Recipes and Controls Chart


Alcohol: Use isopropyl (rubbing). Add to sprays to dry out pests.

Bleach: Use a 5 percent solution as a genera! disinfectant.

Cinnamon: Dilute cinnamon oil with water. Use just a few drops per pint as pesticide. Citrus: Cilrus oils make great ingredients that kill insects dead.

Garlic: Use a garlic press to squeeze garlic juice into mix. Use liberal amounts. Horseradish: Stinky stuff! Add as you would garlic. Best to use fresh root. Hot pepper: Dilute Tabasco'»» or any store-bought concentrate in water, Hydrated lime: Saturate in water to form a fungicide,

Mint: Mint oil drives insects away. Dilute in water, measure several drops per pint. Oil, vegetable is comprised mainly of fatty acids and glycerides. Mix with rubbing alcohol to emulsify in water. Great stulf! Oregano: Grind up fresh herb and use as a repellent. Mix with water. Soap: 1 like Ivory»: or CastiHe*» soap. Use as an insecticide and wetting agent, Mix with water. Tobacco: Mix tobacco with hot water to extract the poisonous alkaloid. Do not boll. Dilute concentrate with water.

Recipe 1. Mix three tablespoons (4.5 cl) each ol isopropyl alcohol, lemon juice, garlic juice, horseradish juice, Ivory liquid, and a few drops of Tabasco!®, mint, and cinnamon oil. Mix all ol the ingredients in a small bowl Into a slurry. Dilute the slurry at the rate of one teaspoon (0.5 cl per 47 cl) per pint of water and mix in a blender. Potent mix!

Recipe 2. Place one teaspoon (0.5 cl) of hot pepper or Tabasco1«) sauce and four cloves of garlic in a blender with a pint of water and liquefy, then strain through a nylon stocking or cheesecloth before using in the sprayer.

Recipe 3. A mix ol one-eighth to one-quarter cup (3-6 cl) of hydrated lime combined with a quart (0.9 L) of water makes an effective insect


Cooking or heating preparations can destroy active ingredients, To draw out (extract) ingredients, mince plant and soak in mineral oil for a couple of days. Add this oil to the water including a little detergent or soap to emulsify the oil droplets in water. Biodegradable detergents and soaps are good wetting-sticking agents for these preparations, Soap dissolves best if a teaspoon (0,75 cl) ol alcohol is also added to cach quart (0.9 L) of mix.

Chrysanthemum, marigold, and nasturtium blossoms; pennyroyal; garlic; chive; onion; hot pepper; insect juice (target insects mixed in a blender); horseradish; mint; orégano; tomato; and tobacco residues all will repel many insects including aphids, caterpillars, mites, and white-flies.

Spray made Irom pests ground up in a blender and emulsified in water will reputedly repel related pests. Best used on large pests! The insecticidal qualities in the dead bug parts will degrade quickly if combined with other things; do not include insects mixed in a blender with other ingredients besides water. Mixes that include tobacco may kill these pests il it is strong enough. These mixes can vary in proportions, but always filter the blended slurry before mixing with water for the final spray. Straining avoids clogging spray nozzles and plumbing.

and mite spray. Mix a non-detergent soap witli lime. The soap acts as both a sticking agent and insecticide. Lime can be phytotoxic to plants in large doses. Always try the spray on a test plant and wait a few ckiys to check for adverse effects to the plant before applying to similar plants.

Recipe 4. Liquid laundry bleach-sodium hypochlorite-is a good fungicide for non-plant surfaces. Mix as a five or ten percent solution. It is an eye and skin irritant, so wear gloves and goggles when using it. Mix I part bleach to 9 parts water for a 5 percent solution. Mix one part to four parts water for a 10 percent solution. Use this solution as a general disinfectant for grow room equipment, tools, and plant wounds. The bleach solution breaks down rapidly and has little, if any, residual effect.

a spray, neem becomes a contact spray and an antileedant when eaten by pests. Performs best in rooms with 60 percent plus humidity.

Persistence: Contact neem stays 011 foliage for up to a month or until it is washed off. Slays in plant system up to a month when absorbed via roots-

Forms: Emulsifiable concentrate.

Toxicity: Not toxic to honeybees, fish, and earthworms. Not toxic lo beneficial insects in normal concentrations that kill target insects.

