Growth Parameters

Spawn Run:

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 7-10 days.

Fresh Air Exchanges: 0-1 per hour

Light Requirements: n/a

Primordia Formation:

Relative Humidity: 95-100%

Duration: 2-4 days

C02:500-1000 ppm

FreshAir Exchanges 5-8 per hour.

Light Requirements: 750-1500 lux.

Fruitbody Development:

Relative Humidity: 85-90%

Duration: 3-5 days.

C02: 500-1500 ppm.

Fresh Air Exchanges: 5-8 per hour.

Light Requirements: 750-1500 lux.

panded two more orders of magnitude. Once colonized, the grain spawn should be implanted directly into the fruiting substrate, such as wheat straw. Gf :n spawn inoculated into pasteurized bulk substrates such as straw at a 10-20% (wet spawn to dry substrate), results in fruitings within two weeks.

SuggestedAgar Culture Media: MYPA, PDYA, OMYA or DFA.

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media: Grain spawn for all three generations.

Substrates for Fruiting: Hardwood sawdust, cereal straw, corn waste, coffee residue, cotton waste, banana fronds, palm deb:is, and sugar cane bagasse. One formula employed by Brazilian growers calls for the proportionate mixir g of 100 lbs. sugar cane/ 8 lbs. rice bran/ 3 lbs rice straw/2 lbs. calcium carbonate. The mixture is mixed wetted, and pasteurized at 140° F. for 2-4 hours. Bano et al. (1978) found that this mushroom (as"P. flabellatus") gave the highest yields when cotton seed powder was added at 132 g. per kg. of dry wheat straw. The total mass of the mushrooms grown was 85%

Cropping Cycle:

2 crops, 7-10 days apart.

Medicinal Mushrooms

Figure 273. This variety of the fink uyster m ... f fr iits in < 10 days from inoculation into pasteurized UM,tu •

wSeat straw Harvest Hints: Mushrooms should be picked when moderately young, and over the yields from unsupplementeü wheat straw. Interestingly, the protein content of the dried mushrooms also rose to 38%.

Roy se & Zaki (1991) found that the equal addition of the commercially available supplements Spawn Mate II® and Fast Break5- at a combined rate of 168 g. per kg of wheat straw substantially enhanced yields of "P. flabellatus". In these tests, biological efficiency increased from 22% to 77% in a 28 day harvest period. I would expect that the yields of other Oyster species would be similarly improved. Recommended Containers for Fruiting: Polyethylene bags or columns, t^ays, or racks.

Yield Potentials: Given good crop management, biological efficiency rated a. 75-150%, largely dependent on the age of the fruitbody at harvest. Some strains of this species are equally as productive, in terms of biological efficiency, as the mc st vigorous strains of P. pulmonarius and P.

Figure 273. This variety of the fink uyster m ... f fr iits in < 10 days from inoculation into pasteurized UM,tu •

wSeat straw Harvest Hints: Mushrooms should be picked when moderately young, and handled carefully so as to not bruise the brilliantly colored gills. This mushroom spoils rapidly, with a shelf life of no nmre than 4-5 days from the date of harvest.

Form of Product Sold to Market: Fresh or dried. Mushrooms are best presented gills up, or max^unfvisual impact However, tl unique pi color makes marketing an interesting challenge denendine upon the market nicl .In markets like NewYork and Los Angeles, shot and the color as a friendonce told me "sells itself". As one c magi, th mushroom may not sell as , ;11 as t non-pink varieties in less sophisticated, rural American markets.

Nutritional Co, ent: Not iuUy known to this author. Probabh'simi IxtoP.pulmon w Banoet il.(1978) tot^mushrooms grow, Ere ^supplemented wheat straw compared * aeat strawsupple-mS wtco Jnse owdfrresulte inpro contents of 30and36% .r-ively. Supplements and -pawning rate have ad', xt impact on the protein content of the mushrooms grown.

growth parameters 303

Medicinal Properties: Not known to this author.

Flavor, Preparation & Cooking: The flavor of this mushroom is not as appealing as many of the other Oyster species listed in this book. Tougher fleshed and more tart than other Oyster species, the pink color soon disappears upon contact with heat. Upon drying, a majority of (but not all) specimens lose their pinkish tones. Although this mushroom is not my personal favorite, some of my students prefer it over P. ostreatus and P. pulmonarius.

Comments: This complex of Pink Oyster Mushrooms hosts some of the fastest growing strains of mushrooms in the Genus Pleurotus. For those with limited access to pasteurization equipment, and living in a warm climate, strains of P. dj amor uniquely fulfill a critical need. Its speed of colonization, short but productive fruiting cycle, and adaptability to diverse substrate materials, make this species affordable to many cultivators, especially those in developing countries

Zadrazil (1979) noted that this mushroom (as "P.flabellatus") and Stropharia rugoso-annulata proved to be the best at rendering straw, after fruiting, into a nutritious feed staple for ruminants, especially cattle. (For more information of utilizing "spent" straw from Oyster mushroom cultivation into feed for animals, see page 283).

t For more information, please consult: Bononi et alia, 1991, "Pleurotus ostreatoroseus cultivation ih Brazil". Mushroom Science XI, A.A. Balkema, Netherlands.

