Build A Paddy Mushroom Grow House In Thailand

7-12 days.

fruitings, although not nearly as well as supplemented, composted rice straw. One study showed that the best supplement for wheat straw is wheat bran (5%) and/or cotton hulls (10%). (See Li et al., 1988). The pH optimum for fruiting falls between 7.5 - 8.0.

Recommended Containers for Fruiting: Trays, bags. Outdoor methods use no containers. The substrate is shaped into long rectangular mounds, narrowing at the top. The frames are covered with loose rice straw, cloth or plastic to retain humidity.

Yield Potentials: On average, V. volvacea produces two substantial flushes of mushrooms in quick succession, with the first giving 75% of the total yield and the second producing the remaining 25%.

Harvest Hints: For the best flavor as well as the best form for market, the mushrooms should be picked before the universal veil breaks, i.e. in the egg form. In the matter of hours, egg-shaped fruitbodies develop into annulate fruitbodies. Light has a governing influence on the color and overall quality of the harvestable crop.

t'1° ' „ ^ ' ' o ^ ... 01:' J fV.-" Figure 310. Paddy Straw mushrooms are best in

Flavor, Preparation & Cool aig: Sliced thin -T

and stir-fried or as a condiment for soups. Used eir egg-orm.

fn a wide array of Asian dish .Ili to inject onion soaked soy (or tamar) via synr.e into each Paddy Straw egg, cover with foil, ind bake in an oven at 375° F. (190 C.) for 30-45 mi ute^Th , mushroor when eaten whole, exf lodes in your mouth creating a flavor sensation P" ketone* Canned Paddy Straw mushrooms ail to proxi ie a flavor experience comparable to fresh V volvacea.

Comments: This mushroom is widely cultivate, by farmers m China Mia I Vietnam .md Cam-bodTa or supplemental income I he egg-form is self-preserving, limit,ng the loss of mo.sture and extending shelf life. ^ ^^ ^ be grown on

^JBStCTv ^EkJifcaft uncomposted straw-based substrates although yieys are substantially improved if the substrate is "fermented" or short-cycle composted. If rice straw is composted with supplements for 4-5 days, pasteurized, and inoculated, yields can be maximized "Green composting" is the simultaneous inoculation of the compost while it is being formulated. The heat generated within the composting straw/cottonseed hull mass accelerates the growth of the thermophilic and heat tolerant Volvariella volvacea.

Cultivating the Paddy Straw mushroom is difficult in most regions of North America Louisiana, Georgia, Alabama, and certain coastal regions of Texas have climates suitable for outdoor cultivation as does regions^of Mexico. Should temperatures fall below 70° F. (21° C.) for any period of time, fruitings will be limited and the critical increase in temperature Figure 311. In China, Paddy Svraw mushrooms are limited ana me cmicai f sold in great quantities in outdoor markets.

Straw Mushroom Growing
Figure 312-313. Paddy Straw mushrooms truiting on pasteurized rice straw beds in Thailand.

caused by thermogenesis will be forestalled. Additionally, most cultures die when chilled below 45° F (7 2° C) unless they are flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. . , . T

The most comprehensive, English •guage book on the culti at ion o^^j by ST Thane published in 1972 entitled The Ci \inese Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea). Mo,pholom t) to/og^'Genetics, NuMtion md Cultivation. This book is now out of pnnt and is much sought after. It needs to be reprinted. See also Ho (1971).


The use of Polypores spans millennia and, of all the medicinal mushrooms, they reign supreme. Polypores are more often incorporated into the pharmacopeia of native peoples than any other type of mushroom. Historically, cultures from tropical Amazonia to the extreme northern sub polar zones of Eurasia have discovered the power of Polypores in preserving and improving human health. Polypores have also figured prominently in the cosmological view of native peoples, often being referred to as sources of eternal strength and w: >dom.

The Agaria of Sarmatia, a pre-Scythian culture, used a Polypore at the time of Christ to combat illness. They bestowed this Polypore with the name of agarikon, undoubtedly to honor its value to their society. The Greek philosopher Dioscorides, recorded its name as agaricum circa 200 A.D. Its use persisted throughout the Middle Ages and tea made from this wood conk was prescribed as one of the herbal remedies for tuberculosis.

Figure 314. "Drawing of an argillite plate can .a b Charles Edenshaw in approximately 1890, de picting the Haida myth of the origi F women. F jngus Man is paddling the canoe wit Raven m the bow in search of female genitalia. Of all the creatures that Raven placed in the stern of the canoe only Fungus Man had the supernatural powers to breach the spiritual barriers that protected the a a where women's genital parts were located " Redrawn from a photograph; courtesy of thf Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. (Blanchette et a! ,,1992 p. 122.)

Researchers believe this mushroom vas Pomitopsis officinalis, a canker parasite of conifer trees This same Polypore species has been retrieved from the graves of Pacific Northwest Coast Indian shamans. Thirteen individual carvings of this wood conk were collected in the late 1800's and mistakenly thought to be wood carvings until Blanchette et alia (1992) studied them. Used as a poultice to relieve swellings, inflammations, ar weat-ing, this conk was called "the bread of ghosts", ai d thought to impart supernatural powers. In Haida mythology this or another Pi ypore (such as Ganoderma applanation] is directly connected the origin and protection of the female spirit

Recently, in the winter of 1991, hikers in the Italian Alps came across the well pre" xved r^-Z| mains of man who died more than 530<J J(|jpj3 age. Dubbed the "Iceman" by the news j was well equipped with a knapsack,TlintMP axe, and a string of dried Birch Polypores. (Birch Polypores, Polyporus betulinus, are now known as Piptoporus betulinus).' ese Polypores- like many others, canbe used as tinder, for starting fires, and medicinallv, in the treatment of wounds. Further, by boiling the mushrooms, a rich tea with anti-fatiguing, immunoenhancing, and sooth:ng properties rhaddtscoveredthevalueofthe^le^pore.

