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Two to three crops, 10-12 days apart mushrooms at 70-75° F. (21-24° C.). Strains of this mushroom vary in their sensitivity to light and carbon d;cxide levels.

Mycelial Characteristics: White, longitudinally linear, becoming finely appressed and tinged light brown to spotted with golden yellow brown zones with age. The surface roughens, resembling fine sand paper, and sometimes becomes beaded at the earliest stage of primordia formation. Long stemmed, small capped mushrooms commonly form along the inside perohery of the petri dish or during cold storage of culture slants.

Fragrance Signature: Grain spawn musty smelling, not pleasant.

Natural Method of Cultivation: Stump culture is possible, as evidenced by the penchant that this species has for logs, stumps, and wood debris in the wild. However, stump culture should not be encouraged to those who can net distinguish Enoki mushrooms from the small, wood decomposing poisonous mushrooms such as Jie deadly members of the Genus Galerina or Conocybe.

Figure 205. Enoki mushrooms fruiting trom tne book, The Mushroom Cultivator.

Recommended Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achieve Fruiting: Liquid ir_ cuiated grain spawn mixed ( rectlythroug sterilized, supplemented sawdust at a rate of 10-15%. The rapidly decomposing hardwoods such as alder, cottonwood, willow, aspen, and popiar are recommended. If selecting cultures actively forming primordia, and placing the mycelium into the Eberbach for the generation of liquid inoculated grain spawn, the duration from colonization to fruiting can be shortened by a week. The timely disturbance of developing primordia often results in bursts of re-growth.

Suggested Agar Culture Media: PDYA. MYA, OMA or DFA.

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media:

Grain spawn throughout.

Substrates for Fruiting: A wide variety of WriwnnrU fr>ak. alder. poplar, cottonwood,

Figure 205. Enoki mushrooms fruiting trom tne book, The Mushroom Cultivator.

aspen, willow, b' ch, beech, etc.), and some softwoods (Douglas fir) although the latter is, in general, less productive. The pH range for fruiting falls between 5-6. Enok' ake also grows on a wide variety of paper products.

Recommended Containers for Fruiting: Most automated Enoki farms utilize polypropylene bottles for ease of handling and speed of harvesting. A cyUnder of plastic or paper is formed into a cylinder fitted within the open top of each bottle. This causes the stems to grow long and facilitates harvesting. If grown in bags, the Side walls of the bags should extend 6 inches above the plane of the fruiting surface to encourage the desirable elongated stems. The plastic walls are stripped down just prior to harvest.

Yield Potentials: Biologi. al efficiency rating to 150%, the preponderance of which is stem mass. If grown :n 1 liter bottles, yields of 3-5 oz are standard for the first flush varvest Hints: The difficulty of picking several hundred mushrooms, one by one, is daunting. By stimulat-i:ig the elongation of the stem through C02 elevation, cropping can be quickly accomplished. If culturing in bottles, firmly grasp the cluster and pull. With either method, trim any residual substrate debris off with a knife or a p-::r of scissors. Some strains of Enoki re-assimilate the damaged stem butts and form more pri mordia upon them for the second flush. If only minor cap development is alloSId, and the mushrooms are picked before the giLs i nature, shelflife is greatly extended. However. s.inj^l^oisseurs favor the flavor of the tender cap over the tougher, stringy stem. V~y > □

Figure 207. Enoki mushrooms fruiting from block cf supplemented alder sawdust.

into this country from Japan f ,

, onal Content: V iable, influenced by substrate components. Crude protein: 17-31%, tat 1. 9-5 8%; fiber 3.7%, ash 7.4%.

Medicim Propc- ies: The water soluble, polysaccharide/) mmu^ is ®)100% effective against fe tive is comrr nlyrefe edtoas F f for'TlammWnaveli&spolysacchande .

nr Pre«ration & Cooking: This mushroom is surprisingly flavorful, including the stems, an n mn kin no t s haredby S i ng ■ '1986)/ ac io ally, Enoki is úg itly cooked, served in soups or in stir

Figure Z08 and 209. Flammuliiia stipes, —Ke Tuith ,g i thflnside rim an, s concentrate c rb iio de T stems elonga e m respon creat ng acphat before the mushrooms are packaged for market.

short period of time. At a recent mycological society gathering, the addition of finely chopped Enoki to a cream sauce, stems and all, resulted in a creme supérieur.

Figure 210. A Japanese Enoki-take cultivator See Mc Knight (1985, 1990, 1992).

Comments: This mushroom is the classic example of the influences light and carbon dioxide have on fruitbody formation Like Oyster mushrooms, this mushroom's appearance is contingent upon the environment in which it was grown. The growing room environment can be tuned to elicit the perfect crop. Over time, experienced growers can orchestrate flushes with precision and generate cluster bouquets of golden mushrooms. Properly managed, each bundle achieves a remarkably similar weight.

Under outdoor conditions (moderate ):ght/low C02), tl ;s mushroom is short-stemmed with caps as wide as the stems are long. The lower regions of the stem develop a darkened fuzz, hence the common name "The Velvet Foot". Under the lighted, high carbon dioxide conditions, the stems greatly elongate and are yellow to white in color. The caps remain relatively small. While C02 determines the length of the stem, light is an over iding factor in influencing the formation and development of the cap Thus under 1 igh CC2 and 110 light conditions, thin stems may form usually without any caps Most strains behave in this fashion but responses vary. Depending on the surrounding environment, the stems can be as short as 1 inch to as long as 12 inches. The cap to stem rat'o vanes from 1:1 to i .TOO. Th:s range in the shape of the fruitbody is remarkable.

The surface mycelium undergoes a radical transformation during the period of pre-primordia formation. The mycelium yellows, and then forms dingy, blemished brown ard white zones, which soon evolve into a roughened, beaded surface. From this micro-landscape, a high population of minute, squat, yellow primordia emerge. The mushrooms appear virtually stemless. If carbon dioxide levels are kept elevated, above 5,000 ppm., significant stem elongation continues. Japanese cultivators have invented the technique of fruiting in bottles that are topped with a cylindrical insert of clear plastic or paper. The cyhnder pools carbon dioxide and the stems elongate. This technique encourages the formation of highly uniform flushes of mushrooms in each bottle.

For more information on the development of the mushroom strains in response to humidity lev-

Figure 210. A Japanese Enoki-take cultivator See Mc Knight (1985, 1990, 1992).

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