Recommended Mushroom Cookbooks

A Cook's Book of Mushrooms by Jack Czarnecki, 1995. Artisan Books, Workman Publishing New York. Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America A Field-to-Kitchen Guide by David W. Fischer and Alan E. Bessette, 1992. University ofTexas Press, Austin, Texas. Hope's Mushroom Cookbook by Hope Miller, 1993. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. Joe's Book of Mushroom Cookery by Jack Czarnecki, 1988, Athen eum, New York. Mushroom Cookery by Rosetta Reitz, 1945,206 pgs. Gramercy Publishing Co., New York....

Cruz Stamets Mushroom Saut Supreme

1 2 lb. fresh Shiitake 2 tablespoons pesto 1 2 cup canola oil 1 4 cup olive oil 3 garlic cloves 1 small onion, diced l 8th cup water 2 tblsp. shaved almonds Trim and discard stems of Shiitake, dice upper part of stems into small pieces, and put aside. Discard lower stems. Then tear each Shiitake mushroom into six or more pieces. In medium size skillet using 1 2 cup canola oil, bring heat up to high, then add mushrooms. Cook Shiitake until golden brown on each side. Add pesto and olive oil....

History

Humanity's use of mushrooms extends back to Paleolithic times. Few people even anthropologists comprehend how influ- ential mushrooms have been in affecting the course of human j evolution. Mushrooms have played pivotal roles in ancient Greece, India and Mesoamerica. True to their beguiling nature, fungi have j always elicited deep emoaonal responses from adulation by those who understand them to outright fear by those who do not. The historical record reveals that mushrooms have been used for...

IlPl

A Texas Reishi production fac it> By modifying hoop-framed greennouses and covering them Kith an open-sided, metal roofec' super-structure growing rooms can be constructed at low cost figure 394. A Texas Reishi production fac it> By modifying hoop-framed greennouses and covering them Kith an open-sided, metal roofec' super-structure growing rooms can be constructed at low cost Figure 395. A Japanese mushroom grow ' ig house. Figure 395. A Japanese mushroom grow ' ig house. mesh...

Shiitake or Maitake Clear Soup

2 tblsp. miso 1 2 oz. dried mushrooms 1 1 2 cups mushroom broth (or 1 4 lb- fresh mushroomi) 1 4 - 1 2 cup chopped onions 1 tsP- s y sauce Soak cut or broken mushrooms in 2 cups cold water for 15 minutes. Drain off broth and save. Cover mushrooms with more cold water and soak for another 20 minutes .Add saved mushroom broth back into preparation and boil it for a few minutes. Season soup with soy sauce and miso. Add chopped tofu, onions and or other vegetables. (If needed add 1-2 cups more...

Problem

Contaminants localized to point of transfer Contaminants appear equally over the surface of agar media Scalpel contaminated Airborne contamination Contaminated media Insufficient sterilization Hands upstream of cultures during inoculation in airstream of laminar flow hood Filter air & use good sterile technique. Keep hands downstream of inoculation site. Media evaporates, cracks, before colonization is complete Grain spawn contaminates before opening, before inoculation Humidity too low...

Grassland Mushrooms

Agaricus campestris Agaricus arvensis Lepiota procera Horse Mushroom Agaricus arvensis The Giant Puffball Calvatia gigantea & allies * Smooth Lepiota Lepiota naucina * The Parasol Mushroom Lepiota procera Fairy Ring Mushroom Marasmius oreades The Button Mushrooms Agaricus brunnescens Agaricus bitorquis ( rodmanii) The Magic Mushrooms Psilocybe cubensis Panaeolus cyanescens ( Copelandia cyanescens) Panaeolus subbalteatus Panaeolus tropicalis (Copelandia tropicalis) Compost Litter Disturbed...

Cniz Siamets9 Fresh Shiitake Omelet

1 2 cup cashews lb- fresh Shiitake 1 2 small onion 1 cup grated cheddar cheese 2 garlic cloves 2 tblsp. tamari salt & pepper to taste 2 tblsp. canola oil Mix the eggs and water in a large bowl and beat thoroughly. Saute mushrooms in frying pan with oil until water is cooked-out. Add onions and garlic, cookfor one minute then add cashews In me-lium sized skillet, spray a thin coat of oil or butter, add egg mixture and cover for 1 minute. Add layer of cheese. Poui nixture that includes...

Woodland Mushrooms

Auricularia auricula Auricularia polytricha The Prince Agaricus augustus The Almond Agaricus Agaricus subrufescens The Sylvan Agaricus Agaricus sylvicola Agaricus lilaceps * Black Poplar Agrocybe Agrocybe aegerita The Clustered Woodlovers Hypholoma capnoides Hypholoma sublateritium Psilocybe cyanescens and allies Oyster-like Mushrooms Hypsizygus ulmarius Hypsizygus tessulatus (-H. marmoreus) Pleurotus citrinopileatus ( P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus). Pleurotus cornucopiae Pleurotus...

Dispose of contamination once a day

Once you have handled contamination, consider yourself contaminated. If removing Trichoderma (green mold) contaminated blocks of Shiitake, that person is then unworthy of any activity where susceptible substrates would be encountered. For many growers, this mandates that contaminated cultures be disposed at the end of the day. If contamination must be dealt with early in the work day, a person non-essential to the production stream should be the designated disposer of contaminated cultures he...

B

Basidiomycetes fungi which bear spores upon a club-like cell known as a basidium. Pore, tooth and jelly fungi (.Auricularia spp.) belong to this Class basidia the club like cells which give rise to four (more rarely 2 or 6) spores Basidiomycetes the Class of fungi producing spores on basidia.The gilled, pored, teethed and some cup mushrooms are basidiomycetes. biological efficiency the percentage measurement of the yield of fresh mushrooms from the dry weight of the substrate. (See Page 57.)...

