Medicinal Mushrooms

Common Names Lions Mane

Lions Mane Petri

Monkey's Head Bear's Head Old Man's Beard Hedgehog Mushroom Satyr's Beard Yamabushi-take (Japanese for Mountain-pnest mushroom I Taxonomic Synonyms & Consideration Formerly known as Hydnum erinac Fr and soma 2*citec a Herici i iceum ( Pe Herimm coraUotd nd Henaum si Jspe es.dis.in in both the-habitat prefere ea be cultivate o sawdus an differs from H. Mnaceus in that its spines fork rather than emerging in dividually. Description Composed of downward, cascading, non-fork' g spines, up to 40...

Growth Parameters

Mycelium Culture Submerged Growth

Incubation Temperature 70-75 F. (21-24 C.) InitiationTemperature 50-60 F. (10-15.6 C.) Temperature 65-75c F. (18-24 C.) Relative Humidity (85) 90-95 Duration 4-5 days C02 500-1000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 5-8 hours per hour. Light Requirements 500-1000 lux. damaged in the course of shaking. The subsequent transfer of these smashed fruitbodies is often followed by a massive bacterial outbreak. If the spawn remains pure, then each 1 2 gallon (liter) of grain spawn can be transferred into four 5...

Recommended Mushroom Cookbooks

Mushroom Farming Reitz

A Cook's Book of Mushrooms by Jack Czarnecki, 1995. Artisan Books, Workman Publishing New York. Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America A Field-to-Kitchen Guide by David W. Fischer and Alan E. Bessette, 1992. University ofTexas Press, Austin, Texas. Hope's Mushroom Cookbook by Hope Miller, 1993. Mad River Press, Eureka, California. Joe's Book of Mushroom Cookery by Jack Czarnecki, 1988, Athen eum, New York. Mushroom Cookery by Rosetta Reitz, 1945,206 pgs. Gramercy Publishing Co., New York....

Cote in Culture

Mushroom Culture Polyethylene Plastic

Growing Oyster mushrooms in columns gives rise to natural-looking fruitbodies. Having evolved on the vertical surfaces of hardwood trees, Oyster mushrooms with their off-centered stems, grow out horizontally it first, turn, and grow upright at maturity. * TO often results in the formation of highly desirable clusters, or bouquets, of Oyster mushrooms. The advantages of cropping clusters from columns are that many young mushrooms form from a common site, al owing 1 4 to 1 lb. clusters to be...

Common Name

Pacific Madrone Birches Yellow Birch Sweet Birch River Birch Paper Birch European Birch Hairy Birch Hornbeans European Horn bean American Hornbean This list was compiled from trials and reports by the author, Pagony 1973 , San Antonio 1981 , Farr 1983 , Gilbertson amp Ryvarden 1986 , and Chang amp Miles 1989 , Przybylowicz amp Donoghue 1989 , and Kruger 1992 . Some of the listed tree species are probable candidates due to their clc e affinities to species proven to be suitable for cultivation....

Of fte Geirns Hypholoma

- us Hypholoma (Fries) Kummer includes severaHnterestmg speaes alUf which thrive in cold weather, not producing when temperatures exceed 60-65 F. (15-18 C* Ag '' Hprnmnnsp-s thev share similar cultural requirements, and produce a type ol XL saprophytes I h -cultivated. Their uniquely beautiful Zee iaTs not only fantastically rhizomorp , but luxuriously satin-like. Ate the mycelium has -r asever ekre i gPen dprecedespnmordia A k cWptipH indoor cultivation may prove more commercially feasible,...

This mushroom

Earvest Hints Mushrooms should be harvested when the caps are convex. Since the stems elongate muchTn th san n lerasEno* e (Flammulina velutipes), the harvest method is similar. Out Figure 214. H. capnoides fruiting from sterilized hardwood sawdust doors, this mushroom forms clusters, often wiffi several dozen mushrooms arising from a common base. Form of Product Sold to Market Not yet marketed. Nutritional Content Not known to tl is authcr. Medicinal Properties Given this species' woodland...

Oyster Mushroom Substrate Formulas

Hedgehog 388 Heim, R. 328 Hen-of-the-Woods 370-379 H. erinaceus 29, 35, 44, 109, 113-115, 120, Hypholoma 50,236-245 H. capnoides 18, 23, 35, 44, 50, 109, 120, 237-241 H. fascicular 23, 32, 237 H. sublateritium 18, 23, 35, 109, 113, 120, 152, 161, 239, 242-245 H. marmoreus 18, 203, 248, 252 H. tessulatus 18, 115, 153, 203, 205, 206, 246-253, 258, 432, 435-437 H. ulmarius 18, 115, 153, 206, 246-248, 252, 254-258 Kikurage 396 King Stropharia 335 Kumotake 370 Kuritake 242-245 Lae iporus sulphureus...

Taxonomic Synonyms Considerations Synonymous wit Polyporus frondosusl cks Fr f StXwypo bellatus Fr also known as

MuWple caps ari ng from a comm iste t, a lighter color a a more fragile texture The pnmo cha TG& aren darkgray umbellata are light gra3 Macroscopically, 'hese two mushrooms are easily distinguished by their S n Sir SfiT & Wasson (1973) first cast doubt about the authentic O la. take being Gnfola S SSHS L, da e with the nuns and woodcutters. Maitake is today synonymous figure 333. Wild fruiting of Mai take, G. Jrondosa, at l> ase of oak tree figure 333. Wild fruiting of Mai take, G....

Structure of the Habitat

Mycelium Texture Tileable

Whichever materials are chosen for making up the substrate base, particular attention must be given to structure. Sawdust is uniform in particle size but is not ideal for growing mushrooms by itself. Fine sawdust is closed which means the particle size is so small that air spaces are soon lost due to compression. Closed substrates tend to become anaerobic and encourage weed fungi to grow. Wood shavings have the opposite problem of fine sawdust. They are too fluffy. The curls have large spaces...

Stumps as Elatforms for Growing Mushrooms

Are White Mushroom Maitake Mushroom

Stumps are especially suitable for growing gourmet mushrooms. There are few better, or more massive platforms, than the stump. Millions of stumps are all that remain of many forests of the world. In most cases, stumps are seen as having little or no econonr potent' J. These lone tombstones of biodegradable wood fiber offer a unique, new opportunity for the mycologically astute. With selective logging being increasingly practiced, cultivating gour met and medicinal mushrooms on stumps will be...