Safety: Irritates eyes; wear a mask and gloves.

Neem Oil

Ingredients: Purified extract from neem seeds. Buy only cold-pressed oil that is stronger f/nSfe//i Oil and contains all the natural ingredients. Do not use heat-processed neem oil. Cold-pressed oil also contains azadirachtin, the active ingredient in neem. Brand names include Neemguard'tt-, Triad«', and Einstein Oil n-. NOTE; Einstein Oil works the best of all brands tested.

Controls: Effective against spider mites, fungus gnats, and aphids.


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Neem Oil


Ncvm Oil

It is also a fungistat against powdery mildew and rust.

Caution: Neem oil is very effective againsl spider mites.

Mixing: Mix just before using in water with a pH below 7 and use a spreader-sticker. Agitate constantly while using to keep emulsified. Throw out excess.

Application: Spray on loliage, especially under leaves, where mites live. Apply every few days so hatching larvae will eat it immediately. Spray heavily so mites have little choice but to eat it. Avoid spraying the last few days before harvest. Some growers report a foul taste when applied just before harvest.

Persistence: Contact neem stays on foliage for up to a month or until it is washed off. Slays in plant system up to a month when absorbed via roots.

Forms: Emulsifiable concentrate.

Toxicity: Toxicity to beneficial insects has been reported. Not toxic to humans,

Safety: Irritates eyes, wear a mask and gloves.

Neem products have numerous other applications. For more information check oul the Neem Foundation, http://www.neemfoundfltion.orB, and the Neem Association,, and, or the hook, Neem: India's Miraculous Healing Plant, by Ellen Norten, ISBN: 0-89281-837-9.

Nicotine and Tobacco Sprays

Ingredients: Nicotine is a non-persistent pesticide derived from tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. It is a stomach poison, contact poison, and respiratory poison. This very poisonous compound affects tiie neuromuscular system, causing pesls to go into convulsions and die. Nicotine sulfate is the most common form.

Caution: Do not swallow any of this vile poison, and avoid skin contact. Do not use around nightshade famiiy-eggplants, tomatoes, peppers and potatoes-because they may contract Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) from exposure to tobacco-bflsed substances.

Controls: Sucking and chewing insects. Mixing: Use a spreader-sticker.

Application: Seldom phytotoxic when used as directed. Combine with insecticidal soap lo increase killing ability.

Persistence: One week to ten days.

Forms: Liquid.

Toxicity: Although naturally derived, nicotine is very toxic to most insects (including beneficiáis), honeybees, fish, and humans. II concentrate is ingested or built up over years, humans may develop lung cancer and other cancers.

Safety: Wear a mask and gloves; avoid skin and eye contact.

Oil, horticultural

Ingredients: Often underrated and overlooked as an insecticide and miticide, horticultural oil is very popular in greenhouses and is regaining popularity among indoor growers, Similar to medicinal mineral oil, horticultural oils are made

Irom animal (fish) oils, plant seed oils, and petroleum oils refined by removing most of the portion that is toxic to plants. Lighter weight oil (viscosity 60-70) is less phytotoxic. Vegetable oil is also horticultural oil.

Controls: Virtually invisible, horticultural oil kills slow moving and immobile sucking insects, spider mites and their eggs by smothering, as well as generally impairing their life cycle.

Caution: Do not use lubricating oils such as 3-in-1 or motor oil!

Mixing: Mix Vi teaspoon (0.75 cl) of oil spray-no more than a one percent solution-per quart (0.9 L) of water. More than a few drops could burn tender, growing shoots.

Application: Spray foliage entirely, including under the suface of the leaves. Apply oil sprays up until two weeks before harvest. Repeat applications as needed. Usually three applications, one every five to ten days, will put insects and mites in check. Lightweight-oil residue evaporates into the air in a short time.

Persistence: Disappears in one to three days, under normal growing conditions.

Forms: Liquid

Toxicity: Safe, non-poisonous, and non-polluting insecticide. Can become phytotoxic if too heavy (viscosity), if applied too heavily, or when temperatures are below 700F (21°C), or very humid; this slows evaporation, increasing phyto-toxicity.

Safety: Wear a mask and gloves.

Oil, vegetable

Ingredients: Fatty acids and glycerides.

Controls: Lightweight vegetable oil kills slow-moving and immobile sucking insects, spider mites, and their eggs by smothering as well as generally Interrupting their life cycles.