Mcllvainea Journal of Amateur Mycology The Mycophile

North American Mycological Association La Rivista del Fungicoltore Moderno 40016 S. Giorgio di Piano (BO) Postale Grupo 111 70 Bologna, Italy The International Mushroom Society for the Tropics, c o Department of Botany, Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong American Mushroom Institute (215)388-7806 907 East Baltimore Pike Kennett Square, PA. 193587

D

Mushrooms fleshy fungi are the premier recyclers on the planet. Fungi are essential to recycling organic wastes and the efficient return of nutrients back nto the ecosystem. Not only are they recognized for their importance w'thin the environment, but also for their effect on human evolution and health. Yet, to date, the inherent biological power embodied within the mycelial network of mushrooms largely remains a vast, untapped resource. As we enter the 21 st century, ecologists, foresters,...

Harvesting the Crop

Simple guidelines prevail in the proper harvesting nd storing of mushrooms First, young must rooms last much longer after harvest than aged mushrooms. Once spores have developed o 1 the face of the gills, perishability is accelerated. If mushrooms have partial veils, like the Button Mushroom (Agaricus brunnescens) > r the Black Poplar Mushroom (Agrocyke aegerita), they are best picked while the partial ve ' i are intact, in other words when the mushrooms are still young Partial veils protect...

P ickaging and Stoi ing the Crop for Market

Once mushrooms have been harvested, chey must be quickly chilled. Most pickers at mushroom farms place mushrooms directly into open-grate plastic baskets which are frequently ferried to the cold room. The larger farms utilize blast chillers, which precipitously drop the temperature of the mushroom from room temperature to near freezing. A common mistake many growers make is to place their fresh mushroom directly into cardboard boxes after picking. Cardboard boxes insulate the mushrooms after...

Frukbody Development

Temperature 70-85 F. (21-30 C.) Relative Humidity 85-90 Duration 5-7 days. C02 2000-5000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 4-5 per hour. Light Requirements 500 1000 lux. Cropping Cycle Every two to three weeks for 3-5 flushes. Harvest Hints If mushrooms form through holes in the plastic, harvesting is fast and efficient. Clusters of these ear shaped mushrooms pop off without residual substrate debris. Form of Product Sold to Market Fresh and dried. The greatest volume of this mushroom is sold in dry...

Mycological Resources on Internet

Cornell WWW Virtual Library for Mycologists fungi.html http www.i gc.apc.org i c www.myco.html http www.halycon.com mycomed fppage.html http www.gaia.org farm mushroonL'' mp.html http www.econet.apc.org mushroom welco.html Mycological Society America Inoculum Newsletter .myco inoculum http www.inf. unitn.it mflorian mycopage.html National Agricultural Statistics Service Mushroom Market Trends http www.usda.gov nass Alfalfa hay, very leafy (less than 25 fiber) Alfalfa hay, stemmy (over 34 fiber)...

Stumps as Elatforms for Growing Mushrooms

Oyster Large Log Inoculation Methods

Stumps are especially suitable for growing gourmet mushrooms. There are few better, or more massive platforms, than the stump. Millions of stumps are all that remain of many forests of the world. In most cases, stumps are seen as having little or no econonr potent' J. These lone tombstones of biodegradable wood fiber offer a unique, new opportunity for the mycologically astute. With selective logging being increasingly practiced, cultivating gour met and medicinal mushrooms on stumps will be...

Si

Ermaculture is a concept pioneered by Australian Bill Mollison and literally means permanent agriculture. His model of biological diversity and complementary agricultural practices promotes a sustainable environment via the interplay of natural ecosystems. Permaculture has gained a huge international following after the publication of his book Permaculture A Practical Gwde for a Sustainable Future. Permaculture has become the mainstay philosophy of the organic movement. Mollison's vision, which...

Scientific Name Ostyra spp

Ostyra carpinifolia Ostrya virginiana Pasania Populus balsamifera Populus deltoides Populus fremontii Populus grandidentata Populus heterophylla Populus nigra Populus tremuloides Populus trichocarpa Prosopis spp. Prosopis juliflora Prosopis pubescens Quercus spp. Que reus acuta Quercus acut.ssima Quercus agrifolia Quercus alba Quercus aliena Quercus bella Quercus brandisiana Quercus chrsolepis Quercus crispula Quercus dentata Quercus emoryi Quercus fabri Quercus falcata Quercus gambelii Quercus...

Scientific Name

Quercus lyrata Quercus michauxii Quercus mongolica Quercus muehlenbergii Quercus myrsinae Quercus nigra Quercus nuttalli Quercus palustris Quercus phellos Quercus prunis Quercus rubra Quercus semiserrata Quercus serrata Quercus spinosa Quercus variabilis Quercus virginiana Rhus spp. Rhus glabra Rhus succedanea Robinia spp. Robinia neomexicana Salix fragilis Salix geyerana Salix las andra Salix lasiolepis Salix nigra Salix scoulerana Sapium discolor Sloanea sinensis Taxus spp. Taxus brevifolia...

Vectoi

Ultivating mushroom mycelium in a laboratory is tantamount to not cultivating contaminants. Diagnosing the source of contamination, and the vector or pathway through which contaminants travel is the key to tissue culture. Over the years, I have identified 6 distinct and separate vectors of contamination. If a contaminant a ises in the laboratory, the cultivator should examine each vector category as being the possible cause of the problem. Through a process of elimination, the distressed...

Mobile Contain nation Units MCUs

The over-riding coefficients affecting each vector are the number of contaminants and the exposure time. The more of each, the worse the infestation. This book does not go into detail as to the identity of the common contaminants. However, my previous book, The Mushroom Cultivator (1983), co-authored with Jeff Chilton, has extensive chapters on the identity of the molds, bacteria, and insects. The reader is encouraged to refer to that manual for the identification of contaminants. All...

Corn Meal Yeast Glucose Agar

1000 milliliters water (1 liter) 20 grams agar agar 10 grams cornmeal 5 grams malt or glucose 1 gram yeast (This medium is known as CMYA and is widely used by mycological laboratories for storing cultures and is not as nutritious as the other above-described formulas.) The pH of the above media formulations, after sterilizing, generally falls between 5.5-6.8. This media can be further fortified with the addition of 3-5 grams of the end-substrate (in most cases hardwood sawdust) upon which...

End Substrate Supplements

Until some familiarity is establi shed, ihe purchase of pre-mixed media from reputable companies is advised. Be forewarned, however, that the media designed for the growth of imperfect fungi, available from large laboratory supply companies, favors the growth of mold contaminants over that of mushroom mycelium. The media for most saprophytes should be adjusted to a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Most saprophytes acidify substrates, so near neutral even basic, substrates, become more acidic as the mushroom...

