Growth Parameters

Spawn Run:

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 30-45 days

Fresh Air Exchanges: 0-1 per hour.

Light Requirements: n/a

Primordia Formation:

Relative Humidity: 98-100%

Duration: 7-12 days

C02:500-1000 ppm

Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8 per hour

Light Requirements: 500-600 lux.

Fruitbody Development:

Relative Humidity: (85) 90-95%

Duration: 5-10 days

C02: 2000-4000 ppm

Fresh Aii Exchanges: 2-4 per hour

Light Requirements: 400-600 lux.

Cropping Cycle:

Two crops, three weeks apart.

Medicinal Properties: An unpublished report from the National Cancer Institute of Japan by Ikekawa (1990) showed strong anti-tumor activity. Mice were implanted with Lewis Lung carcinoma and given aqueous extracts of the fresh mushrooms. At a dose equivalent to 1 gram/kilogram of body weight per day, tumors were 100% inhibited, resulting in total regression. Control groups confirmed that, in absence of the mushroom extract, tumors were uninhibited in their growth. No studies with human subjects have been reported.

Flavor, Preparation & Cooking: A superior edible mushroom with a firm, crunchy texture and mildly sweet nutty flavor, this mushroom is highly esteemed in Japan. Versatile and enhancing any meal, H. tessulatus goes well with vegetable, meat, or seafood stir-fries and can be added to soups or sauces at the last minute of cooking. The flavor dimensions of this mushroom undergo transformations difficult to describe. Buna-shimeji can be incorporated into a broad range of recipes.

Comments: A quality mushroom, Buna-shimeji is popular in Japan and is being intensively cultivated in the Nagano Prefecture The only two mushrooms which come dose to this species in over-all quality are H. ulmarius or Pleurotus eryngii.

In the same environment ;deal for Shiitake (i.e. normal light, C02 less than 1000 ppm), my strains of H. tessulatuspmduce a stem less than 2 inches tall and a cap many times broader than the stem is long. When I reduce these light and elevate carbon dioxide levels, the mushrooms metamorphosize into the form preferred by the Japanese. Here again, the Japanese have set the standard for quality.

In the growing room, abbreviated caps and stem elongation is encouraged so that forking bouquets emerge from narrow mouthed bottles. Modest light levels are maintained Fi5ure 223. Bag culture of Buna shimeji on supp.e- (4Q0 lux) with a higher than normal carbon di-mented alder sawdust and chips. oxide jevels (>2000 ppm.) to promote this form of product From a cultivator's point of view, this cultivation strategy is we: merited althoug the mushrooms look quite diff ent n those f«nd in nature. This cultivation strategy is probably the p^maty reason for the confused ident" cations. When visiting Japan An.enca mycolog.sts v.ewe theTe abnormal forms of H. tessulatus, a mushroom they had previously seen only in the wild, and

speckled caps These mushrooms lighten in color as the mushrooi a m, ire becoming awny o p le woody brown at mati i , All the strains I have obtained from cloning wild specimens from the Pacific Northwest of North America are creamy brown when young, fading to a light tan at mrity and have distinct water-markings on the caps. The differences I see may only be reg- mal in

^ Although we now know that Hon ■shimeji (i.e. true Snimeji) is notH. tessulatus, but is Lyophyllum shimeji (Kwar ) Hongo, habits in identification are hard to break. Many Japanese, when referring to cultivated Hon-shimeji, are in fact thinking of//, tessulatus.

ft mi hroom does not exude a yellowish metabolite from the mycelium typical of Pleurotus species H wevei >etersen (1993] has found that H. tessulatus produces a mycelium-bound toxin to nematodes! sim'1 ir to that pre s in the droplets of P. ostreatus mycelium. TTitf every may plain why I ave never experienced a nematode infestation in the course of growing Hypsizygus tessulatus.

Phases Shimeji Growth
Figure 224. Commercial cultivation of H. tessulatus (=H marmoreus) in Japan.

Given the number of potentially valuable by-products from cultivating this mushroom, entrepreneurs might want to extract the water soluble anti-cancer compounds and/or nematacides before discarding the waste substrate.

For more information, consult Zhuliang & Chonglin (1992) and Nagasawa & Arita (1988).

HwsizVFiis ulmarius (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead

HwsizVFiis ulmarius (Bulliard: Fries) Redhead

"figure 225. K uimarius myceiia at 4 and 8 days on malt jeast agar media

Introduction: A relatively rare mushroom which usually grows singly or in small groups on elms ( )eec yp * y uS ulmarius close y parallels the morphology of an Oyster mushroom but is far bi n flavor and te ture. U ue i roscopic features qualify its placement into the ,enus HvZmus Increasingly 3F ^ IaT n H. ulmarius has yet to be cultivated commercially in North America wtere I belie e it would be w 11 received by discriminating markets. This mushroom can become quite large.