Caution: Vegetable oil does not kill as well as horticultural oil.

Mixing: Mix two drops of oil spray-no more than a one pcrcent solution-per quart of water.

Application: Spray foliage entirely, including under suface of leaves. Stop spraying two weeks before harvest.

Persistence: Several days.

Forms: Liquid.

Toxicity: Not toxic to mammals or fish.

Safety: Wear a mask and gloves.


Ingredients: Pyrethrum, the best-known botanical pesticide, is extracted from the flowers of the pyrethrum chrysanthemum, Chrysanthemum cocdnetim and C. cinerariifoHu. Pyrelhrins-pyrethrins, cinerins, and jas-molins-are the active ingredients in natural pyrethrum and kills insects on contact. Pyrethrum is often combined with rotenone or ryania to ensure effectiveness. Aerosol forms contain synergists. (See "Application" below.)

Controls: A broad-spectrum contact pesticide, pyrethrum kills aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, and insects including beneficiáis. It is very effective to control flying insects, but they must receive a killing knockdown dose, or they may revive and buzz off.

Caution: Do not mix with sulfur, lime, copper, or soaps. The high pl l of these substances render it ineffective, Wash these substances off foliage with plain water (pH below 7) before applying pyrethrum.

Mixing: Mix in water with a pH below 7 and use a spreader-sticker.

Application: Spot spray infested plants. Aerosol sprays are most effective especially on spider mites. This can burn foliage-spray is ice-cold when it exits the nozzle-if applied closer than one foot. Aerosol sprays contains a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PI30) or MGK 260. Both are toxic to people. Pyrethrum dissipates within a few hours in the presence of air, HID light, and sunlight. Overcome this limitation by applying just before turning off the lights, the circulation, and vent fans for the night One manufacturer, Whidmeren, offers encapsulated pyrethrum in aerosol form called Exclude««1. As the spray fogs out of the nozzle, a bubble forms around each droplet of pyrethrum mist. The outside coating keeps the pyrethrum intact and extends its life for several days. When a pest prances by touching the bubble, it bursts, releasing the pyrethrum. Liquid and wettable pyrethrum applied with a pump-type sprayer is difficult to apply under leaves where spider mites live.

Persistence: Elfective several hours after application when the lighls are on, longer when applied after lights-out and the Ian is turned off.


Forms: Wettable powder, dust, liquid, granular bait, and aerosol.

Toxicity: Not toxic to animals and humans when eaten, but becomes toxic to people when inhaled, It is toxic to fish and beneficiáis.

Safety: Wear a mask and protective clothing when applying sprays or breathing in any form of pyrethrum, especially aerosols. Aerosols contain toxic PBO and MOK 464-possible carcinogens -which are easily inhaled.

Synthetic Pyrethroids

Ingredients: Synthetic pyrethroids such as per-methrin and cypcrmethrin act as broad-spectrum, non-selective contact insecticides and miticides. There arc more than 30 synthetic pyrethroids available in different formulations. Deltamethrin is available as a sticky paint that is used as a trap when applied to stems and colored objects. Other pyrethroids include Allethrin, cyflutrin, len-propathin, phenothrin, sumithrin, resmitherin, and tefluthrin.

Controls: Aphlds, whiteflies, thrips, beetles, cockroaches, caterpillars, and spider mites. NOTE: Many insects and mites are resistant to pyrethroids.

Caution: Non-selective pyrethroids kill all insects and mites including beneficiáis and bees,

Mixing: Follow directions on container.

Application: Follow directions on container. (See "Application" under "Pyrethrum" above.)

Persistence: Breaks down in one to three days. Newer pyrethroids, such as Permethrin, stay active the longest.

Forms: Powder, liquid, aerosol.

Toxicity: Toxic to all insects. It is somewhat toxic to mammals.

Safety: Wear a mask and protective clothing when applying sprays or breathing in any form of pyrethrum, especially aerosols. Aerosols contain toxic PBO and MGK 464-possible carcinogens-which are easily inhaled.


Ingredients: Quassia is made from a subtropical South American tree, Quassia amara, and the tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima.

Controls: Soft-bodied insects including aphids, leafminers, and some caterpillars.

Mixing: Available in the form of bark, wood chips, and shavings. Soak 6 ounces (18 cl) of chips per gallon (0.9 L) of water for 24 hours.