Pouring Agar Media

One liter of malt extract agar medium wili pour 20-40 lOOx 15 mm. petri dishes, depending upon the depth of the pour. Before pouring an agar medium, the table top is thoroughly wiped clean with an 80 concentration of isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol). Plastic petri dishes usually come pre-steiilized and ready to use. Glass petri dishes should be first washed and sterilized in a petri dish-holding rack simultaneous to the steril ization of the agar medium in an autoclavable flask. Pre-pouring...

Growth Parameters

Incubation Temperature 70-75 F. (21-24 C.) InitiationTemperature 50-60 F. (10-15.6 C.) Temperature 65-75c F. (18-24 C.) Relative Humidity (85) 90-95 Duration 4-5 days C02 500-1000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 5-8 hours per hour. Light Requirements 500-1000 lux. damaged in the course of shaking. The subsequent transfer of these smashed fruitbodies is often followed by a massive bacterial outbreak. If the spawn remains pure, then each 1 2 gallon (liter) of grain spawn can be transferred into four 5...

BBS53 chi

Mushroom, in my experience, re uires greater iSS f Ser species, The mycelium grows relatively si J on mitrified aar medk v' Lh fnaitbodi Uenforr g before the mycelii has gr owr toamere25 mi ln radius Furthen ore, transfer g of mycelium from agar tc ain med -smgthe trai tional ca fel and wedge te hnique, results h co paratively slow growth tog weeks to colonize unless a resimen of diligen an frequentli of th spawnjari is followed. > a classic example of a species which is stimulated by...

Common Names Lions Mane

Monkey's Head Bear's Head Old Man's Beard Hedgehog Mushroom Satyr's Beard Yamabushi-take (Japanese for Mountain-pnest mushroom I Taxonomic Synonyms & Consideration Formerly known as Hydnum erinac Fr and soma 2*citec a Herici i iceum ( Pe Herimm coraUotd nd Henaum si Jspe es.dis.in in both the-habitat prefere ea be cultivate o sawdus an differs from H. Mnaceus in that its spines fork rather than emerging in dividually. Description Composed of downward, cascading, non-fork' g spines, up to 40...

Fruitbody Development

Sclerotium Formation Morchella

Temperature 50-60 F. (10-16 C.) Relative Humidity 85-95 Duration 30-90 days. C02 < 500 ppm or ambient natural Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8+ per hour Light Requirements 500-1000 lux. Cropping Cycle Seasonal, typically occurring in the late summer and early fall. logs buried into beds of hardwood sawdust, around the root zones of beeches, birches, willows or oaks. For indoor cultivation, I have had limited success using hardwood sawdust substrates rendered by other primary saprophytes. Expired...

Spawn

Incubation Temperature 60-75 F. (15-24 C.) Relative Humidity 90-100 Duration 21-30 days to 2 years C02 > 5000 ppm. Fresh Air Exchanges 1-4 Light Requirements n a Sclerotia Formation Incubation Temperature 50-60 F. (10-16 C.) Relative Humidity 90 100 Duration 60 - 90 days C02 > 5000 ppm. Fresh Air Exchanges 1-4 Light Requirements darkness required Primordia Formation initiation Temperature 40-50 F. (4-10 C.) Relative Humidity 90-100 Duration 30-60 days

Introduction This fleshy polypore has long been a favorite edible Of all the species represented in

Especially in the treatment of lung cancer Common Names Zhu Ling (Chinese for Hog Tubv) Chorei-mailake (Japanese for Wild Boar s Dung Maitake) Tsuchi-maitake (Japanese for Earth Maitake) Umbrella Polypore Chinese Sclerotium Taxonomic Synonyms & Considerations Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1987) follow tradition by l eepine diis mushroom w' bin the AyporusMPoHporus Fr. s mushroom i Snty rSeied to as G a - dilate 'ersoor, Fries) Donk and more infrequently called ha. uiAuely. erent life cycles. The...

St 2nd 3rd Generation Spawn Media

Grain-to-grain expansions The final ipawn medium can be another generation of grain spawn, or alternatively sawdust. The sawdust spawn can be used to inoculate supplemented sawdust (i.e. sawdust chips bran) or plugs cor outdoor cultivation on stumps or partially bur ied, vertically positioned, large diameter hardwood logs. Considering the long incubation period, cultivators are well advised to weigh the advantages of creating another generation of sawdust spawn. The advantage of the grain...

Cropping Cycle

Every 3-4 weeks for a maximum of two flushes. thermogenesis is to be expected. Therefore, using sawdust spawn to inoculate bags of greater mass is recommended for more thorough colonization with less evolution of heat in contrast to using grain spawn. Variation between strains' performances on various woods is considerable. Cultivators must fine tune their substrate formulas to each strain. Figure 338. Maitake at the perfect stage for harvest when the leaflets fully extend. When M take spoils,...

Taxonomic Synonyms Considerations Synonymous wit Polyporus frondosusl cks Fr f StXwypo bellatus Fr also known as

MuWple caps ari ng from a comm iste t, a lighter color a a more fragile texture The pnmo cha TG& aren darkgray umbellata are light gra3 Macroscopically, 'hese two mushrooms are easily distinguished by their S n Sir SfiT & Wasson (1973) first cast doubt about the authentic O la. take being Gnfola S SSHS L, da e with the nuns and woodcutters. Maitake is today synonymous figure 333. Wild fruiting of Mai take, G. Jrondosa, at l> ase of oak tree figure 333. Wild fruiting of Mai take, G....

Nutritional Content Not known

Medicinal Properties For centuries, the Chinese and Japanese literature has heralded this mushroom for its health invigorating effects, especially attributing it with increasing longevity, treatment of cancer, resistance and recovery from diseases. Himalayan guides have used this mushroom to combat high altitude sickness. Mayan Indians have traditionally employed this mushroom (or a closely related species) in teas to fight a variety of communicable diseases. Reishi has become the natural...

