Growth Parameters

Spawn Run:

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 2 weeks

C02: >5000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges: 0-1

Light Requirements: n/a

Primordia Formation:

Initiation Temperature: 50-60° F. (10-15.6° C.) Relative Humidity: 98-100% Duration: 7-10 days C02:500-1000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges: 4-8 per hour Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux. Fruitbody Development:

Temperature: 55-65° F. (13-18° C.) Relative Humidity: 90-95% Duration: 5-8 days C02: 800-1200 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8perhour Light Requirements: 500-1000 lux. Cropping Cycle:

Two crops in 60 days, 10-14 days apart.

Common Names: Nameko or Namerako (Japanese for "Slimy Mushroom") Slime Pholiota Viscid Mushroom

Taxonomic Synonyms & Considerations: P. nameko is synonymous with Pholiota glutinosa Kawamura. Formerly placed in Collybia and Kuehneromyces, this mushroom is uniquely recognizable for its smooth cap and glutinous veil covering the mushroom. The type specimen of Collybia nameko T.Ito was found, upon re-examination to be none other than Flammulina velutipes, although its original description by Ito obviously conformed to the mushroom we now call Nameko. Hence, the latin name is burdened by interpretations by several mycologists. The reader should note, that "Nameko" is a common name, once applied to many Japanese mushrooms with a viscid or glutinous cap. The common name has since become restricted to one species, i.e. Pholiota nameko.

Description: Cap 3-8 cm., hemispheric to convex, and eventually plane. Surface covered with an

Figure 256. The harvested crop ready for cookie

« gish, glutinous slime M , encaggj—SW^S L upper regions ofthe stem or along the inside penpheral margin. Stem 5-8 cm. long, equal, with fibrils and swelled near the base. .

Distribution: Common m the cool, temped highlands of China, Taiwan, and throughout the ,s-landsof orthem Japan. Not known from Europe or North America.

Natat HaV J 0 ,uad-.eaf ardwood stumps and logs ,n «he temperate forests of As.a, espe ciallv deciduous oaks and beech (Fagus crenata).

mycelium, and generate mushrooms with homokaryotic spores. Available Strains: Strains are available from most Asian culture libraries.

=ai«=s=ss comes sped :led with yellowish to orangish zones at matunty. Fragrance Signature: Musty, farinaceous, not pleasant.

Natural Method of Outdoor Cultivation: On logs of broad-leaf hardwoods, especially beech, poplar and assorted deciduous oaks, a la the method for Shiitake. Because of the high moisture requirement for this mushroom, partially burying the logs in a high peat moss soil base is recommended.

Recommended Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achieve Fruiting: Spawn is quickly generated with liquid inoculation of grain from petri dish cultures. The grain spawn can be exponentially expanded two generations using standard grain-to-grain inoculations. Intermediate sawdust spawn can then be produced from the grain spawn for final inoculation into supplemented hardwood sawdust. For many cultivators, going from grain spawn to supplemented sawdust is an easier, and more direct approach.

Suggested Agar Culture Media: MEA, MYA, PDYA and DFA.

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media: Grain spawn throughout.

Substrates for Fruiting: The supplemented sawdust formula described in Chapter XVII is recommended. Arita (1969) recommends that no more than 10% rice bran be used as a supplement for oak hardwood formulations. However, I have found that 20% rice bran supports a more massive first flush and second flush when using Alms rubra (red alder). Arita also found that the addition of 15% rice bran was the optimum if using conifer sawdust (Pinus densiflora—Asian Pine and Cryptomeria japonica—Japanese Cedar) as the base substrate.) This is one of the few gourmet mushrooms that will give rise to substantial fruitings on conifer wood.

Recommended Containers for Fruiting: Autoclavable bottles and polypropylene bags

Yield Potentials: The fruitings pictured in this book yielded, on the first flush, an average of slightly more than 1 lb. of mushrooms from 5 lb. blocks of hardwood sawdust supplemented with rice bran.

Form of Product Sold to Market: Primarily fresh mushrooms are sold. An interesting, tasteful, if not elegant mushroom, Pholiota nameko is a mushroom well worth cultivating. Whether or not its marketing in North America will be successful is another question. P. nameko is very popular in Japan Its flavor is so distinct and appealing as to win over the squeamishly skeptical.

Nutritional Content: Crude protein (N x 4.38): 20.8%; fat: 4.2%; carbohydrate: 66.7%; ash: 8.3%; and fiber: 6.3%. Vitamins (in milligrams per 100 grams dry weight): thiamine: 18.8; riboflavin 14.6; niacin 72.9. Minerals (in milligrams per 100 grams dry weight): calcium: 42; potassium: 2083; iron: 22.9; sodium: 63.

Medicinal Properties: According toYing (1987), water and sodium hydroxide extracts of this mushroom are 60% & 90% effective, respectively, against Sarcoma 180 implanted in white mice. Further, resistance to infection by Staphylococcus bacteria is substantially improved. No parallel studies by Western researchers are known to this author. The references making these medical claims are in Chinese.

Flavor, Preparation & Cooking: A very slimy mushroom—a feature that has caused less consternation in Asia than in North America. Nameko is easily diceJ into miniature cubes and can be used imaginatively in a wide variety of menus, from stir fries to miso soups. Although pleasantly satisfying when lightly cooked, I prefer the strong flavor that thorough cooking evokes. Once the glutinous slime is cooked away, the mushroom becomes quite appetizing, having a crunchy and nutty/mushroomy flavor.

— — »VwS isV subtilel, seasoned wit, tiny bUs of— "condensing-fog" environment during the pnmord.a f^ wi||yform. ,„ this

Lycehum. I. is essentia, glutinous goop. Soon thereof r. populatons of a™c J hcs wjth each 11Thls gluti-

layer collapse dne to dehydration, lhe primordia are at nsk of aborttng^

Rather than removing the entire polypropylene bag Ii^^rttetmo the exposed, up-top portion of the incubation bag, leaving ^^^ coi|ect m0[Stui^, rstemSwi„el„V-act,ythe height of these walls, facilitating harvest. roughened to Using this casing-les expose viable mycelium. A paddle witn extruuiug 1 ,„,„„,.,COndensii ."fog atmosphere, the surface layer is torn apart, humidity is again raised to ^ ge slimelayer,

Soon thereafter (4-7 days), the mycelium beconie aeri Uuzzy K « g block giving rise to another break of ^^Jf^tSw abfve. Fourth upside dow,, roughening is surf c-d fotang si^ s gy^ ^ ^ my

EUForcing therecanbenob. ^pHaw™,)

The advantages of not using a casing layer are es e ,ut n0Us nature of vested mushrooms and your fingers.

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