Pleurotus eryngii (De Candolle ex Fries) Quelet sensu lato

Pleurotus eryngii (De Candolle ex Fries) Quelet sensu lato

Pleurotus Eryngii Spawn Growing
figure 274. P. eryngii mycelia 5 and 19 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar media.

Introduction: Pleurotus eryngii is by far the best tasting Oyster mushroorr, well deserving of the rrZoX. Pop a, n Euro! tl is stout, thickly fleshed mushroom is one of he largest Htecies in heg'us , errini hardwoods this mushroom is easy to grow. / though mis mushroom^grows1the cereal (wheat) stra s, the y.elds are not as substant:.: as that of Pleurotus osTeaiZi Pl irotus pulmonarius on this same material, at the same rate of spawnmg, unless supplements are added or a unique spawning method is employed.

Common Names: The King Oyster

Boletus of the Steppes*

Taxonomic Synonyms & Considerations: Synonymous ^Pleurotusfuscus (Batt ) Bres.Va .ties :e aficto^"al ic hes has been c Ueduponby Bresmksy et,I. ( -7) and although these vaneUes appear morphologically identical, the distribution of ecotypes are quite distinct.

»cription: Cap 3-12 cm. in diameter, at first convex, expanding w<f l age becc ning funnel-shaped dh tl 'margintypical in: *i tendingwi age. S*m3-10cm.length,central, -k, tapenngdowm ^dsGUlsM / chstant, :hin, rayish, and decurrent. Growing indiv* uaffyo m small groups. Cultivated n shrooms a ieve a greater stature and overall size compared to ones collected in the wild.

* According to ZadrazH, Vasilkov called this musnroom "Boletus of the Steppes" a name I find to be quite peculiar.

GaOwth parameters 305

Figure 275 and 276. f. eryngii fruiiing irom supplemented aider sawdust/chips.

Distribution: Throughout southern Europe North Africa, central Asia and the southern Soviet Union.

Natural Habitat: Terrestrial growing on the buried roots of hardwoods. T lis mushroom is thought to be a facultative parasite on dying Eryngium campestre, a member of the carrot family

Microscope Features: Spores white, ellipsoid, 10-14 x 4-5 ¡j. Clamp connections present. Context monomelic.

Available Strains: Most strains orgh.ate from Europe and are available from many culture libraries.

Mycelial Characterises Whitish longitudinally radial at first, sometimes ih; zomorafiic, soon thickening and becoming cottony in age.

Fragrance Signature: Grain spawn and myceliated straw smells rich, sweet, and class; ;ally Oyster-esque but not anise-like.

Natural Method of Cultivation: Outdoors, on log sections turned vertically, and on stumps inoculated with plug spawn. This species is easily grown on straw outdoors using the mound method. Some strains are native to conifers (Abies spp.). If brought into culture, these races could help recycle conifer stumps throughout the world.

Recommended Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achieve Fruiting: Tradif )nal or liq uid inoculation of grain spawn which is then broadcasted into fruiting substrates, preferably sterilized


Figure 277. LaDcna Stamets about to harvest r. e 'ngii from column of pasteurized wheat straw.

sawdust. Pasteurized straw cultivation is corr paratively less productive unless inoculated with equal quantities of sawdust and grain spawn. In other words, every ton of wheat stravi (2000 lbs. dry weight) should simultaneously receive 100 lbs. of gram spawn (wet weight) and 100 lbs. of sawdust spawn (wet weight). This combination spawning method |i?e s rise to large specimens on wheat straw.

Suggested Agar Culture Media: MYPA or


1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media:

Rye, wheat, sorghum, milo, or millet.

Substrates for Fruiting: Most hardwoods, wheat straw, and cottonseed hulls support fruitings. This mushroom is not as adaptive as P. pulmonarius and P. ostreatus to a broad range of substrates. Nevertheless, many materials can be used. I have been pleased with its performance on recycled, re-sterilized waste Shiitake substrate. However, I would not rec-

co^-prohiCsSl^^ihiv^ing this mushroom on wheat straw eaddi cm tf 5-10% cottonseed meal reportedly has the greatest effect in enhancing yield. (Upadhyay & Vijay, 1991) Recommended Containers for Fruiting: Trays, plastic bags, columns, or bottles.

eld Potentials- 1 lb of mushrooms per 5 lbs. of stenlized sawdust/chip: ra Wheat straw

Mngs C m experience ha e tallied approximately 1/2 of that m enriched sawdust. The SpTwhich the mushrooms are picked significantly affects yield efficiencies.

Harvest Hints' This mushroom can become quite large if the substrate has a sufficient uintiona, STSSi ^the fruitbody sho i ic will depend largely upon the strain and he Stivator's nreferenc n the cap margins are inrolled or deeply incurved, the mushrooms are al an adolescent sta^Snd a likely to grow much larger. I prefer harvesting the mushrooms just before toe cap margin flattens.

Form of Product. Sold to Market: Wild mushrooms are sold in markets in Spain, Morocco and other southern European countries.

Nutritional Content: Not known although expected to be similar to or exceeding P. ostreatus Medicinal Properties: Not known

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