Recommended Courses for the Exponential Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achieve Fruiting

There are several courses for expanding the mycelium to the fruiting stage. Each step results in an -- Figure 331. Brown spores, although released from tl le underside, tend to collect on the upper cap surfaces of G. lucidum. -- Figure 331. Brown spores, although released from tl le underside, tend to collect on the upper cap surfaces of G. lucidum. exponential expansion of mycelial mass. The simplest method for most cultivators to follow is siinilarto the classic spawn expansion sched ule...

Primordia Young Conk Formation

Temperature 70-80 F. (21-27 C.) Relative Humidity 95-100 Duration 14-28 days C02 5000-2000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges As required for maintaining desired C02 Light Requirements 12 hours on off at 500-1000 lux. Fruitbody Development Temperature 70-80 F. (21-27 C.) Light Requirements 12 hours on off 750-1500 lux.

ESS ris carM s

Goalsbesolely that of eld ye,another approach i Xiif moisteB- hardwood sawdust chips (60-70 moisture) are filled in , the Five pound., ot moismn ,J M are loaded mt0 the autoclave to en . o .oclaving Sac is heat sealed. Colonisation is charact, t aly raptd and LT 10 After3< da the bl ks am removed to the growtng plastic is ,erforated. I use four bladed stainless steel arrowheads mounted on a board. The bags Me

The Paddy Straw Mushroom of the Genes Volvari

Prodigiously fast growing and one of my favorite mushrooms for for the table, this mushroom thrives at warm temperatures (between 75-95 F. or 24-35 C.) and dies when temperatures drop below 45 F. (7 C.). This temperature range limits its cultivation in all but the warmest c'imates or months of the year. In subtropical and tropical Asia, many farmers rely on the cultivation of V. volvacea as a secondary source of income, making use of waste rice straw and cottonseed hulls. This mushroom has...

Pleurotus euosmus Berkeley apud Hussey Saccardo

Cantharellus Cibarius Mycelium

P. euosmus mycelia 3 and 10 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar media. Figure 278. P. euosmus mycelia 3 and 10 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar media. Introduction The Tarragon Oyster mushroom is closely related to Pleurotus ostreatus. According to Watling & Gregory (1989), this mushroom is generally considered a form or varidQl of P. ostreatus. but differ in the strong smell of tarragon. It has been reported, to date, from England and Scotland. P. euosmus...

Ssa s bs ass

SenUlfffgecomplex 'varietiesin as.a,e of,ap,dconverge ntf d.vorpniev.lu.,-jtolDNA studies are completed, the taxonomy of this group is unlikely to be further resolved by macroscopic or microscopic analyses. Description Shar g the general shape and appearance of P. ostreatus except the primordia are bright reddish (salmon-egg) pink, becoming nkish as mushrooms develop, eventually a dull pinK to ight pinkish cinnamon colored and often faJing to straw-colored when over-mature. (The color...

Suggested Agar Culture Media Mypa Cmya Dfa orPDYA

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media Liquid or grain spawn throughout. Sawdust can be used as the final spawn medium if desired. Substrates for Fruiting Sterilized hardwood sawdust (maple, oak, beech or elm), pasteurized wheat, rice or paddy straw. Recommended Containers for Fruiting Bags, columns, trays or bottles. Yield Potential Biological efficiency rated at 50-75 , higher on sawdust based substrates than on Hardest Hints Mushrooms should be picked before the caps mushrooms can become...

R J T

Wild fruiting of P. cystidiosus. and poplars can be inoculated via plug or sawdust spawn. Stump culture should be possible, given the success with this species close relatives. Recommended Courses for Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achieve Frui ing Cultures grown on nuXw mrfS n be immersed into sterile water and chopped in a high speed blenderfor several se onds The resulting broth can inoculate sterile water fortified with malt yeast and fermented for48 hours i n e die techniqu s...

Of the Genus Pleurotus

Oyster mushrooms are by far the easiest and least expensive to grow. For small cultivators with limited budgets, Oyster mushrooms are the clear choice for gaining entry into the gourmet mushroom industry. Few other mushrooms demonstrate such adaptability, aggressiveness, and productivity as these species of Pleurotus. Preeminent wood decomposers, Pleurotus species grow on a wider array of forest and agricultural wastes than species from any other group. They thrive on most all hardwoods, on...

Pholiota nameko T Ito S Ito et Tmai n Imai

P. natueko mycelia 5 and 10 days after inoculation onto MEA media Figure 253. P. natueko mycelia 5 and 10 days after inoculation onto MEA media Introduction Pholiota nameko is one of the most popular cultivated mushrooms in Japan, closely ranking behind Shiitake and Enokitake. This mushroom has an excellent, flavor and texture. P. nameko would be well received by North Americans and Europeans if t were not for the thick, translucent, glutinous slime covering the cap. (T lis...

Len Unula edodes Berkeley Pegler

Mycelia f L. edodes M and D cays atter inocw no* orma 'on of hyphal aggregates .n the cu tare on the left. Th .s a stram spec P tion indicates vigor. e culture at the right sho browning reaction of the outer-edge mycelium, change as the mycelium ages is typical of Shiitake. Introduction- Log culture although traditional in Asia, has yet to become high, profited e in No Americ'a lesp fte opefof many woodlot owners. However log modest sudi JhentaZ ir and fits well within the emerging...

Of the Genus Lentinula

Shiitake mushrooms (pronounced (sifee ta'kay) are a traditional delicacy in Japan, Korea and China. For at least a thousand years, Shi take mushrooms have been grown on logs, outdoors, in the temperate mountainous regions of Asia. To this day, Shiitakes figure as the most popular of all the gourmet mushrooms. Only in the past several decades have techniques evolved for its rapid cycle cultivation indoors, on supplemented, heat-treated sawdust-based substrates Cultivation of this mushroom is a...

Suggested Agar Culture Media Mypa Pdya Dfa or OMYA

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media Hie first two generations of spawn can be gram. The third Substrates for Fruiting Supplemented sawdust. Good wood types are cottonwood, willow, oak, alder bc-ch or tlr The effec .ness of other woods has not yet been established From my experience', stra oes not provid comm. ci ly viable crops unless inoculated up to 25 of its Re, immended Containers Bottles or narrowly opened bags egen ral > .referred so that stem elo i c i be encouraged. Open bag...