Ar m and 3 East of Christian churches who have for centuries pak Homage to crosses in whotTers were glass spheres housing what appeared to be aspeciesof woo con« the identity of this revered conk remains shrouded m mystery. These are but a few exam] ,les. Une natuXwor ers how many species and uses have not yet come to the attention of Western science,

¿^ZnZmaluci* So* dvearethem iicinalclaimsforth, also called the Panacea Polypore. Claimed to cure cancer, heart disease, di?betes, arthritis, high alti

Figure 314. "Drawing of an argillite plate can .a b Charles Edenshaw in approximately 1890, de picting the Haida myth of the origi F women. F jngus Man is paddling the canoe wit Raven m the bow in search of female genitalia. Of all the creatures that Raven placed in the stern of the canoe only Fungus Man had the supernatural powers to breach the spiritual barriers that protected the a a where women's genital parts were located " Redrawn from a photograph; courtesy of thf Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. (Blanchette et a! ,,1992 p. 122.)

tude sickness, sexual impotency, and even chronic fatigue syndrome, it is no wonder that this mushroom has been for centuries heralded as "The Mushroom of Immortality".

Two other Polypores enjoying reputations as medicinal fungi are Maitake, Grifóla frondosa, and Zhu Ling, Polyporus umbellatus. Maitake has recently been found to be effective, in vitro, against the HIV virus by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institute of Health's anti-HIV drug screening program.* During a visit to the Institute of Materia Medica in Beijing, Polyporus umbellatus was reported to Stamets & Weil (1983) as being exceptionally effective against lung cancer. Aqueous extracts (tea) were given to patients directly after radiation therapy, with promising results.

The Polypores covered in this book are Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum), Maitake (Grifóla frondosa (-Polyporus frondosus)), and Zhu Ling (Polyporus uinbellatus = Grifóla umbellataj). Many other Polypores, such as Laetiporus sulphureus (= Polyporus sulphureus), can be grown on stumps Future editions of tb's book will expand on the number of Polypore species which I have successfully cultivated. A short list of these candidates includes, but is not limited to:

Albatrellus spp Daedalea quercina Fomes fomentarius Fomitopsis officinalis

Ganoderma applanatum (= Elfvingia applanata)

Ganodenna curtisii

Ganodema oregonense

Ganodenna sinense

Ganodenna tsugae

Inonotus obliquus

Oligoporus spp

Oxyporus nobilissimus and allies Phellinus spp. Piptoporus betulinus Polyporus indigenus Polyporus saporema

Trametes cinnabarinum (= ? Pycnoporus cinnabarinus) Trametes (-Coriolus) versicolor & allies

Polypores are premier wood decomposers, and can produce annual or perennial fruitbodies. None

* De-replication and second tier screening studies are on-going at the time of this writing, as well as trials with AIDS-afflicted patients. The HIV virus apparently becomes encapsulated by a "carbohydrate condom" limiting reproduction. Hypothetically, I suspect two distinct modes of activity. First, the compounds in Maitake may stimulate the immune system by providing essential precursor-nutrients. Secondly, these compounds may also be a direct toxin to the virus. Until human studies can be funded, such hypotheses are purely speculative. However, if proven, this double-prong approach, combined with the fact that Maitake is an excellent edible and choice gourmet mushroom, brings Maitake to the forefront of the medicinal polypores. In my opinion, all polypores should be screened for their anti cancer, anti-HIV and immuno-enhancing properties. There are probably more species with equal or greater potentials are known to be poisonous, although some people have allergic reactions to certain spec e S n neople taking MAO inhibitor anti-depressan, medication can have allergic reactions to he edible nolvDores containing tyramine. Chicken of the Woods (Laetiporus (Polyporua) sulp urem has been portedt°^Skiloids similar to those found in plants known to be psychoactive, like Kava lo^as^vith iie cultivation of Shiitake. By burying the inoculated logs in s wdust or soi, moisUue better preserved and fruitings extend over several years. Stumps can also be inoculated, although if other fungi^ have already captured that niche, production is inhibited Ih outdoor environments, the first flushes of mushrooms are ofte delayed, not showing for several years after inoculaUon. However smcePolypo. are naturally lower in moisture and require less water, outdoor patches require der con rolled environmental conditions. Several techniques lead to success. One of the m m differences between the cultivation of Polypores versus the fleshier, gilled mushrooms is; that he Polvpores (o not enjoy, nor require, the eavy watenng schedules and high humidities of the gilled mthrooms Like Jos" mushrooms, the Polypores are sensitive to carbon dioxide levels andhght conditions. The development of the fruitbodies are extremely responsivet0 ^ ^^

ing room environment. Many cultivators manipulate the environment to elicit substantial stem 0^1 before cap development. Some Polypore species produce better fruitings if the sub^ block is compressed after colonization. Other differences, unique to each species, are outlined in the forthcoming growth parameters.

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