Common Names: The Elm Oyster Mushroom

Shirotamogitake (Japanese for "White Elm Mushroom )

Taxonomic Synonyms & Considerations: An Oyster-like mushroom Pleural , ulmarius (Bull.: Fi K mme* becar e LyophyUum ulmanum (Bull.:Fr.) Kuhner and is most recently p aced . s Hypsiz) usu no ius(Bull, )Redheal.H. ulmanuszM tessulatusare closely related,living in 4 same ecol<■ ica iche. Uypsizy&s ulmanus is not as comi Dn but much hrger, lighter in color, and flared, thin, uneven and wavy margin at matinity. S ulmanus is sun lar to an Oyster mu: h rc minf m H. tessulatus is smaller, stoute with a thicker stem and a cap that is speckled with da k

"water" markings. my eye H. tessulatus is closer in form to a LyophyUum or a Tricholoma while H. riu oks more hke a Pleuwtus. (Please refer to the taxonomic discussion of H. tessulatus on page 248).

GROWTH PARAMETERS 255

^J'BI.I-JJ.-M.-.H'ÍI'J. .vit n:i" g, .,■-- » . AU. I.»II ... JUP^J

GROWTH PARAMETERS 255

^J'BI.I-JJ.-M.-.H'ÍI'J. .vit n:i" g, .,■-- » . AU. I.»II ... JUP^J

Figures 226 and 227. H. ulmarius Day 35 and 36 after inoculation into ? gallon jar containing sterilized, supplemented alder sawdust/chips.

Description: Mushrooms hemispheric to plane sometimes umbelicate, uniformly tan, beige, grayish brown, to gray in color, sometimes wilh fa: t streaks, and measuring 4-15 cm. Cap margin inrolled to incurved when young, expanding with age, even 10 slightly undulating. Gills decurrent, close, often running down the stem. Stem eccentrically attached, th;ck. tapering and curved at the base. Usually found singly, some 'ime5 ;n groups of two or three, rarely more.

Distribution: Throughout the temperate forests of eastern North America. Europe, and Japan. Probably widespread throughout similar climatic zones of the world.

Natural Habitat: A saprophyte on elms, cottonwoods, beech, maple, willow, oak and occasionally on other hardwoods.

Microscopic Features: Spores whi e, spherical to egg-shaped, 3-5 p. Clamp connections numerous. Hyphal system monomitic

Available Strains: Strains are available from Japanese, American & Canadian culture libraries. The strain featured in this book originated from Agriculture Canada's Culture Collection, denoted as DAOM #189249, produces comparatively large fruitbodies (See Figure 228). Patents have been awarded, both in Japan and in the United States, to a Japanese group for a particular strain of H. ulmarius, which produces a "convex cap".* (See Kawaano, et al., 1990.) The method of cultivation

* A mushroom strain producing a convex cap is hardly unusual, let alone patentable. During their life cycle, most gilled mushrooms progress from a hemispheric cap, to one that is convex, and eventually to one that is plane with age

Figure 228. H. ulmarius fruiting from t,ag 01 sierm^u «nuu^.

described in the patent appears the same as for the cultivation of H. tessulat 1 IammulinaveMpes aTÏÏeurotTsL Sting an ,m strain because it.ro-uces convex cap v dbehke

Z g to patent a tree for h: ing avertie .trunk or a corn variety for producing a cyhndncal cob.

Myc ia Characteristics: Mycelium white, c ttony, closely resembling P. ostreatus mycelium. A few strains produce primordia on 2% MYA media.

Fragrance Signature: Sweetly oysteresque with a floury overtone, not anise like, out pleasant.

Natural Met od of Cultivation: Inoculation of partly buned logs or stun v suspect that this muSom will probably grow in out. 3or bed consisting of a 50:50 mature of hardwood sawdust and chips, much like the King Strophana

Recomm ided Courses for Expansion of Mycelial [ass to Achieve Fruiting: This mushroom î lapts well to the liquid fermentation methods desenbed m this book. Suggested Agar Culture Media: MYPA, PDYA, OMYA or DFA.

1st 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media: Grain spawn throughout. For outdoor cultr ition, saw-dÎt^Ηnded^upplemen ng ster ized sawdust definitely enhances mycelial integrity and yields

Substrates for Fruiting: Oak, alder, or cottonwood sawdust supplemented with rye, nee, or wneat S^S^Xetadg o. r .Its using the production formula of alder sawdust/chips/bran

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