Marijuana

What Is Drug Addiction

Drug Abuse Marijuana

Drug addiction is a compulsive craving for a drug. It has several components. One component is tolerance a need for ever-increasing quantities of a drug over time to maintain the same effects as when drug use first began. Since the body becomes tolerant to the effects of marijuana, users gradually feel less and less effect and therefore need to take greater amounts to achieve the same high. This phenomenon of tolerance can increase a person's dependence on drugs. Withdrawal symptoms are also an...

Reinforcement The Key Motivator

One of the keys to understanding psychological dependence on marijuana is the concept of reinforcement. This is viewed by many experts as the underlying motivator of drug-taking behavior. Some researchers even believe that psychological dependence, based on reinforcement, is the driving force behind drug addiction. Reinforcement occurs when a teen receives a pleasurable sensation from using marijuana and is then motivated to use marijuana again to achieve the same pleasurable experience. The...

An Introduction To Cannabis Sativa

Differents Types Indian Drugs

The chemical compounds primarily responsible for the psychoactive and medicinal properties of the hemp plant are concentrated in an aromatic, tar-like resin in the flowering tops of the Indian hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). This resin tends to be most potent in the female plants, especially when they are cultivated before the seeds form. (They are also known as sinsemilla, a Spanish word meaning without seed.) It is said that the hemp plant produces the resin as protection from heat in order to...

Psychological Dependence

In looking at patterns of drug use and trying to predict its use, studies show that a person can be psychologically dependent on a drug without being physically dependent on it. For instance, after spending time in jail or in a treatment facility, many drug users often go back to using drugs, despite no longer having physical cravings or withdrawal symptoms. Research shows that physical dependence is all or nothing the drug is either addicting or it is not while psychological dependence...

Preventing Marijuana Use What Works What Doesnt

Many educators, researchers, policymakers, and social scientists believe that prevention of drug abuse is easier than and preferable to treatment for drug abuse. The earlier a possible drug dependency is identified in a marijuana user, the better the chance of correcting it. For example, researchers tell us that by understanding factors that predict teen marijuana use, young children can be identified as being at risk for use of drugs before they would use drugs. They suggest that informing...

Treating Marijuana Dependence

Most experts agree that treatment for marijuana dependence begins with the user's own recognition that he or she is dependent on marijuana and that this dependency is a problem in his or her life. Many successful self-help groups such as Narcotics Anonymous operate from a philosophy that effective drug treatment is entirely dependent on the individual's motivation to change. People who seek treatment assistance under duress or who are otherwise not motivated to take responsibility for their...

Dependence On Marijuana

Since all drugs have particular, self-defining characteristics, experts generally speak of a drug in terms of the user's dependence on it, rather than addiction. Although the two terms are very close in meaning, drug addiction is a special kind of dependence marked by physical changes in the body as a result of tolerance to and withdrawal from a drug. Most research indicates that marijuana does not cause much physical dependence in most users. Therefore, such dependence tends not to be used as...

Cannabinoid Receptors And Brain Functions

CB1 receptors are widely prevalent in the brain and are particularly concentrated in areas known as the basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. By binding or blocking actions of the cannabinoid receptors, THC interrupts normal neuronal communications and so creates the effects that are associated with marijuana usage. Studies now show that the behavioral and physical effects associated with THC and marijuana strongly correlate with the amounts of cannabinoid receptors in...

Marijuana And The Juvenile Justice System

The first juvenile court in the United States was established in Illinois in 1899. The juvenile justice system was founded on the principles of rehabilitation, with a focus on the offender, not the offense. In the 1950s and 1960s, many began to question the ability of the juvenile court to effectively rehabilitate delinquent youth by the 1980s, the pendulum began to swing away from lenient approaches and toward more severe sanctions for juvenile offenders. The 1990s completed this turnabout as...

The Great Debate Legalizing Medical Marijuana

The decriminalization and legalization of marijuana are intricately woven into the medical marijuana movement. Essentially, it is a debate over the value of marijuana's medicinal properties compared with the risks posed by its use. NORML, the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, has been in the forefront of this 30-year controversy since they first petitioned in 1972 to move marijuana to a Schedule II category. NORML and other proponents of medical marijuana maintain that...