Len Unula edodes Berkeley Pegler

Mycelia f L. edodes M and D cays atter inocw no* orma 'on of hyphal aggregates .n the cu tare on the left. Th .s a stram spec P tion indicates vigor. e culture at the right sho browning reaction of the outer-edge mycelium, change as the mycelium ages is typical of Shiitake. Introduction- Log culture although traditional in Asia, has yet to become high, profited e in No Americ'a lesp fte opefof many woodlot owners. However log modest sudi JhentaZ ir and fits well within the emerging...

First Generation Graf 1 Spawn Masters

The first time mushroom mycelium ' i transferred onto grain, that container of spawn is c ailed a Grain Master, or G1. The preferred containers for incubating Grain Masters are traditionally small glass jars or bottles, wi.h narrow mouths to limi contan 'nant exposure. Since the Grain Master is used to generate 100 to 1000 times its mass, special attention is giiven to its purity. Otherwise, the slightest amount of contan ination is exponentially expanded with each step, not by a factor of 10,...

Nitrogen Supplement For Mushroom Substrate

Peachleaf Willow Sandbar or Coyote Willow Crack Willow Geyer Willow Pacific Willow Arrow Willow Black Willow Scouler Willow American Elm English Elm Fluttering Elm Mountain Elm Figure 38. Oyster mushrooms growing from my previous book, The Mushroom Cultivator. Cereal Straws For the cultivation of Oyster mushrooms, cereal straws rank as the most usable base material. Wheat, rye, oat and rice straw perform the best. Of all the straws, I pre fer wheat. Inexpensive, readily available, preserving...

The Yeast Fermentation Method

Fermentation Button Mushrooms

The fourth alternative method for rendering straw is biological. Straw can be biologically treated using yeast cultures, specifically strains of beer yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method, by itself, is not as effective as those previ ously described, but has achieved limited success. First a strain of beer yeast is propagated in 50 gallons 200 liters warm water to which malt sugar has also been added. Recommended rates vary. Usually a 1-5 sugar broth is concocted. Fermentation proceeds...

Atmospheric Steam Sterilization of Sawdust Substrates

Many cultivators can not afford, nor have access to large production-style autoclaves. The size of the sterilization vessel is the primary limiting factor preventing home cultivators also known as Super-Pasteurization, an alternative from becoming large-scale producers. Fortunately, alternative methods are available. Whereas straw is pasteurized for 1-2 hours at 160 F. 70 C. , supplemented sawdust is sterilized only when exposed to steam for a prolonged period of time. Many cultivators retrofit...

The Phase H Chamber Steam Pasteurization

Pasteurization Chamber

A second method calls for the placement of straw in a highly-insulated room into which steam is injected. This room is known as the Phase II Chamber. Before the straw is loaded into the Phase II chamber, it must be moistened. This can be done simply by spread ng the chopped straw over a large surface area, a cement slab or plastic tarpaulin to a depth no greater than 12 inches. Water is sprayed on the straw via sprinklers over a two to four day pe riod. The straw is turned every day to expose...

Ganodeima lucidum Wm Curtis Fries Karsten

Introduction A mushroom of many names, 3anodertna lucidum has been used medicinally by diverse peoples for centui.es. The Japanese call this mushroom Reishi or Mannentake (10,000 Year Mushroom) whereas the Cliinese & Koreans know it as Ling Chi, Ling Chili, or Ling Zhi (Mushroom (Herb) of Immortality). Renowned for its health stimulating properties, this mushroom is more often depicted in ancient Chinese, Korean, & Japanese art than any other. I ing Ch' is traditionally associated with...

The Initiation Strategy

Lentinula Edodes Life Cycle

B y far the most crical step is that of primordia formation, called the initiation strategy. An r it ation strategy can be best described as a shift in environmental variables, triggering the formation of mushrooms. The four major environmental factors operative in an initiation strategy are moisture, air exchange, temperature and light. These are adjusted accordingly Moisture C-ect watering is applied, coupled with a constant, controlled rate of evaporation to mahiain high humidity between...

Pleurotus euosmus Berkeley apud Hussey Saccardo

Malt Extract Agar Recipe

P. euosmus mycelia 3 and 10 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar media. Figure 278. P. euosmus mycelia 3 and 10 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar media. Introduction The Tarragon Oyster mushroom is closely related to Pleurotus ostreatus. According to Watling & Gregory (1989), this mushroom is generally considered a form or varidQl of P. ostreatus. but differ in the strong smell of tarragon. It has been reported, to date, from England and Scotland. P. euosmus...

Features for Evaluating and Selecting a Mushroom Strain

Commercial Morel Mushroom Farming

The strain of mushroom, its unique personality mannerisms, sensitivities, yield expressions is the foundation of any mushror m farm. When a strain goes bad, production precipitously declines, typically followed by a proliferation of disease organisms.Therefore, cultivators must continuously scrutinize new strains to find candidates worthy of production. Once a strain has been Figure 95. Grain spawn 3 days and 8 days af inoculation. Visible recovery of spawn two days after inoculation is...

Newyork Greenhouse Film

Wedge-transfer the cutting of triangular shaped sections of mycelium from agar and their transfer into other vessels or substrates. white rot a condition whereby a substrate is rendered light in color from the decomposition of lignin delignification and or cellulose amp hemicellulose from fungi. Solid blocks of wood are used for testing. Adachi, K., H. Nanba, amp H. Kuroda, 1987. Potential of host-mediated antitumor activity in mice by beta-glucan obtained from Grifolafrondosa Maitake . Chem....

The Hot Water Bath Method

Draining Excess Water From Straw

The first method is the hot water bath. Straw is stuffed into a wire basket and submerged in a cauldron of 160-180 F. (71-82 C.) water for 1 hour*. The cauldron is usually heated from underneath by a portable propane gas burner. Tne straw basket is forcibly pushed down into the steaming water and held in place by whatever means necessary. A probe thermometer, at least 12 inches in length, is inserted deep into the brothing mass with string attached for convenient retrieval. The straw is...

Bag Culture

In the search for inexpensive, portable, and disposable containers, plastic bags have bee me the logical choice. High temperature toleran polypropylene bags are prii larilyu'e for processing wood-based substrates which require higher temperature treatment than the cereal straws. Once cooled and inoculated, sterilized substrates are usually filled directly into heat sensitive polyethylene bags. Mushrooms fruit from the top or sides For the cultivation of most wood decompos ers, a biodegradable,...