Afterward, boil for two hours. Add a potassium-based soap to increase effectiveness. Strain and cool before spraying.

Application: Spray on foliage until saturated.

Persistence: Two to five days on the surface of plants.

Forms: Bark, wood chips, and shavings.

Toxicity: Safe for mammals and (possibly) beneficiáis.

Safety: Wear a mask and gloves.


Ingredients: Rotenone is an extract ol roots of several plants including Derris species, Lonchocarpus species, and Tephrosia species. This poison is a non-selective contact insecticide, stomach poison, and slow-acting nerve poison.

Controls: Non-selective control of beetles, caterpillars, flies, mosquitos, thrips, weevils, and beneficial insects, but death is slow. According to Hemp Diseases and Pests, target insects can consume up to 30 times their lethal dose before dying!

Caution: Kills beneficiáis. New evidence indicates rotenone may he toxic to people and may cause Parkinson's disease. Use only as a last resort!

Mixing: Follow directions on the package.

Application: Follow directions on the package.

Persistence: Breaks down in three to ten days.

Forms: Powder, wettable powder, liquid.

Toxicity: The cflecl on mammals is undetermined. Chronic exposure may cause Parkinson's. It is toxic to birds, fish, and beneficiáis,

Safety: Wear a mask and gloves; cover exposed skin and hair. Avoid skin contact.


Ingredients: This contact-alkaloid stomach poison is made from stems and roots of the tropical shrub, Ryania speciosa,

Controls: Toxic to aphids, thrips, European corn borers, hemp borers, Ilea beetles, leaf rollers, and many caterpillars. Once pests consume ryania, they stop feeding immediately and die within 24 hours.

Caution: Somewhat toxic to beneficiáis and mammals!

Mixing: Follow directions on package.

Application: Follow directions on package. Apply as dust.

Persistence: Two weeks or longer.

Forms: Powder, wettable powder.

Toxicity: Toxic to mammals, birds, fish, and beneficiáis.

Safety: Wear a mask, gloves, and safety glasses, and cover exposed skin and hair. Avoid skin contact.


Ingredients: This alkaloid pesticide is made from the seeds of a tropical lily, Schoenocaulon officinale, native to Central and South America, and a European hellebore, Veratrum album.

Controls: A contact and stomach poison, this centuries-old poison controls aphids, beetles, cabbage loopers, chinch bugs, grasshoppers, and squash bugs,

Caution: Very toxic to honeybees and moderately toxic to mammals!

Mixing: Follow directions on package.

Application: Most potent when applied at 75-80°F. Follow directions on package.

Persistence: Two or three days.

Forms: Powder, liquid.

Toxicity: Somewhat toxic to mammals, toxic to honeybees.

Safety: Wear a mask, gloves, and safety glasses, and cover exposed skin and hair. Avoid skin, eye, ear, and nose contact. Irritates eyes and nose.


Ingredients: Numerous elements including nutrients, bacteria, and hormones.

Controls: Suspended particles in seaweed impair, and even kill, insects and spider mites by causing lesions. The particles cut and penetrate the soft-bodied pest insects and mites causing their body fluids to leak out,

Mixing: Dilute as per instructions for soil application.

Application: Spray on loliage, especially under leaves where mites live.

Persistence: Up to two weeks when spreader-sticker is used.

Forms: Powder and liquid.

Toxicity: Not toxic to mammals, birds, and fish. Non-selective, kills beneficiáis.

Safety: Wear a mask and gloves.

Soap, insecticida)

Ingredients: Mild contact insecticides made


Insecticida! Soap


Insecticida! Soap from fatty acids of animals and plants. A variety of soaps are available in potassium-salt based liquid concentrates. Soft sotips such as Ivory liquid dish soap, Castille soap, and Murphy's Oil soap are biodegradable and kill insects in a similar manner to commercial insecticidal soaps, but they are not as potent or effective.

Controls: Controls soft-bodied insects such as aphids and mealy bugs, spider miles, thrips, and whitellies by penetrating and clogging body membranes.

Caution: Do not use detergent soaps because they may be caustic.

Mixing: Add a few capfuls ol soap to a quart of water to make a spray. Ivory or Castille soap can also be used as a spreader-sticker to mix with other sprays. The soaps help the spray stick lo the foliage better.