Philadelphia

VP, New Product Development Sally Cheney Director of Production Kim Shinners Creative Manager Takeshi Takahashi Manufacturing Manager Diann Grasse Series & Cover Designer Terry Mallon Layout 21st Century Publishing and Communications, Inc. 2003 by Chelsea House Publishers, a subsidiary of Haights Cross Communications. All rights reserved. Printed and bound in the United States of America. http www.chelseahouse.com First Printing 1 3 5 7 9 8 6 4 2 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication...

Endogenous Internally Produced Cannabinoids

Thc Action

There are many examples of naturally-occurring plants that contain drugs that interact with neuronal receptors, including THC, nicotine, morphine, LSD, and cocaine. The effects that result from the use of these drugs, both desirable and undesirable, are determined through their actions at specific receptors. Scientists have long wondered why nature would create receptors in the human body that could be activated by chemicals in plants. Clearly, these receptors did not evolve simply to recognize...

Strange Sort Of Magic

Addiction is a basic human problem whose roots go very deep. Most of us have at some point been wounded, no matter what kind of family we grew up in. We long for a sense of completeness and wholeness, and most often search for satisfaction outside of ourselves. Ironically, whatever satisfaction we gain from drugs, food, money and other 'sources' of pleasure really comes from inside of us. That is, we project our power onto external substances and activities, allowing them to make us feel...

Marijuana And Prohibition

Some experts theorize that pressure from the influential liquor lobby hastened legislation against marijuana in the late 1930s The manufacture and sale of alcohol had been prohibited in 1919 by the adoption of the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Twenty-first Amendment ended Prohibition in 1933, making alcohol legal once more. The 1937 Marihuana Tax Act and subsequent state laws making marijuana illegal were passed to the delight of liquor manufacturers, who saw the growing...

The History of Marijuana

Marijuana is the flowering part of the Indian hemp plant Cannabis sativa, a weed-like species that grows wild and is also cultivated in many tropical and temperate parts of the world. Cannabis means hemp in Latin and is derived from the Greek word kannabis. Marijuana probably comes from the Mexican Spanish marijuana marihuana Mary's leaf or plant or from Maria and Juan Mary and John . Among its many names, marijuana is commonly known as weed, ganja, mary jane, and pot. For thousands of years,...

Routes Of Exposure

How does marijuana affect the body To answer this question, we must ascertain how THC gains access to the body the route of exposure . Routes of exposure may be as important as dose when considering implications to human health, since they strongly influence the body's response to marijuana. The major routes through which marijuana may enter the body are inhalation and ingestion. The greatest effect with the most rapid response is produced when THC is inhaled. This is because smoking bypasses...

Zero Tolerance

The concept of zero tolerance drives much of today's legal and educational policy. The zero tolerance policies teach that using marijuana even once puts the user at risk for dependence and abuse of the drug. Most drug education programs are built around this zero tolerance message. Proponents of this policy stress that the purpose of drug education is to prevent drug experimentation therefore, the topic of drug use is practically forbidden. In addition, as part of this zero tolerance policy,...

Reassurance about the Safety of Marijuana

Experts speak of perceived risk versus perceived benefit when attempting to understand the teenage trends of marijuana use. Most of our everyday decisions are based on a balanced scale of these two ideas. When deciding to do something, we weigh the pros and cons the benefits and risks and then make our decision. It is commonly believed that this risk benefit assessment is a primary factor in determining whether or not a teen will use marijuana. In addition, studies show that information about...

Marijuana A Schedule I Controlled Substance

The mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), a division of the federal government, is to enforce the drug laws of the United States. The DEA is a principal force in reducing the supply, and therefore the availability, of marijuana and other drugs. The DEA was established in 1973 under the U.S. Department of Justice and is responsible for enforcing the guidelines of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. This act provides the legal foundation for today's national marijuana policy....

Teens At Risk Of Marijuana Dependency

Because individual motivations to use drugs can vary greatly, it can be difficult to know which teens will experiment with marijuana and then stop and which teens will develop a dependency on marijuana. Although any adolescent can develop a marijuana dependency, some are at higher risk than others. Some of those high-risk individuals may have one or more of the characteristics as follows Family conflict and discord Adolescents whose parents are often in conflict, frequently absent, or...