Bimas Mmeji and SMrotamogitake of the Genus Hypsizygus

The rich flavor of the Shimeji mushroom can be summed up by the Japanese phrase for fra- t ftof* . Shimeji. Howeve, the nan* o e , of best Japanese gourmet mushrooms thai grow on wet groun. . For years me general name Shiineji has been assigned to about 20 mushroom speeres eausmg w.despread confusron amongst amateur and professional mycologists. . chimeii which e n u s y i s first'ibscribed by Rolf Singer and contains two excellent, edible and cho e mushrooms Collected in the wild by Native...

Taxonomic Synonyms and Considerations Synonymous with Naematoloma sublateritium Fr

Description- Cap 2-7 cm. broad, hemispheric to convex, expanding with age to broadly convex and e'ventualW plane in age Cap tan to brown to bnck red, darker towards the center, and > hter yellow near the margin M g n incurved at first and covered with floche rem mts of th partial veil soon at matur , Flesh rel ively thick, b J fJ close blu attached to the stem, pallid at first, becoming dark purple gray when mature. Stem 5 10 Hypholoma sublateritium (Fries) Quelet

This mushroom

Earvest Hints Mushrooms should be harvested when the caps are convex. Since the stems elongate muchTn th san n lerasEno* e (Flammulina velutipes), the harvest method is similar. Out Figure 214. H. capnoides fruiting from sterilized hardwood sawdust doors, this mushroom forms clusters, often wiffi several dozen mushrooms arising from a common base. Form of Product Sold to Market Not yet marketed. Nutritional Content Not known to tl is authcr. Medicinal Properties Given this species' woodland...

Of fte Geirns Hypholoma

- us Hypholoma (Fries) Kummer includes severaHnterestmg speaes alUf which thrive in cold weather, not producing when temperatures exceed 60-65 F. (15-18 C* Ag '' Hprnmnnsp-s thev share similar cultural requirements, and produce a type ol XL saprophytes I h -cultivated. Their uniquely beautiful Zee iaTs not only fantastically rhizomorp , but luxuriously satin-like. Ate the mycelium has -r asever ekre i gPen dprecedespnmordia A k cWptipH indoor cultivation may prove more commercially feasible,...

Primordia Formation

Flammulina Velutipes Mycelium

Initiation Temperature 60-70 F. (16-21 C.) Relative Humidity 95-100 . Duration 12-15 days after casing. C02 500-1000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8 per hour. Light Requirements 500-1000 lux for 8 hours per day. Fruitbody Development Incubation Temperature 65-75 F. (18-24 C.) Relative Humidity 80-90 . Duration 5-7 days C02 500-1000 ppm. Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8 per hour. Lighf Requirements 500-1000 lux for 8 hours per day. Cropping Cycle Two to three flushes, four to ten days apart. Available...

The Initiation Strategy

Morel Mushroom Production

B y far the most crical step is that of primordia formation, called the initiation strategy. An r it ation strategy can be best described as a shift in environmental variables, triggering the formation of mushrooms. The four major environmental factors operative in an initiation strategy are moisture, air exchange, temperature and light. These are adjusted accordingly Moisture C-ect watering is applied, coupled with a constant, controlled rate of evaporation to mahiain high humidity between...

Bag Culture

In the search for inexpensive, portable, and disposable containers, plastic bags have bee me the logical choice. High temperature toleran polypropylene bags are prii larilyu'e for processing wood-based substrates which require higher temperature treatment than the cereal straws. Once cooled and inoculated, sterilized substrates are usually filled directly into heat sensitive polyethylene bags. Mushrooms fruit from the top or sides For the cultivation of most wood decompos ers, a biodegradable,...

Slanted Wall or A9 Frame Culture

Slanted walls are constructed by stacking bags of inoculated substrate to build sloped faces. An advantage of the slanted wall is that a gher den sity of fill can be achieved within a given growing room space and harvesting is easier. A disadvan tage is that mushrooms are limited to forming on only one plane- the outwardly exposed surf c In comparison, blocks that are spaced apart give rise to fruitings on 5 planes the four sides and the top, a response seen especially with Shiitake and Oyster...

Vertical Wall Cultere

In the progression of techniques, the Agaricus tray has been modified for growing Oyster mushrooms by turning it vertically so mushrooms could fruit out both faces. Usually these vertical surfaces are screened w'th tight wire or plastic mesh. Perforated plastic positioned between the substrate and the wire mesh allows the formarion and development of mush rooms while retaining moisture. Alternately, a plastic curtain is used to envelope the container until the time of fruiting Racks having a...

The Detegent Bath Method

This method simply utilizes biodegradable detergents containing fatty oils to treat bulk substrates. Coupled with surfactants which allow thorough penetration, these detergents kill a majority of the contaminants competitive to mushroom mycelium. The substrate is submerged into and washed with a detergent solution. The environmentally benign waste water is discarded, leaving the substrate ready for inoculation Recently, many environmentally safe soaps nave been developed, especially in Europe....

The Bleach Bath Method

Similar to the hydrated lime method, but household bleach (5.25 sodium hypochli rite) is used as a disinfectant. I recommend adding 5-6 cups of household bleach to 50 gallons of water. A basketful of chopped wheat straw is immersed. The straw is kept submerged for a minimum of 4 and no more than 12 hours. The bleach leachate is drained off. The straw is immediately inoculated. Should colonization not be complete within two weeks, contaminants naturally occur. Cultivators should be careful where...

The Hydrated Liine Balii Method

Hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) is extremely alkaline and water soluble. By immersing straw into water baths high in hydrated lime, competitor fungi and bacteria are largely rendered inactive from the drastic change in pH. The preparat > n is quite simple. Two to four lbs. of lime1 s added for every 50 gallons of water. (Since a gallon of water weighs 8.3 lbs. this ratio is equivalent to 2-4 lbs. lime 415 lbs.water or about .5-1.0 ) The pH of the water skyrockets to 9.5 or higher. Once...