Application: Spray at the first appearance of insect pests. Follow directions on commercial preparations. Spray homemade mixes every four to five days.

Persistence: Soft soaps will last only for about a day before dissipating.

Forms: Liquid.

Toxicity: These soaps are safe for bees, animals, and humans.

Safety: Wear a mask and gloves.


Ingredients: Sulfur. Mixed with lime, sulfur is more toxic to insects but more phylotoxic lo plants.

Controls: Centuries-old fungicide is effective against rusts and powdery mildew.

Caution: Do not apply in temperatures above 90°F (32°C) and less than 50 percent humidity. It will bum foliage.

Mixing: Follow directions on package.

Application: Apply in light concentration. It is phytotoxic during hot, 90DF, arid weather.

Persistence: It stays on foliage until washed off.

Forms: Powder.

Toxicity: Not toxic to honeybees, birds, and fish.

Sulfur Fungicide


Safety: Wear a mask, gloves, and safely goggles; cover exposed skin and hair. Avoid skin, eye, ear, and nose contact Irritates eyes, lungs, and skin.



Ingredients: Sticky traps, such as Tanglefoot"11 resins, can be smeared on attractive yellow or red cards to simulate ripe fruit. When the pests land on the fruit, they are stuck lor-ever!

Controls: Helps contain spider Tanglefoot niites and non-flying insects within the bounds of the barriers. Monitors fungus gnat populations and helps control thrips. Other insects get stuck haphazardly to the sticky stuff.

Black-light traps catch egg-laying moths and other flying insects most of which are not plant [jests. Light and Ian traps attract many insects including beneficiáis, and their use may do more harm than good.

Sex-lure traps exude specific insect pheromones, sexual scents, of females that are ready to mate. These traps are most effective to monitor insect populations for large farms

Caution: Do not touch sticky substance. It is difficult to remove!

Mixing: Follow directions on container. Smear on desired objects.

Application: Smear Tanglefoot™ around the edges of pots, base of stems, and at the end of drying lines to form an impenetrable barrier-trap against mites and insects. This simple precaution helps keep mites isolated. However, resourceful spider mites can spin a web above the barrier. The marauding mites also ride the air currents created by fans from plant to plant!

Persistence: It is persistent until it is wiped off or completely fouled with insect bodies.

Forms: Sticky, thick paint.

Toxicity: Not toxic to mammals or insects. Trapped insects and mites starve Id death.

Safety: Wear gloves.


Ingredients: A cold jet of water-preferably with a pH between 6 and 7—blasts insects, spider mites, and their eggs olf leaves and often kills them, Hot water vapor and steam also work as a sterilant.

Controls: A cold jet of water is an excellent first wave of attack against spider mites, aphids, and other sucking insccts. Steam controls spicier mites, insects, and diseases on pots, growing medium, and other grow-room surfaces.

Caution: Avoid spraying fully formed buds with water. Standing water in or on buds promotes gray moid. Do not apply hot steam to foliage.

Mixing: None.

Application: Spray leaf undersides with a jet of cold water to knock off sucking spider mites and aphtds. Apply water as a mist or spray when predatory mites are present. The extra humid conditions impair the pest mite lifecycles and promote predatory mile health. Rent a wallpaper steamer. Get it cooking, and direct a jet of steam at all grow-room cracks and surfaces.

Persistence: None.

Forms: Liquid, steam vapor.

Toxicity: Not toxic to mammals, fish, and bene-ficials.

Safety: Do not spray strong jet of water in eyes, up nose, or into other body orifices.

Biological Controls

Predators and Parasites

Predator and parasite availability and supply have changed substantially over the last 10 years. Today, many more predators and parasites are available to home growers than ever before, Shipping, care, cost, and application of each predator or parasite is very specific and should be provided in detail by the supplier. Make sure the supplier answers the following questions:

1) Latin name of the predator so there is no confusion as to identity.

2) Specific pests attacked,

3) Life cycle.

4) Preferred climate including temperature and humidity range,

5) Application rate and mode of application,

For more information about predators check out the following web pages: www.natu www.koppert.n l/english

By definition, a predator must eat more than one victim before adulthood. Predators, such as ladybugs (ladybird beetles) and praying mantises, have chewing mouthparts. Other predators, such as lacewing larvae, have piercing-sucking mouth-


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Spiders are predatory and eat other insects. If yoa

see a spider in

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Spider Webs Outdoor Marijuana

Young spider mites, adults, and eggs arc visible in this photo.

parts. Chewing predators eat their prey whole. The piercing, sucking-type, suck the fluids from their prey's body.