Formulas for Creating Grain Spawn

Moisture content plays a critical role in the successful colonization by mushroom mycelium of sterilized grai. . If the grain is too dry. gro vth is retarded with the mycelium forming fine threads and growing slowly. Should too much water be added to the grain, the grain clumps, and dense, slow growth occurs. Higher moisture contents also encourage bacterial blooms. Without proper moisture content, spawn production is hampered, even though all other techniques may be perfect. The optimum...

Spawn Storage

Spawn can be stored for only a short period of time before a decline in viability occurs. Those who buy spawn from afar are especially at risk. As spawn ages, and with the depletion of food resources, the mycelium's rate of growth declines. Metabolic wastes accumulate. With the loss of vitality, the mycelium's anti-disease defensive mechanisms fail. Opportunistic molds, bacteria, viruses, and other microscopic organisms proliferate. Good quality spawn on Day 60 (from the date of inoculation)...

Volvariella volvacea Bulliard Fi ies Singer

Link Trainer Instrument Panel

V. volvacea mycelia at 4 and 2 days after inoculation onto malt extract agai. Figure 302. V. volvacea mycelia at 4 and 2 days after inoculation onto malt extract agai. introduction Once you have tasted fresh Paddy Straw mushrooms, it s easy to understand the high esteem this mushroom has attained in Asia. I find fresh V. volvacea to be one of the best of all edible * Canned Paddy Straw mushrooms lack the richness of the fresh fruitbodies mushrooms The duration from inoculation to...

How to Collect Spores

Lentinula Edodes Mycelium Growth

A culture arising l'rom cloning is fundamentally di Jerent than a culture originating from spores. When spores are germ' ated, many different strains are created, some incompatible with one another. A cultivator will not know what features will be expressed until each and every strain is grown out to the final stage, that of mushroom production.T1 is form of genetic roulette results in very diverse strains, some more desirable than others. Mushroom spores are collected by taking a spore print....

Pouring Agar Media

One liter of malt extract agar medium wili pour 20-40 lOOx 15 mm. petri dishes, depending upon the depth of the pour. Before pouring an agar medium, the table top is thoroughly wiped clean with an 80 concentration of isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol). Plastic petri dishes usually come pre-steiilized and ready to use. Glass petri dishes should be first washed and sterilized in a petri dish-holding rack simultaneous to the steril ization of the agar medium in an autoclavable flask. Pre-pouring...

Mobile Contain nation Units MCUs

Laboratory Sawdust Column

The over-riding coefficients affecting each vector are the number of contaminants and the exposure time. The more of each, the worse the infestation. This book does not go into detail as to the identity of the common contaminants. However, my previous book, The Mushroom Cultivator (1983), co-authored with Jeff Chilton, has extensive chapters on the identity of the molds, bacteria, and insects. The reader is encouraged to refer to that manual for the identification of contaminants. All...

Hope Orsop 3V Iters Hot Mushroom Dip Especial

1 tblsp. lemon juice 2 tblsp. minced onion 1 lb. carton low fat sour cream 2 tblsp. soft butter or margarine 2 tblsp. flour 2 vegetable or chicken bouillon cubes ( or 2 6 tblsp. butter tsP- granules) Chop mushrooms quite fine and saute in pan with butter and lemon juice. Let simmer 5-10 minutes. Add onions, sour cream, bouillon granules, salt and pepper. Simmer 5-10 minutes more. Make a paste of the remaining butter and flour. Add to hot mixture and stir until thickened. Serve hot, in fondue...

Steps for Generating Grain Spawn Masters

Visually ascertain the purity of a mushroom culture, selecting a petri dish culture showing greatest vigor. Ideally, this culture should be no more than two weeks old, and there should be a margin of uncolonized media along the inside peripheral edge. This uncolonized zone, approximately 1 2 inch (1. 30 cm.) in diameter, can tell the cultivator whether or not any viable contaminant spores have recently landed on the media. Once the mycelium has reached the edge of the petri dish, any...

Of the Genus Pleurotus

Packaging Fresh Harvested Mushrooms

Oyster mushrooms are by far the easiest and least expensive to grow. For small cultivators with limited budgets, Oyster mushrooms are the clear choice for gaining entry into the gourmet mushroom industry. Few other mushrooms demonstrate such adaptability, aggressiveness, and productivity as these species of Pleurotus. Preeminent wood decomposers, Pleurotus species grow on a wider array of forest and agricultural wastes than species from any other group. They thrive on most all hardwoods, on...

Harvesting the Crop

Simple guidelines prevail in the proper harvesting nd storing of mushrooms First, young must rooms last much longer after harvest than aged mushrooms. Once spores have developed o 1 the face of the gills, perishability is accelerated. If mushrooms have partial veils, like the Button Mushroom (Agaricus brunnescens) > r the Black Poplar Mushroom (Agrocyke aegerita), they are best picked while the partial ve ' i are intact, in other words when the mushrooms are still young Partial veils protect...

Psilocybes That Grow On Rotting Pine Logs

Ganoderma Lucidum

Ermaculture is a concept pioneered by Australian Bill Mollison and literally means permanent agriculture. His model of biological diversity and complementary agricultural practices promotes a sustainable environment via the interplay of natural ecosystems. Permaculture has gained a huge international following after the publication of his book Permaculture A Practical Gwde for a Sustainable Future. Permaculture has become the mainstay philosophy of the organic movement. Mollison's vision, which...

The Development of Indoor Morel Cultivation

Mushroom Indoor Cultivation

All attempts at controlled, indoor Morei cultivation failed, until Ron Ower succeeded in 1982. By his own admission, the discovery of Morel cultivation was more by accident than design. And, Ron Ower told me that his experiences growing Psilocybe mushrooms combined with an accident in the laboratory led to success. He revealed he had used the casing formula outlined in my first book, Psilocybe Mushrooms amp their Allies S tamets 1978 as the sclerotia-forming formula. Under pres sure from...

Hypsizygus tessulatus Bulliard Fries Singer

H. tessulatus mycelium 4 and 8 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar. Figure 218. H. tessulatus mycelium 4 and 8 days after inoculation onto malt extract agar. Introductir n A delicious species, H. tessulatus falls under the umbrella concept of the Japanese Shimeii mushrooms. Firm textured this mushroom is considered one of the most gourmet of the Oyster-like mushrooms. Recently, this mushroom has been attributed to having anti-cancer properties. Ikekawa, 1990 . Increasingly...