The Hot Water Bath Method

Draining Excess Water From Straw

The first method is the hot water bath. Straw is stuffed into a wire basket and submerged in a cauldron of 160-180 F. (71-82 C.) water for 1 hour*. The cauldron is usually heated from underneath by a portable propane gas burner. Tne straw basket is forcibly pushed down into the steaming water and held in place by whatever means necessary. A probe thermometer, at least 12 inches in length, is inserted deep into the brothing mass with string attached for convenient retrieval. The straw is...

Heat Treating the Bulk Substrate

Bulk substrates like straw are generally pasteurized (as opposed to sterilized) and upon cooling, inoculated with grain spawn. Pasteurization selectively kills off populations of temperature-sensitive micro-organisms. The population left intact presents little competition to the mushroom mycelium for approximately two weeks, giving ample opportunity for the mushroom mycelium to colonize. If not colonized within two weeks, the straw naturally contaminates with other fungi, irrespecr''ve of the...

Acl ifevieg Full Colonization on Supplemented Sawdust

Prior to the mycelium densely colonizing the blocks with a thick and tenacious mycelial mat, the supplemented sawdust appears to be grown through with a fine, but not fully articulated, mycelial network. With most species, the once brown sawdust mixture takes on a grayish white appearance. With Shiitake mycelium, this is usually between Days 3-7. During this state, the mycelium has yet to reach its peak penetration through the substrate. Although the substrate has been captured as a geological...

Et mushrooms oneoTchedjawdust

If the leak is due to a puncture, the hole is covered with plastic packaging tape. If the seal is imperfect, the bag is returned to the First Assistant for a second try at heat sealing. Once each bag has been properly sealed and assured of proper labelling, thorough shaking is in order. Using a combination of agitation and rotation, the sawdust spawn is mixed through the supplemented sawdust.The sawdust spawn has a lighter color than the supplemented sawdust and hence it is easy to...

Step I1

The Lab Manager holds a bag of sawdust spawn and, using a pair of aseptically cleaned scissors cuts at a 45 degree upward angle towards the opposite corner, cutting across the previous seal. (See Figure 140). This results in a spout, facilitating the transfer of spawn from one bag to another. By holding a bottom corner with one hand, and raising the bag with the other hand, grasping above the newly created spout, the transferring of spawn from one bag to another container is simple and fast....

Step

Avoid any units of spawn showing the slightest disparity in growth. Be suspicious of spawn units adjacent to partially contaminated ones. Usually contamination outbreaks run through a series of consecutive inoculations, to greater and lesser degrees. Individual units of spawn that look pure but are neighbors to contaminated units should only be used as a last recourse. Shake the spawn, thoroughly breaking it up into its finest particles. Place the spawn immediately...

Steps and Duties for the Personnel Inoculating Supplemented Sawdust

Before proceeding, the lab must be thoroughly cleaned after the autoclave is emptied. The enriched sawdust blocks are positioned in front of the laminar flow bench. Additional blocks are stacked on movable, push carts which can be quickly moved and unloaded in and out of the inoculation area. The laboratory personnel have prepared the inoculation site by supplying alcohol squirt bottles, paper towels, garbage bags, marking pens, and drinking wa ter. If only a two-person lab crew is available,...

Rftt ushroomsFbnrihawdu

Inoculate 400-500 bags in one shift by hand. are recommended over solid shelves.) Once inoculated, the internal temperatures of the bags soon climb more than 20 F. over the ambient air temperature of the laboratory. Once the 95100 F. (35-38 C.) temperature threshold is surpassed, dormant thermoplr1 ss spring to life, threatening the mushroom mycelium's hold on the substrate. For cultivators in warm climates, these temperature spirals may be difficult to control. Since the risk of contamination...

Retrieving the bags rom the autoclave

Bags of sawdust, havingbeen removed directly from the autoclave, cool to room temperature by being placed in the windstream of a laminar flow hood. Once the bags are below 100 F. (38 C.) inoculations can proceed. 3. Opening the bags. The bags are opened by pulling the outside plastic panels outwards from the outside. The inoculator's hands never touch the interior surfaces. If they do, contamination is likely. Once ten bags have been fully opened, the inoculator wipes his hands with isopropanol...

Steptoy Sts p Instructions for Inoculating Sawdust

Grain spawn should be selected from the laboratory inventory. Ideally, spawn should be 1-3 weeks of age, at most 4 weeks. Carefully scrutinize the filter disc zone, inside and outside, to discern the presence of any molds or unusual signs of growth. Only cottony spawn, void of wet spots or areas of no-colonization, should be chosen. Since the spawn generally chosen is Second or Third Generation, bag spawn is preferred for this stage. The grain kernels of each spawn jar...

T

awdust spawn is simply created by inoculating grain spawn into ster'i-zed sawdust. Hardwood sawdust, especially oak, alder, Cottonwood, poplar, ash, elm, sweetgum, beech, birch and similar woods are best. Fresh sawdust is better than aged, and sawdust with dark zones (often a sign of mold infestation) should be avoided. Sawdust from milling lumber is best because of its consistent particle size, measuring, on average, 1-5 mm. in diameter. Sawdust from furniture manufacturers is much more...

Spawn Storage

Spawn can be stored for only a short period of time before a decline in viability occurs. Those who buy spawn from afar are especially at risk. As spawn ages, and with the depletion of food resources, the mycelium's rate of growth declines. Metabolic wastes accumulate. With the loss of vitality, the mycelium's anti-disease defensive mechanisms fail. Opportunistic molds, bacteria, viruses, and other microscopic organisms proliferate. Good quality spawn on Day 60 (from the date of inoculation)...

Steps for Creating Second and TMrd Generation Ci sin

After sterilizing grain in 1 2 gallon or gallon jars, standard procedures for inoculation are followed. For every quart Grain Master, five 1 2 gallon jars are recommended essentially a 1 10 expansion. Step 1. Select a Grain Master showing even, luxuriant growth. Avoid spaw a jars having zones of heavy growth, discoloration, or excess liquid. Step 2. Using a cleaned nibber tire, carefully slam the jar against it, looening thegrain. If the spawn is overgrown, more forcible shaking is required...