Parasites consume a single Individual host before adulthood. Adult parasitoids typically place a single egg into many hosts. The egg hatches into larvae that eat the host insect from the inside out. They save the vital organs for dessert! Most often, the larvae pupate inside the host's body and emerge as adults.

Parasites, unlike predators, hunt until the prey is almost eliminated. Predators choose to be surrounded by prey. When prey population starts to diminish a little, predators move on to find a nice, fat infestation. They never truly eradicate the pests. This is why predators work best for preventative control, but are slow to stop an infestation.

The rate at which the predators and parasites keep the infestation in check is directly proportionate to the amount of predators. The more predators and parasites, the sooner they will get infestations into check. Predators and parasites outbreed their victims, reproducing laster than pests are able to keep up with.

One of the best places in the country to buy predatory and parásito id insects is from Nature's Control, Medford, Oregon, Check out their very informative web site at www. naturescontrol,corn. This supplier gives advice and supplies specific care and release instructions. Nature's Control has a good predator and parasite supply and can ship year round. Predators and parasites are shipped special delivery and may arrive after the daily-mail delivery. Make sure to pick them up as soon as they arrive. Do not let predators sit inside a mailbox in the hot sun. It could easily reach 120°F (19°C) or more!

When predators and parasites are introduced into a garden, special precautions must be taken to ensure their well-being, Stop spraying all-toxic chemicals at least two weeks before introducing the predators. Pyretliruin and insecticida! soaps can be applied up to a few days belore, providing any residue is washed off with fresh water. Do not spray after releasing predators and parasites.

Predators and parasites survive best in gardens that are not sterilized between crops. Gardens with perpetual harvests are ideal for predators.

Most ot the predators and parasites that do well in an indoor HID garden cannot fly. Insects that can fly often head straight for the lamp. Ladybugs are the best example. If 500 ladybugs are released on Monday, by Friday, only a few die-


hards will be left. The rest will have popped off the lamp. If using flying predators or parasitoids, release when it is dark. They will live longer.

Predators are most often very small and must be introduced to each plant separately. Introducing predators to a garden and plants takes a little time and patience. Predators also have very specific climatic requirements. Pay attention to the predators' needs and maintain them for best results.

Spider Mites and Insects

Here is one of the best web sites I have found that describes insects. They have excellent photos of all pests and predators that attack marijuana:

littp://vegipm,, html

Spider Mites

Identify: The spider mite is the most common pest found on indoor plants and causes the most problems. Spider mites have eight legs and are classified as spiders rather than insects, which have six legs. Find microscopic spider mites on leaf undersides sucking away life-giving fluids. To an untrained naked eye, they are hard to spot. Spider mites appear as tiny specks on leaf undersides; however, their telltale signs of feeding-yellowish-white spots, stippling-on the tops ol leaves are easy to see. Careful inspection reveals tiny spider webs-easily seen when misted with water-on stems and under leaves as infestations progress. A magnifying glass or low-power microscope (10-30X) helps to identify the yellow-white, two-spotted brown or red mites and their translucent eggs. Indoors, the most common is the two-spotted spider mite. After a single mat-

Cannabis Leaf White Spots

Spider mites cause stippling, small spots, on the top of leaves.

Cannabis Leaf White Spots

This is the worst spider mite infestion i have seen!

White Spots Marijuana Leaves


Spider mites cause stippling, small spots, on the top of leaves.

This is the worst spider mite infestion i have seen!

Microscopic Cannabis Pests
0% 10% Remove leaves with 50 percent or more damage.

ing, females are fertilized for life and reproduce about 75 percent female and 25 percent male eggs. Females lay about 100 eggs.

Damage: Mites suck life-giving sap Irom plants, causing overall vigor loss and stunting. Leaves are pocked with suck-hole marks and yellow from failure to produce chlorophyll. They lose partial to full function, and leaves turn yellow and drop. Once a plant is overrun with spider mites, the infestation progresses rapidly. Severe cases cause plant death,

Controls: Cleanliness! This is the most important first step to spider mite control. Keep the grow room and tools spotless and disinfected. Mother plants often have spider mites. Spray mothers regularly with miticides, including once three days before taking cuttings. Once mite infestations get out of control and miticides work poorly, the entire grow room will have to be cleaned out and disinfected with a pesticide and 5 percent bleach solution. Steam disinfection is also possible but too difficult in most situations.

