Water

Clean rainwater is the best for irrigation. To make sure it is not too acidic {acid rain) and harmful to plants, take the pH and parts per million (ppm) reading from collected rainwater before using.

Sodium-heavy water builds up in the soil causing slow growth and shorter plants with smaller leaves. At low levels, sodium appears to benefit plants and may even make up for potassium deficiency, but too much leads to "sodium stress." Roots lose the ability to absorb water and other nutrients and will dry out even with heavy watering. It is very important to test your water for sodium and other dissolved solids and take appropriate action if the reading reaches more than 50 ppm. Sodium is more of a problem when growing in containers than when growing in well-drained soil.

See Chapter Eleven for more information on sodium and water quality.

Local farmers or the Department of Agriculture have information about water solids in your area, and many areas have low-cost, state-certified labs that can test your water for you.

Often, if the sodium content is below 300

Thick Black Thc Substance
Planting in a thick layer of mulch is a good way to conserve moisture.

Water small plants by hand until they are established

Drip irrigation is a very efficient way to irrigate.

ppm, a good flushing every month will keep sodium and other salts from building up to toxic levels.

There are several easy, inexpensive options to improve water quality.

Irrigate seedlings, clones, and mother plants with rainwater (or 50 percent rainwater with tap water) to dilute dissolved solids.

Flush container gardens with three quarts (3 L) of water for each dry quart (liter) of soil.

Water once with lap water and always afterwards with tap water augmented with ammonium sulfate.

Clean tap water by filling barrels and setting 23 feet (60-90 cm) off the ground. Add ammonium sulfate to settle out the sodium, then siphon water from the top of the barrel, refilling afler each watering to allow the chlorine to evaporate. Chlorine, like sodium, is beneficial in small amounts. It is essential to the use of oxygen during photosynthesis and is necessary for root and leaf cell division. But too much chlorine causes leaf tips and margins to burn and leaves to turn a bronze color,

Empty the barrel periodically, and scrub out

Drip irrigation is a very efficient way to irrigate.

Water small plants by hand until they are established

Make a reservoir by digging a hole and lining it with heavy-duty plastic. Always cover it to limit evaporation and animal access.
Siphon water yon haul in to a receptacle located downhill Always plan trips carefully and avoid problems.

residues and sediments. Clean rainwater is an excellent choice for irrigation. Collect runoff by placing a barrel under a downspout. Mix the rainwater with barrels of tap water to dilute the dissolved solids. Roofs and terraces can accu mulate trash, which will pollute the otherwise clean rainwater. Covering your catch-barrel will prevent evaporation and keep out trash.

Sodium, calcium, and magnesium can be harmful in the soil, too. Excess calcium, for

Blackberries

Planting inside a patch of blackberries or other sticker bushes will deter many curious hikers and other animais.

Tank

The High Lifter is

Net Lift

Total

remarkably efficient and one of the best options (or guerilla growers.

Net Lift

Total

Below: A ram pump is one of the original low-tech methods to lift water with the force of gravity.

Above: The Grobot is an outstanding invent ion I This battery-powered pump delivers water to three plants quietly and efficiently.

Right: Drill powered pump that uses a rechargeable battery. Attach a pump to the end of the drill. Remove cord and make battery powered,

Below: A ram pump is one of the original low-tech methods to lift water with the force of gravity.

example, keeps the pH level too high and blocks uptake of several nutrients including iron and potassium. Fertilizer with chelated iron will counteract this problem. Too much magnesium creates rapid uptake of trace elements but does not usually cause a problem.

The fertilizer comes in liquid or wettable crystal form and can also be used in soil to alleviate problems caused by bad water. Several commercial hydroponic fertilizer formulations for "hard water" are available and work very well,

Check the garden daily, if possible, and water when soil is dry one inch (3 cm) below the surface. Irrigate containers until 10-20 percent of the water comes through the drainage holes. Irrigate plants in the ground until they are completely wet.

Many different types of receptacles and reservoirs can store irrigation water. Use the biggest storage unit that you can manage; you will always need water. One good option lor storing a lot of water is to dig a nice big hole and line it with a pond liner. For all kinds of water storage devices, see www.realgoods.com.

Pumps

Pumps move water long distances and uphill. Pumps can be operated by hand, batteries, gasoline, gravity, and with pressure from moving water.

Gasoline-powered pumps are reliable and can lift much water uphill quickly, but they are noisy. You can purchase a pump already attached to the motor or connect them yourself and mount them on a board. Check your local Yellow Pages for a good supplier.

Noise is a major factor in starting up a small gasoline-powered engine in the middle of a quiet mountainous area. An oversized mulfler and small baffle will deaden most of the exhaust sound.

Set up the pump so that the intake will be able to gather water easily. Make a small dam only if it is discreet.

A ram pump pumps water from a source of flowing water above the pump. The force of

A gasoline-powered pump moves nuich water uphill, hut they ore noisy!
End Around Baffling Water
liuikl a baffle around gasoline-powered motors to

muffle noise.

gravity is all the power needed. Ram pumps are rugged and dependable, but noisy, www.ram-pumps.com.

The High Lifter Water Pump is water-powered and will work with a low flow of water. The unique design uses hydraulic pressure and is self-starting and self-regulating. If inlet water stops, so does the pump; the pump starts by itself as soon as water flow begins, www.realgo-nds.com.

Manual-powered pumps require a lot of physical energy to operate and are impractical for moving a large volume of water uphill.

Solar energy is an outstanding way to move water. On a sunny day a 75-watt solar panel supplies enough power to a pump to move 75 gallons (285 L) of water 35 feet (10.5 m) uphill

Cold-affected plants develop lew calyxes but still frost with resin.

and more than 400 feet (120 m) away to a reservoir, www.otherpower.com.

Siphoning water downhill will move a lot of water. Finding a water source above the garden is the key!

Lightweight hose will not disturb foliage. If you can find it in black, it will be more difficult to spot. Most garden hose is a bright green color!

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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