Steps for Generating Grain Spawn Masters

Visually ascertain the purity of a mushroom culture, selecting a petri dish culture showing greatest vigor. Ideally, this culture should be no more than two weeks old, and there should be a margin of uncolonized media along the inside peripheral edge. This uncolonized zone, approximately 1 2 inch (1. 30 cm.) in diameter, can tell the cultivator whether or not any viable contaminant spores have recently landed on the media. Once the mycelium has reached the edge of the petri dish, any...

First Generation Graf 1 Spawn Masters

The first time mushroom mycelium ' i transferred onto grain, that container of spawn is c ailed a Grain Master, or G1. The preferred containers for incubating Grain Masters are traditionally small glass jars or bottles, wi.h narrow mouths to limi contan 'nant exposure. Since the Grain Master is used to generate 100 to 1000 times its mass, special attention is giiven to its purity. Otherwise, the slightest amount of contan ination is exponentially expanded with each step, not by a factor of 10,...

The Event of Volunteer Primordia on Notrified Agar Medic

The voluntary and spontaneous formation of miniature mushrooms in a petri dish is a delightful experience for all cultivators. In this chapter, attention and insights are given for many species. By no means is this knowledge static. Every cultivator contributes to the body of knowledge each time a mushroom is cultured and studied. The cultivator plays an active role in developing strains by physically selecting those which look good. Integral to the success of the Mushroom Life Cycle is the...

Cote in Culture

Growing Oyster mushrooms in columns gives rise to natural-looking fruitbodies. Having evolved on the vertical surfaces of hardwood trees, Oyster mushrooms with their off-centered stems, grow out horizontally it first, turn, and grow upright at maturity. * TO often results in the formation of highly desirable clusters, or bouquets, of Oyster mushrooms. The advantages of cropping clusters from columns are that many young mushrooms form from a common site, al owing 1 4 to 1 lb. clusters to be...

Handling the Bags Post Full Colonization

Pleurotus Citrinopileatus

Depending upon the species, three to six weeks pass before the bags are placed into the growing room Before moving in the blocks, the growing room has been aseptically cleaned. After washing with bleach, I tightly close up the room after for 24 hours and turn off all fans. The residual chlorine becomes a disinfecting gas permeating throughout the room, effectively killing flies and reducing mold contaminants. A day after chlorine treatment, fans are activated to displace any residual gas before...

Ganodeima lucidum Wm Curtis Fries Karsten

Introduction A mushroom of many names, 3anodertna lucidum has been used medicinally by diverse peoples for centui.es. The Japanese call this mushroom Reishi or Mannentake (10,000 Year Mushroom) whereas the Cliinese & Koreans know it as Ling Chi, Ling Chili, or Ling Zhi (Mushroom (Herb) of Immortality). Renowned for its health stimulating properties, this mushroom is more often depicted in ancient Chinese, Korean, & Japanese art than any other. I ing Ch' is traditionally associated with...

Volvariella volvacea Bulliard Fi ies Singer

V. volvacea mycelia at 4 and 2 days after inoculation onto malt extract agai. Figure 302. V. volvacea mycelia at 4 and 2 days after inoculation onto malt extract agai. introduction Once you have tasted fresh Paddy Straw mushrooms, it s easy to understand the high esteem this mushroom has attained in Asia. I find fresh V. volvacea to be one of the best of all edible * Canned Paddy Straw mushrooms lack the richness of the fresh fruitbodies mushrooms The duration from inoculation to...

Mushroom Cultivation Room Design

Mushroom Greenhouse Design Structure

Purposesi To recapture as many mushrooms possible whichcan not be realized in controlled environment growing rooms.This building can solve a dilemma constantly confronting the growing room personnel to maximize mushroom yield while not jeopardizing future crops as contaminants become more common as the cycle comes to completion. By the third or fourth flush, yields are in a state of precipitous decline. Rather than discarding this mycelium, additional harvests can be realized, with minimum...

Interior surfaces not biodegradable

Mushroom Green House

Interior surfaces such as the walls, counter-tops, shelving, etc. should not be able to support mold growth. Wood and sheet rock should be avoided. The floors should be painted several times or overlaid with a chemically resistant, cleanable mat. When using a paint, use a non-mildewing enamel. (Caution Do not use paint containing fungicides, particular any containing tributyl tin oxide, an extremely dangerous toxin to both humans and mushrooms.) Counter-tops can be made of stainless, steel or a...

International Mushroom Associations

International Mycological Association CAB International Mycological Institute Ferry Lane, Kew Surrey, TW9 3AF United Kingdom International Society for Mushroom Science 50 St. Flora's Rd. Littlehampton. West Sussex England BN17 6BB United Kingdom Via S. Croce 6 C.P. 396, 38100 Trento, Italy 4715 W. Hen s ley Rd. Hensley, AR. 72065 Whitehouse Nature Center Albion, MI. 49224 Nature Center Gashes Cr Rd Asheviile, N.C. 28805 Pleasant Valley Sanctuary Lenox, MA. 01240 855 Commonwealth Ave Newton...

Common Name

Peachleaf Willow Sandbar or Coyote Willow Crack Willow Geyer Willow Pacific Willow Arrow Willow Black Willow Scouler Willow American Elm English Elm Fluttering Elm Mountain Elm Figure 38. Oyster mushrooms growing from my previous book, The Mushroom Cultivator. Cereal Straws For the cultivation of Oyster mushrooms, cereal straws rank as the most usable base material. Wheat, rye, oat and rice straw perform the best. Of all the straws, I pre fer wheat. Inexpensive, readily available, preserving...

Features for Evaluating and Selecting a Mushroom Strain

The strain of mushroom, its unique personality mannerisms, sensitivities, yield expressions is the foundation of any mushror m farm. When a strain goes bad, production precipitously declines, typically followed by a proliferation of disease organisms.Therefore, cultivators must continuously scrutinize new strains to find candidates worthy of production. Once a strain has been Figure 95. Grain spawn 3 days and 8 days af inoculation. Visible recovery of spawn two days after inoculation is...

Arunyik Mushroom Center

Box 1 Nongkhaem Bangkok 10162 Thailand Centre for Land amp Biological Research Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Ottawa, Ontario K1A OC6 Canada Collection of Higher Basidiomycetes Cultures Komarov Botanical Institute Academy of Sciences Leningrad, Russia Commonwealth Mycological Institute Kew, Great Britain Culture Collection of Basidiomycetes Department of Experimental Mycology Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 Krc. Czechoslovakia 800 Chemin Montreal Rd. Ottawa. Ontario Canada K1G3Z5...