Standard Spawn

Spawn Contamination

These moisture contents are not meant to be taken literally. The natural moisture content inherent within dry gra - can feet absolute moisture by 15 or more. Properly dried grain should have 8-12 ambient moistui With the slightest increase above this level, bacteria proliferate, requiring that the sterilization cycie be extended _____- is added proportionately. Whereas the percent-a e of moisture content can be nearly 60 in a small spawr jar, a large container will have a moisture content of...

Spore Ms Inoculation

Oyster Mushroom Mycelium Grains

The ultin' cut for culturing mushrooms is via sfordJTnass liquid inoculation directly into bulk substrates. Primarily used in China, this technique works well with Oyster and Shiitake mushrooms, but is also applicable to all the mushroom species discussed in this book. In effect this process parallels the technology of the brewery industry in the cultivation of yeasts- Saccharomyces cerevisiae and allies. Large fermentation vessels are filled with sugar broth, inoculated with pure spores and...

Cropping Cycle

Nutritional Content Not known to this author. Medicinal Properties None known, although closely related species produce unique antibiotics. Flavor. Preparation and Cooking Finely chopped and stir fried, cooked in a white sauce and poured onto a fish or chicken, or baked in a stuffing, this species imparts a mild but satisfying, porklike flavor. Comments This mushroom benefits from the application of a 1 2 inch casing directly onto the top surface layer of mycelium. However, if a condensing fog...

Paul Stamets

Growing Gourmet lt L Medicinal Mushrooms is terrific. It solidifies Paul Stamets' reputation as a mycological trailblazer. It is practical, comprehensive as well as inspirational an absolute must for anyone who wants to grow their own mushrooms____ David Arora, author Mushrooms Demystified and All That the Rain Promises and Stamets draws on the collective experience of centuries of mushroom cultivation, creating a revolutionary model for the use of higher fungi. Not only does it cover every...

The Event of Volunteer Primordia on Notrified Agar Medic

Pleurotus Eunosmus

The voluntary and spontaneous formation of miniature mushrooms in a petri dish is a delightful experience for all cultivators. In this chapter, attention and insights are given for many species. By no means is this knowledge static. Every cultivator contributes to the body of knowledge each time a mushroom is cultured and studied. The cultivator plays an active role in developing strains by physically selecting those which look good. Integral to the success of the Mushroom Life Cycle is the...

Handling the Bags Post Full Colonization

Pleurotus Citrinopileatus

Depending upon the species, three to six weeks pass before the bags are placed into the growing room Before moving in the blocks, the growing room has been aseptically cleaned. After washing with bleach, I tightly close up the room after for 24 hours and turn off all fans. The residual chlorine becomes a disinfecting gas permeating throughout the room, effectively killing flies and reducing mold contaminants. A day after chlorine treatment, fans are activated to displace any residual gas before...

Low Cost Structures For Mushroom Growing Cultivation

Spaceship Model Hulls

A Texas Reishi production fac it> By modifying hoop-framed greennouses and covering them Kith an open-sided, metal roofec' super-structure growing rooms can be constructed at low cost figure 394. A Texas Reishi production fac it> By modifying hoop-framed greennouses and covering them Kith an open-sided, metal roofec' super-structure growing rooms can be constructed at low cost Figure 395. A Japanese mushroom grow ' ig house. Figure 395. A Japanese mushroom grow ' ig house. mesh...

Si fc ssssssisss

May be a p rfect example that smaller is better. , . , finiir ptr The mixture is moistened and packed into heat tolerant piasuc 3 months from the time of the first flush. This species adapts well to liquid culture techniques. I prefer to use malt agar media supplemented with 3-5 grams of alder sav dust. Once the cultures are grown out, they are blended in a stirrer, sub-proportioned into Erlenmeyers flasks containing malt sugar, yeast, and alder 2 .1 .5 respectively , fermented for two days,...

St 2nd 3rd Generation Spawn Media

Grain-to-grain expansions The final ipawn medium can be another generation of grain spawn, or alternatively sawdust. The sawdust spawn can be used to inoculate supplemented sawdust (i.e. sawdust chips bran) or plugs cor outdoor cultivation on stumps or partially bur ied, vertically positioned, large diameter hardwood logs. Considering the long incubation period, cultivators are well advised to weigh the advantages of creating another generation of sawdust spawn. The advantage of the grain...

Auricularia polytricha Montagne Saccardo

A. polytricha 6 and 11 days aner inoculation onto malt agar media. Introduction According to records from China ire 60C VI ,, t mushroom is heralded as he fir speci s to be cul ivate C ig amp Miles, 1987 amp 198 lt . This mushroom has an unusual, anpeah lg tex , Jen eaten b t, by itself, is not remarkably flavorful. Nevertheless, A. polytricha Ask i lt is commonly d in soups, pon drying Wooc is shrivel to a fra don of th ir origi a size and upon contact with water,...

Interior surfaces not biodegradable

Howard And Native Title

Interior surfaces such as the walls, counter-tops, shelving, etc. should not be able to support mold growth. Wood and sheet rock should be avoided. The floors should be painted several times or overlaid with a chemically resistant, cleanable mat. When using a paint, use a non-mildewing enamel. (Caution Do not use paint containing fungicides, particular any containing tributyl tin oxide, an extremely dangerous toxin to both humans and mushrooms.) Counter-tops can be made of stainless, steel or a...

Steps for Creating Second and TMrd Generation Ci sin

After sterilizing grain in 1 2 gallon or gallon jars, standard procedures for inoculation are followed. For every quart Grain Master, five 1 2 gallon jars are recommended essentially a 1 10 expansion. Step 1. Select a Grain Master showing even, luxuriant growth. Avoid spaw a jars having zones of heavy growth, discoloration, or excess liquid. Step 2. Using a cleaned nibber tire, carefully slam the jar against it, looening thegrain. If the spawn is overgrown, more forcible shaking is required...

Introduction This fleshy polypore has long been a favorite edible Of all the species represented in

Drugs That Come Packed Sawdust

Especially in the treatment of lung cancer Common Names Zhu Ling (Chinese for Hog Tubv) Chorei-mailake (Japanese for Wild Boar s Dung Maitake) Tsuchi-maitake (Japanese for Earth Maitake) Umbrella Polypore Chinese Sclerotium Taxonomic Synonyms & Considerations Gilbertson and Ryvarden (1987) follow tradition by l eepine diis mushroom w' bin the AyporusMPoHporus Fr. s mushroom i Snty rSeied to as G a - dilate 'ersoor, Fries) Donk and more infrequently called ha. uiAuely. erent life cycles. The...