The Physical And Psychological Effects Of Marijuana

Forgetfulness. Hunger. Pain relief. Creative thinking. Panic attacks. Racing heart. Mouth dryness. Bloodshot eyes. Paranoia. Relaxation. Tiredness. Sensory awareness. Poor coordination. Uncontrollable laughter. The short-term effects of marijuana are extremely variable, unpredictable, and temporary. Just as each person looks different, each person's biochemistry is different. Two people can respond differently to the same dose of the same drug, and an individual...

Marijuanas Legal History

For most of American history, the cannabis plant has been used for medicinal and industrial purposes and was not well known for its psychoactive properties. However, in the twentieth century, marijuana began to be used more for its euphoric than for its medicinal effects. Although much mystery surrounds the debut of marijuana as a means of getting high, it is generally assumed that smoking marijuana (in cigarette form) began in the early part of the twentieth century as groups of Mexican...

The Respiratory System

The scientific community seems to agree that damage to the lungs is the main physiological risk from marijuana because smoking is the preferred method of getting high from marijuana. This may be because the effects from marijuana are almost instantaneous when inhaled. In other words, THC bypasses the digestive system and goes directly from the lungs into the bloodstream. Indeed, after an extensive scientific investigation, experts at the Institute of Medicine found that the health effects from...

How Are Teenage Trends And Attitudes Measured

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) tracks the nation's substance abuse patterns through three major surveys The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), the Monitoring the Future (MTF) Survey, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Statistical information from these surveys helps the United States identify potential drug abuse problem areas in order to set national drug policy and devote financial resources that target areas of greatest need. Data from these...

Is Marijuana A Gateway To Harder Drugs

Many experts believe that marijuana use can lead to the use of harder drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and LSD. However, no conclusive evidence supports this direct cause-and-effect relationship. Studies in several countries, including the United States, indicate that most marijuana users never progress to other drugs. Teenagers who do go on to use other illegal drugs typically use tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana first. In fact, it has been shown that most teens use tobacco cigarettes and alcohol...

Physical Dependence

Studies show that most marijuana users, even heavy users, can reduce or stop marijuana use with little or no physical withdrawal effects. Some extreme marijuana users do report physical withdrawal symptoms when they quit using the drug, including irritability, headaches, nervousness, and insomnia. However, these symptoms are temporary, diminishing within a few days to a few weeks, depending on the individual, and are usually portrayed as mild. Studies show that marijuana does not produce the...

The Health Effects of Marijuana

Acute effects of THC can be severe but are usually short-lived and temporary. Current literature documents THC's temporary effect on health, suggesting that once the use of marijuana ceases, a rapid recovery from the drug's effects typically occurs. However, equating temporary with benign (harmless) would be misleading because some of marijuana's so-called temporary effects can last a lifetime. For example, studies have shown that driving while high can increase the possibility of a motor...

Marijuana Mental Illness And Psychological Problems

Many researchers have studied the relationship between marijuana and mental illness. Early twentieth century proponents of marijuana prohibition in the United States often cited studies showing a link between marijuana and insanity and referred to reports of large numbers of institutionalized mental patients in India and Egypt who had used marijuana. However, since the 1970s, researchers have effectively refuted the claims of a direct link between marijuana use and mental illness. Although...

Can Marijuana Cause Mental Illness

A frequently cited study of 50,000 male Swedish military conscripts (draftees) supported the claim that marijuana causes mental illness. Originally, researchers observed a connection between the use of cannabis by age 18 and a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life. It was suggested that men who had used marijuana 50 or more times by the age of 18 were more likely to be diagnosed as schizophrenic than those who had used marijuana less than 50 but more than 10 times. However, the...

Trends In Marijuana

When analyzing trends in adolescent use of marijuana, researchers usually discuss the national average trends. They do point out, however, that on narrower, individual levels, there are many subgroup differences based on gender, race ethnicity, region of the country, college plans, socioeconomic level, and whether the teen lives in an urban or rural area. For this discussion, we rely on the national average trends specific differences of these subgroups are reported elsewhere. It is also...

Motivations to Use Marijuana

There are many reasons why teenagers enjoy getting high. Survey data over the years indicate that a majority of teens use marijuana to feel good, experiment, have a good time with friends, explore the inner self, and relax or relieve tension. According to these data, much of the motivation is celebratory in nature, and many teens use marijuana in social settings such as parties. Others use marijuana out of a sense of curiosity or adventure, the desire to fit in with a group of friends, or...