Paul Stamets

Growing Gourmet lt L Medicinal Mushrooms is terrific. It solidifies Paul Stamets' reputation as a mycological trailblazer. It is practical, comprehensive as well as inspirational an absolute must for anyone who wants to grow their own mushrooms____ David Arora, author Mushrooms Demystified and All That the Rain Promises and Stamets draws on the collective experience of centuries of mushroom cultivation, creating a revolutionary model for the use of higher fungi. Not only does it cover every...

Si fc ssssssisss

May be a p rfect example that smaller is better. , . , finiir ptr The mixture is moistened and packed into heat tolerant piasuc 3 months from the time of the first flush. This species adapts well to liquid culture techniques. I prefer to use malt agar media supplemented with 3-5 grams of alder sav dust. Once the cultures are grown out, they are blended in a stirrer, sub-proportioned into Erlenmeyers flasks containing malt sugar, yeast, and alder 2 .1 .5 respectively , fermented for two days,...

In Nature

Cologically, mushrooms can be classified into three groups the saprophytes, the parasites and the mycorrhizae. Although this book centers on the cultivation of gourmet and medicinal saprophytic species, other mushrooming also discussed. Mycorrhizal mushrooms form a mutually dependent, beneficial relationship with the roots of host plants, ranging from trees to grasses Myco means mushrooms while rhizal means roots. The filaments of cells which grow into the mushroom body are called the mycelium....

Managing the Growing Rooms Good Habits or the Personnel

Integral to the success of a mushroom farm is the daily management of the growing rooms. The environment within the growing room is constantly in a dynamic state of change. Events can quickly cascade, drastically, and sometimes inalterably, affecting the outcome of the crop. The daily activities of the personnel especially impact the quality of the crop. The head cultivator can perfectly execute his or her duties only to have employees unwittingly sabotage the crop. In many cases, a simple...

The Phase H Chamber Steam Pasteurization

A second method calls for the placement of straw in a highly-insulated room into which steam is injected. This room is known as the Phase II Chamber. Before the straw is loaded into the Phase II chamber, it must be moistened. This can be done simply by spread ng the chopped straw over a large surface area, a cement slab or plastic tarpaulin to a depth no greater than 12 inches. Water is sprayed on the straw via sprinklers over a two to four day pe riod. The straw is turned every day to expose...

Shroom Culture

Terile tissue culture has revolutionized the biological sciences. For the first time in the history of human evolution, select organisms can be isolated from nature propagated under sterile conoii 'ons in the laboratory, and released back into the environment. Since a competitor-free environment does not exist naturally on this planet , an artificial setting is created the laboratory in which select organisms can be grown in mass. Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 pioneered sterile technique by...

Inoculation of Supplemented Sawdust Creating the I Yodection Block

The best path for the inoculation of supplemented sawdust is via sawdust spawn. However, the direct path of grain spawn-to supplemented sawdust 's also successful, provided several precautions are taken. Inoculations of supplemented sawdust via grain spawn are prone to self-heating, a phenomenon leading to contamination. This is especially true with Shii. ake. As supplemented sawdust is consumed by mycelium, exothermic reactions emerge at various rates. Regardless of the species, the incubathg...

Annual Mushroom Festivals Events

Many of the mycological societies stage annual mushroom exhibits. Here is a short list of some of the more notable annual mushroom exhibitions. Most are held in September or October unless otherwise indicated. Please contact them for more specific information. Asheville Annual Labor Day Mushroom Foray Early September Nature Center, Gashes Cr. Rd. Asheville, N.C Boyne City Chamber of Commerce Boyne City, MI. Colorado Mycological Society Mushroom Show Mid-August P.O. Box 9621 Denver, CO....

Standard Spawn

These moisture contents are not meant to be taken literally. The natural moisture content inherent within dry gra - can feet absolute moisture by 15 or more. Properly dried grain should have 8-12 ambient moistui With the slightest increase above this level, bacteria proliferate, requiring that the sterilization cycie be extended _____- is added proportionately. Whereas the percent-a e of moisture content can be nearly 60 in a small spawr jar, a large container will have a moisture content of...

Choosing a Sterilizer aka the Retort or Autoclave

Autoclave Wood Cycle

Although home-style pressure cookers are i leal for sterilizing agar media and for small-to-medium batches of grain, they have insufficient capacity for the sterilization of bulk substrates. The problems faced by the mushroom cultivator in Thailand or the U ted States are the essentially the same. In developing countries, the sterilizer is often a make-shift, vertical drum, heated by fire or gas. A heavy lid is placed on top to keep the contents contained. The boiling of water generates Figure...

Build A Paddy Mushroom Grow House In Thailand

Fruitings, although not nearly as well as supplemented, composted rice straw. One study showed that the best supplement for wheat straw is wheat bran 5 and or cotton hulls 10 . See Li et al., 1988 . The pH optimum for fruiting falls between 7.5 - 8.0. Recommended Containers for Fruiting Trays, bags. Outdoor methods use no containers. The substrate is shaped into long rectangular mounds, narrowing at the top. The frames are covered with loose rice straw, cloth or plastic to retain humidity....

Structure of the Habitat

Mycelium Texture Tileable

Whichever materials are chosen for making up the substrate base, particular attention must be given to structure. Sawdust is uniform in particle size but is not ideal for growing mushrooms by itself. Fine sawdust is closed which means the particle size is so small that air spaces are soon lost due to compression. Closed substrates tend to become anaerobic and encourage weed fungi to grow. Wood shavings have the opposite problem of fine sawdust. They are too fluffy. The curls have large spaces...

Site Location of a Mushroom Patch

A suitable site for a mushroom patch is easy to choose. The best clue is to simply take note of where you have seen mushrooms growing during the rainy season. Or just observe where water traverses after a heavy rain. A gentle slope, bordered by shrubs and other shade-giving plants, is usually ideal. Since saprophytic mushrooms are non-competitive to neighboring plants, they pose no danger to them. In fact, plants near a mushroom bed often thrive the result of the increased moisture retention...