Drogenkonsum In Der Steinzeit

Rosalind Monks

Mushrooms fleshy fungi are the premier recyclers on the planet. Fungi are essential to recycling organic wastes and the efficient return of nutrients back nto the ecosystem. Not only are they recognized for their importance w'thin the environment, but also for their effect on human evolution and health. Yet, to date, the inherent biological power embodied within the mycelial network of mushrooms largely remains a vast, untapped resource. As we enter the 21 st century, ecologists, foresters,...

Choosing a Sterilizer aka the Retort or Autoclave

Diagram Steam Steriliser

Although home-style pressure cookers are i leal for sterilizing agar media and for small-to-medium batches of grain, they have insufficient capacity for the sterilization of bulk substrates. The problems faced by the mushroom cultivator in Thailand or the U ted States are the essentially the same. In developing countries, the sterilizer is often a make-shift, vertical drum, heated by fire or gas. A heavy lid is placed on top to keep the contents contained. The boiling of water generates Figure...

Bimas Mmeji and SMrotamogitake of the Genus Hypsizygus

The rich flavor of the Shimeji mushroom can be summed up by the Japanese phrase for fra- t ftof* . Shimeji. Howeve, the nan* o e , of best Japanese gourmet mushrooms thai grow on wet groun. . For years me general name Shiineji has been assigned to about 20 mushroom speeres eausmg w.despread confusron amongst amateur and professional mycologists. . chimeii which e n u s y i s first'ibscribed by Rolf Singer and contains two excellent, edible and cho e mushrooms Collected in the wild by Native...

Pacific Coast Teonanacatls Mushrooms of the Gods of the Genus Psilocybe

For millennia, Psilocybes have been used for spiritual and med 'nal purposes. Curanderos Meso-American shamans relied upon them to diagnose illness and to prognosticate the future Through the works of R. Gordon Wasson, Jonathan Ott, Andrew Weil, Terence McKenna and others, these mushrooms became well known to North Americans. In the m d 1970's, a group of de amp i-cated mycophiles from the Pacific Northwest of North America pioneered the outdoor domestication of the temperate, wood-loving...

Primordia Formation

Flammulina Velutipes Mycelium

Initiation Temperature 60-70 F. (16-21 C.) Relative Humidity 95-100 . Duration 12-15 days after casing. C02 500-1000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8 per hour. Light Requirements 500-1000 lux for 8 hours per day. Fruitbody Development Incubation Temperature 65-75 F. (18-24 C.) Relative Humidity 80-90 . Duration 5-7 days C02 500-1000 ppm. Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8 per hour. Lighf Requirements 500-1000 lux for 8 hours per day. Cropping Cycle Two to three flushes, four to ten days apart. Available...

Ssa s bs ass

SenUlfffgecomplex 'varietiesin as.a,e of,ap,dconverge ntf d.vorpniev.lu.,-jtolDNA studies are completed, the taxonomy of this group is unlikely to be further resolved by macroscopic or microscopic analyses. Description Shar g the general shape and appearance of P. ostreatus except the primordia are bright reddish (salmon-egg) pink, becoming nkish as mushrooms develop, eventually a dull pinK to ight pinkish cinnamon colored and often faJing to straw-colored when over-mature. (The color...

Spore Mass Inoculation

Spore Mass Inoculation

By far the simplest way to grow mushrooms is to broadcast spores onto prepared substrates outdoors. First, spores of the desired species must be collected. Spore collection techniques vary, according to the shape, size, and type of the mushroom candidate. For gilled mushrooms, the caps can be severed from the stems, and laid, gills down, on top of clean typing paper, glass, or similar surface. See Figure 15. A glass jar or bowl is placed over the mushroom to lessen the loss of water. After 12...

Frukbody Development

How Morchella Growing

Temperature 70-85 F. (21-30 C.) Relative Humidity 85-90 Duration 5-7 days. C02 2000-5000 ppm Fresh Air Exchanges 4-5 per hour. Light Requirements 500 1000 lux. Cropping Cycle Every two to three weeks for 3-5 flushes. Harvest Hints If mushrooms form through holes in the plastic, harvesting is fast and efficient. Clusters of these ear shaped mushrooms pop off without residual substrate debris. Form of Product Sold to Market Fresh and dried. The greatest volume of this mushroom is sold in dry...

Nutritional Content Not known

Medicinal Properties For centuries, the Chinese and Japanese literature has heralded this mushroom for its health invigorating effects, especially attributing it with increasing longevity, treatment of cancer, resistance and recovery from diseases. Himalayan guides have used this mushroom to combat high altitude sickness. Mayan Indians have traditionally employed this mushroom (or a closely related species) in teas to fight a variety of communicable diseases. Reishi has become the natural...

Incubating the sawdust spa vn bags

Unlike nullified sawdust, most sawdust bags contacting each other during incubation grow out without contamination. The laboratory space can be maximized with sawdust spawn. Figure 128. Sealing the bag of sawdust after inocu lation with grain spawn. atmosphere nearly matching the volume of the sawd st. At least 25 air space should be 1 lotted per spawn bag otherw e anaerobic The open bag is laid horizontally, with its opening overhanging the heating element. Grasping both the left and right...

Feral C u tare Lres yeologieal Landscapes

Natural culture is the cultivation of mushrooms outdoors. After mycological landscapes are constructed and inoculated, the forces of Nature take over. I also call th s Mssez-faire cultivation in other words the mushroom patch is left alone, subject to the wt ims of Nature except for some timely watering. The mushroom habitat is spec'fically designed, paying particular attention to site location and the use of native woods and or garden by-products. Once prepared, the cultivator launches the...

Mushroom Cultivation Room Design

Mushroom Greenhouse Design Structure

Purposesi To recapture as many mushrooms possible whichcan not be realized in controlled environment growing rooms.This building can solve a dilemma constantly confronting the growing room personnel to maximize mushroom yield while not jeopardizing future crops as contaminants become more common as the cycle comes to completion. By the third or fourth flush, yields are in a state of precipitous decline. Rather than discarding this mycelium, additional harvests can be realized, with minimum...

