5. Meso-Americar. mushroom stones, circa 300 years B.C., from the Pacific slope of Guatemala-

Hofmann, and Carl Puck first postulated that the Eleusinian myste -ies centered on the use of psychoactive fungi. Their papers were later published in a book entitled The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries (1978). That Aristotle and other founders of western philosophy undertook such intellectual adventures, and that this secret ceremony persisted for nearly 2000 years, underscores the profound impact that fungal rites have had on the evolution of western consciousness.

Mayan And Mushrooms
Figure 6. Pre-CIassic Mayan Mushroom Stone from KairinaJjuyu Highlands of Guatemala, circa 500 years B.C.


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