Fruitbody Development

Sclerotium Formation Morchella

Temperature 50-60 F. (10-16 C.) Relative Humidity 85-95 Duration 30-90 days. C02 < 500 ppm or ambient natural Fresh Air Exchanges 4-8+ per hour Light Requirements 500-1000 lux. Cropping Cycle Seasonal, typically occurring in the late summer and early fall. logs buried into beds of hardwood sawdust, around the root zones of beeches, birches, willows or oaks. For indoor cultivation, I have had limited success using hardwood sawdust substrates rendered by other primary saprophytes. Expired...

Build A Paddy Mushroom Grow House In Thailand

Paddy Straw Mushroom Images

Fruitings, although not nearly as well as supplemented, composted rice straw. One study showed that the best supplement for wheat straw is wheat bran 5 and or cotton hulls 10 . See Li et al., 1988 . The pH optimum for fruiting falls between 7.5 - 8.0. Recommended Containers for Fruiting Trays, bags. Outdoor methods use no containers. The substrate is shaped into long rectangular mounds, narrowing at the top. The frames are covered with loose rice straw, cloth or plastic to retain humidity....

Cropping Cycles Mushrooms

Spawn can be placed outdoors for creating natural patches, to encourage Black Morel fruitbody formation. A fine layer 1 inch of moistened vermiculite aids aeration. Since the physical separation of the the nutritional seed layer from the nutritionally poor peat moss is not necessary, this technique is uniquely different than those which have been patented by Ower et alia. The pH optima for fruiting falls between 6. 5-8.0. This is a proposed initiation strategy based on my...

Shroom Culture

Terile tissue culture has revolutionized the biological sciences. For the first time in the history of human evolution, select organisms can be isolated from nature propagated under sterile conoii 'ons in the laboratory, and released back into the environment. Since a competitor-free environment does not exist naturally on this planet , an artificial setting is created the laboratory in which select organisms can be grown in mass. Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 pioneered sterile technique by...

Retrieving the bags rom the autoclave

Bags of sawdust, havingbeen removed directly from the autoclave, cool to room temperature by being placed in the windstream of a laminar flow hood. Once the bags are below 100 F. (38 C.) inoculations can proceed. 3. Opening the bags. The bags are opened by pulling the outside plastic panels outwards from the outside. The inoculator's hands never touch the interior surfaces. If they do, contamination is likely. Once ten bags have been fully opened, the inoculator wipes his hands with isopropanol...

Recommended Courses for the Exponential Expansion of Mycelial Mass to Achieve Fruiting

There are several courses for expanding the mycelium to the fruiting stage. Each step results in an -- Figure 331. Brown spores, although released from tl le underside, tend to collect on the upper cap surfaces of G. lucidum. -- Figure 331. Brown spores, although released from tl le underside, tend to collect on the upper cap surfaces of G. lucidum. exponential expansion of mycelial mass. The simplest method for most cultivators to follow is siinilarto the classic spawn expansion sched ule...

Et mushrooms oneoTchedjawdust

If the leak is due to a puncture, the hole is covered with plastic packaging tape. If the seal is imperfect, the bag is returned to the First Assistant for a second try at heat sealing. Once each bag has been properly sealed and assured of proper labelling, thorough shaking is in order. Using a combination of agitation and rotation, the sawdust spawn is mixed through the supplemented sawdust.The sawdust spawn has a lighter color than the supplemented sawdust and hence it is easy to...

P ickaging and Stoi ing the Crop for Market

Once mushrooms have been harvested, chey must be quickly chilled. Most pickers at mushroom farms place mushrooms directly into open-grate plastic baskets which are frequently ferried to the cold room. The larger farms utilize blast chillers, which precipitously drop the temperature of the mushroom from room temperature to near freezing. A common mistake many growers make is to place their fresh mushroom directly into cardboard boxes after picking. Cardboard boxes insulate the mushrooms after...

Suggested Agar Culture Media Mypa Cmya Dfa orPDYA

Link Trainer Instrument Panel

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media Liquid or grain spawn throughout. Sawdust can be used as the final spawn medium if desired. Substrates for Fruiting Sterilized hardwood sawdust (maple, oak, beech or elm), pasteurized wheat, rice or paddy straw. Recommended Containers for Fruiting Bags, columns, trays or bottles. Yield Potential Biological efficiency rated at 50-75 , higher on sawdust based substrates than on Hardest Hints Mushrooms should be picked before the caps mushrooms can become...

Atmospheric Steam Sterilization

St jim J gt t riIj jJii n pjaj au iii 0 1x1 i 4 L it 8-5 loloo 12L0 ljoo l lOO l l 2o o0 2J00 220 205 130 175 160 145 130 115 V00 85 70 0 1x1 i 4 L it 8-5 loloo 12L0 ljoo l lOO l l 2o o0 2J00 St jim J gt t riIj jJii n pjaj au iii Figure 138. Profile of Atmospheric Steam Sterilization method for sterilizing sawdust-based substrates. Many spawn producers autoclave on one day, allow the vessel to cool overnight, and open the vessel the next morning. Depending on the mass of the autoclaved...

Larry Lonikf Morel Quiche

Gratefully reprinted, with permission of the author, from The Curious Morel Mushroom Hunter's Recipes. Lore & Advice. 1 pound Morels 1 4 bacon (or bacon bits ) 1 2 cup chopped onion 1 2 cup chopped green pepper 1 1 2 cups shredded baby 1 1 2 cups milk 3 4 cup Bisquick 1 4 teaspoon pepper Preheat oven to 400 F. (200 + C.). In a 10 inch lightly greased pie pan mix bacon, mushrooms, onion green pepper and cheese. In medium-sized bowl add milk, Bisquick eggs, salt and pepper. Beat until smooth....

Shiitake or Maitake Clear Soup

2 tblsp. miso 1 2 oz. dried mushrooms 1 1 2 cups mushroom broth (or 1 4 lb- fresh mushroomi) 1 4 - 1 2 cup chopped onions 1 tsP- s y sauce Soak cut or broken mushrooms in 2 cups cold water for 15 minutes. Drain off broth and save. Cover mushrooms with more cold water and soak for another 20 minutes .Add saved mushroom broth back into preparation and boil it for a few minutes. Season soup with soy sauce and miso. Add chopped tofu, onions and or other vegetables. (If needed add 1-2 cups more...

Acl ifevieg Full Colonization on Supplemented Sawdust

Prior to the mycelium densely colonizing the blocks with a thick and tenacious mycelial mat, the supplemented sawdust appears to be grown through with a fine, but not fully articulated, mycelial network. With most species, the once brown sawdust mixture takes on a grayish white appearance. With Shiitake mycelium, this is usually between Days 3-7. During this state, the mycelium has yet to reach its peak penetration through the substrate. Although the substrate has been captured as a geological...

Slanted Wall or A9 Frame Culture

Slanted walls are constructed by stacking bags of inoculated substrate to build sloped faces. An advantage of the slanted wall is that a gher den sity of fill can be achieved within a given growing room space and harvesting is easier. A disadvan tage is that mushrooms are limited to forming on only one plane- the outwardly exposed surf c In comparison, blocks that are spaced apart give rise to fruitings on 5 planes the four sides and the top, a response seen especially with Shiitake and Oyster...

The Growing Room Complex

The growing room complex can house all non-laboratory activities within one building. Each room has different requirements accord ing to function.These recommendations should be used as general guidelines, subject to amendment. Growers in humid tropical requirements face a set of problems uniquely different from growers in cold, temperate climates. Ancillary storage & shop maintenance buildings are not listed. Purpose To grow as many mushrooms as possible Facility Rooms vary in size from 10...

Managing the Growing Rooms Good Habits or the Personnel

Integral to the success of a mushroom farm is the daily management of the growing rooms. The environment within the growing room is constantly in a dynamic state of change. Events can quickly cascade, drastically, and sometimes inalterably, affecting the outcome of the crop. The daily activities of the personnel especially impact the quality of the crop. The head cultivator can perfectly execute his or her duties only to have employees unwittingly sabotage the crop. In many cases, a simple...

Dispose of contamination once a day

Once you have handled contamination, consider yourself contaminated. If removing Trichoderma (green mold) contaminated blocks of Shiitake, that person is then unworthy of any activity where susceptible substrates would be encountered. For many growers, this mandates that contaminated cultures be disposed at the end of the day. If contamination must be dealt with early in the work day, a person non-essential to the production stream should be the designated disposer of contaminated cultures he...

Mcllvainea Journal of Amateur Mycology The Mycophile

North American Mycological Association La Rivista del Fungicoltore Moderno 40016 S. Giorgio di Piano (BO) Postale Grupo 111 70 Bologna, Italy The International Mushroom Society for the Tropics, c o Department of Botany, Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong American Mushroom Institute (215)388-7806 907 East Baltimore Pike Kennett Square, PA. 193587

Grassland Mushrooms

Agaricus campestris Agaricus arvensis Lepiota procera Horse Mushroom Agaricus arvensis The Giant Puffball Calvatia gigantea & allies * Smooth Lepiota Lepiota naucina * The Parasol Mushroom Lepiota procera Fairy Ring Mushroom Marasmius oreades The Button Mushrooms Agaricus brunnescens Agaricus bitorquis ( rodmanii) The Magic Mushrooms Psilocybe cubensis Panaeolus cyanescens ( Copelandia cyanescens) Panaeolus subbalteatus Panaeolus tropicalis (Copelandia tropicalis) Compost Litter Disturbed...

International Mushroom Associations

International Mycological Association CAB International Mycological Institute Ferry Lane, Kew Surrey, TW9 3AF United Kingdom International Society for Mushroom Science 50 St. Flora's Rd. Littlehampton. West Sussex England BN17 6BB United Kingdom Via S. Croce 6 C.P. 396, 38100 Trento, Italy 4715 W. Hen s ley Rd. Hensley, AR. 72065 Whitehouse Nature Center Albion, MI. 49224 Nature Center Gashes Cr Rd Asheviile, N.C. 28805 Pleasant Valley Sanctuary Lenox, MA. 01240 855 Commonwealth Ave Newton...

Site Location of a Mushroom Patch

A suitable site for a mushroom patch is easy to choose. The best clue is to simply take note of where you have seen mushrooms growing during the rainy season. Or just observe where water traverses after a heavy rain. A gentle slope, bordered by shrubs and other shade-giving plants, is usually ideal. Since saprophytic mushrooms are non-competitive to neighboring plants, they pose no danger to them. In fact, plants near a mushroom bed often thrive the result of the increased moisture retention...

Corn Meal Yeast Glucose Agar

1000 milliliters water (1 liter) 20 grams agar agar 10 grams cornmeal 5 grams malt or glucose 1 gram yeast (This medium is known as CMYA and is widely used by mycological laboratories for storing cultures and is not as nutritious as the other above-described formulas.) The pH of the above media formulations, after sterilizing, generally falls between 5.5-6.8. This media can be further fortified with the addition of 3-5 grams of the end-substrate (in most cases hardwood sawdust) upon which...

End Substrate Supplements

Until some familiarity is establi shed, ihe purchase of pre-mixed media from reputable companies is advised. Be forewarned, however, that the media designed for the growth of imperfect fungi, available from large laboratory supply companies, favors the growth of mold contaminants over that of mushroom mycelium. The media for most saprophytes should be adjusted to a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. Most saprophytes acidify substrates, so near neutral even basic, substrates, become more acidic as the mushroom...

Pholiota nameko T Ito S Ito et Tmai n Imai

P. natueko mycelia 5 and 10 days after inoculation onto MEA media Figure 253. P. natueko mycelia 5 and 10 days after inoculation onto MEA media Introduction Pholiota nameko is one of the most popular cultivated mushrooms in Japan, closely ranking behind Shiitake and Enokitake. This mushroom has an excellent, flavor and texture. P. nameko would be well received by North Americans and Europeans if t were not for the thick, translucent, glutinous slime covering the cap. (T lis...

Woodland Mushrooms

Auricularia auricula Auricularia polytricha The Prince Agaricus augustus The Almond Agaricus Agaricus subrufescens The Sylvan Agaricus Agaricus sylvicola Agaricus lilaceps * Black Poplar Agrocybe Agrocybe aegerita The Clustered Woodlovers Hypholoma capnoides Hypholoma sublateritium Psilocybe cyanescens and allies Oyster-like Mushrooms Hypsizygus ulmarius Hypsizygus tessulatus (-H. marmoreus) Pleurotus citrinopileatus ( P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus). Pleurotus cornucopiae Pleurotus...

Vertical Wall Cultere

In the progression of techniques, the Agaricus tray has been modified for growing Oyster mushrooms by turning it vertically so mushrooms could fruit out both faces. Usually these vertical surfaces are screened w'th tight wire or plastic mesh. Perforated plastic positioned between the substrate and the wire mesh allows the formarion and development of mush rooms while retaining moisture. Alternately, a plastic curtain is used to envelope the container until the time of fruiting Racks having a...

Heat Treating the Bulk Substrate

Bulk substrates like straw are generally pasteurized (as opposed to sterilized) and upon cooling, inoculated with grain spawn. Pasteurization selectively kills off populations of temperature-sensitive micro-organisms. The population left intact presents little competition to the mushroom mycelium for approximately two weeks, giving ample opportunity for the mushroom mycelium to colonize. If not colonized within two weeks, the straw naturally contaminates with other fungi, irrespecr''ve of the...

The Detegent Bath Method

This method simply utilizes biodegradable detergents containing fatty oils to treat bulk substrates. Coupled with surfactants which allow thorough penetration, these detergents kill a majority of the contaminants competitive to mushroom mycelium. The substrate is submerged into and washed with a detergent solution. The environmentally benign waste water is discarded, leaving the substrate ready for inoculation Recently, many environmentally safe soaps nave been developed, especially in Europe....

Mushroom Cultivation Seminars Training Centers

Satit Thaithatgoon P.O. Box 1 Bangkok 10162 Thailand Centrum voor Champignonteelt odnerwijs CCO Westerholtstraat 2 Horst L 5640 Holland 507 467-2437 1991 Brightsdale Rd Rte. 2 Box 156 A Lanesboro, MN. 55949 40016 San Giorgio di Piano Bo Italy National Centre for Mushroom Research amp Training Chambaghat, Solan 173213 H. P. India Pennsylvania State University Short Course Agricultural Short Course Office College of Agriculture The Pennsylvania State University 210 Buckhout...

Raw Materials

Most by-products from agriculture and forestry industries can make up a base medium for mushroom culture. This base medium is commonly referred to as thefruiting substrate.This primary material is often supplemented with a carbohydrate- and protein-rich additive to enhance yields. Here is a short list of the materials that can be recycled into mushroom production Wood wastes, paper products Cereal straws amp grain hulls Corncobs Coffee plants amp waste Tea leaves Sugar cane bagasse Banana...

Mycological Resources on Internet

Cornell WWW Virtual Library for Mycologists fungi.html http www.i gc.apc.org i c www.myco.html http www.halycon.com mycomed fppage.html http www.gaia.org farm mushroonL'' mp.html http www.econet.apc.org mushroom welco.html Mycological Society America Inoculum Newsletter .myco inoculum http www.inf. unitn.it mflorian mycopage.html National Agricultural Statistics Service Mushroom Market Trends http www.usda.gov nass Alfalfa hay, very leafy (less than 25 fiber) Alfalfa hay, stemmy (over 34 fiber)...

Suggested Agar Culture Media Mypa Pdya Dfa or OMYA

1st, 2nd and 3rd Generation Spawn Media Hie first two generations of spawn can be gram. The third Substrates for Fruiting Supplemented sawdust. Good wood types are cottonwood, willow, oak, alder bc-ch or tlr The effec .ness of other woods has not yet been established From my experience', stra oes not provid comm. ci ly viable crops unless inoculated up to 25 of its Re, immended Containers Bottles or narrowly opened bags egen ral > .referred so that stem elo i c i be encouraged. Open bag...

Of the Genus Lentinula

Shiitake mushrooms (pronounced (sifee ta'kay) are a traditional delicacy in Japan, Korea and China. For at least a thousand years, Shi take mushrooms have been grown on logs, outdoors, in the temperate mountainous regions of Asia. To this day, Shiitakes figure as the most popular of all the gourmet mushrooms. Only in the past several decades have techniques evolved for its rapid cycle cultivation indoors, on supplemented, heat-treated sawdust-based substrates Cultivation of this mushroom is a...

Jack Czarnecl s Shiitake in Burgundy Butter Sauce

1 2 tsp. ground chili powder 1 tsp. lemon juice 1 4 cup red wine 1 tsp. sugar 1 1 2 tblsp. cornstarch w 1 3 cup water In a skillet, saute the onions in the butter until transparent, then add water. Add the other ingredients, except the mushrooms and cornstarch, and stir for 1 minute. Add the mushrooms, and turn the heat to low. Cover the skillet with a tight-fitting lid, and let simmer for 30 minutes. Thicken the mix ture with the cornstarch-and-water mixture, and serve alone or over rice....

Cruz Stamets Mushroom Saut Supreme

1 2 lb. fresh Shiitake 2 tablespoons pesto 1 2 cup canola oil 1 4 cup olive oil 3 garlic cloves 1 small onion, diced l 8th cup water 2 tblsp. shaved almonds Trim and discard stems of Shiitake, dice upper part of stems into small pieces, and put aside. Discard lower stems. Then tear each Shiitake mushroom into six or more pieces. In medium size skillet using 1 2 cup canola oil, bring heat up to high, then add mushrooms. Cook Shiitake until golden brown on each side. Add pesto and olive oil....

The Hydrated Liine Balii Method

Hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) is extremely alkaline and water soluble. By immersing straw into water baths high in hydrated lime, competitor fungi and bacteria are largely rendered inactive from the drastic change in pH. The preparat > n is quite simple. Two to four lbs. of lime1 s added for every 50 gallons of water. (Since a gallon of water weighs 8.3 lbs. this ratio is equivalent to 2-4 lbs. lime 415 lbs.water or about .5-1.0 ) The pH of the water skyrockets to 9.5 or higher. Once...

Cniz Siamets9 Fresh Shiitake Omelet

1 2 cup cashews lb- fresh Shiitake 1 2 small onion 1 cup grated cheddar cheese 2 garlic cloves 2 tblsp. tamari salt & pepper to taste 2 tblsp. canola oil Mix the eggs and water in a large bowl and beat thoroughly. Saute mushrooms in frying pan with oil until water is cooked-out. Add onions and garlic, cookfor one minute then add cashews In me-lium sized skillet, spray a thin coat of oil or butter, add egg mixture and cover for 1 minute. Add layer of cheese. Poui nixture that includes...

The Paddy Straw Mushroom of the Genes Volvari

Prodigiously fast growing and one of my favorite mushrooms for for the table, this mushroom thrives at warm temperatures (between 75-95 F. or 24-35 C.) and dies when temperatures drop below 45 F. (7 C.). This temperature range limits its cultivation in all but the warmest c'imates or months of the year. In subtropical and tropical Asia, many farmers rely on the cultivation of V. volvacea as a secondary source of income, making use of waste rice straw and cottonseed hulls. This mushroom has...