Cultural and physical control: Spider mites thrive in a dry, 70-80°F (21-27° C) climate, and reproduce every five days in temperatures above SOT (27° C). Create a hostile environment by lowering the temperature to 60°F (16°C) and spray foliage, especially under leaves, with a jet of cold water. Spraying literally blasts them off the leaves as well as increases humidity. Their reproductive cycle will be slowed, and you will have a chance to kill them before they do much damage. Manual removal works for small populations. Smash all mites in sight between the thumb and index linger, or wash leaves individu-

50% Humidity '

Keep relative humidity below 50 percent fo discourage spider mites.

If plants are infested with spider mites, lower the temperature to 60-70°F (io-2IX). This temperature range will slow their reproduction.

ally in between two sponges. Avoid infecting oilier plants with contaminated hands or sponges.

Remove leaves with more than 50 percent damage and throw away, making sure insects and eggs do not reenter the garden, If mites have attacked only one or two plants, isolate the infected plants and treat them separately. Take care when removing foliage not to spread mites to other plants. Severely damaged plants should be carefully removed Irom the garden and destroyed.

Smear a layer of Tanglefoot"" around the lips of Containers and at the base of stems to create barriers spider mites cannot cross. This will help isolate them to specific plants. Note: smear a layer of Tanglefoot1" at each end ol drying lines when hanging buds to contain spider mites. Once foliage is dead, miles try to migrate down drying lines to find live foliage with fresh, flowing sap.

Biological: Neoseiulus (Amblyseius) californi-cus and Mesoseiulus (phytoseiulus) longipes, arc the two most common and effective predators, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Neoseiulus (Amblyseius)

Progressive Control Measures for Spider Mites

Cleanliness - Clean room daily, disinfect tools, do not introduce new pests into the garden on clothes, no animal visits, etc.

Create hostile environment - Humidity, temperature, water spray.

Create barriers - Smear Tanglefoot™ around pol lips, stems, drying lines.

Dip cuttings and vegetative plants - Dip small plants in pyrethrum, horticultural oil, neem oil.

Remove damaged foliage - Remove foliage more than 50 pcrcent damaged.

Introduce predatory mites - Release predators before infestations grow out of hand.

Spray - Apply pyrethrum or neem oil; use strong miticides only if neccssary. Rotate sprays so mites do not develop immunity.

fa Had us, Galcndronius (Metaseiulus) ocddentalis, and Galcndronius (Typbladromus) pyri predators are also available commercially.

When properly applied and reared, predatory spider mites work very well. There are many things to consider when using the predators. First, predators can eat only a limited number of mites a day; the average predator can eat 20 eggs or 5 adults daily. As soon as the predators' source ol food is gone, some mites die of starvation while others survive on other insects or pollen. Check with suppliers for release instructions of specific species. A general dosage of 20 predators per plant is a good place to start. Predatory miles have a difficult time traveling from plant to plant, so selling them out on each plant is necessary. Temperature and humidity levels must be at the proper levels to give the predators the best possible chance to thrive. When spider mites have infested a garden, the predalory mites cannot eat them fast enough to solve the problem, Predatory mites work best when there are only a few spider mites. Introduce predators as soon as spider mites are seen on vegetative growth, and release them every month thereafter. This gives predators a chance to keep up with mites. Before releasing predators, rinse all plants thoroughly to ensure all toxic-spray residues from insecticides and fungicides are gone.

The fungus, Hirsutella thompsonii, trade name My car®, kills spider mites.

Sprays: Homemade sprays often lack the strengtli to kill infestations but work as a deterrent by repelling mites. Popular homemade sprays include Dr. Bonner's Soap, garlic, hot pepper, citrus oil, and liquid seaweed combinations. !f these sprays do not deter spider mites after lour to five applications, switch to a stronger spray: neem oil, pyrethrum, horticultural oil, or nicotine sulfate, anil oma I dehyde.

Insecticidal soap does a fair job of controlling mites. Usually two or three applications at five to ten day intervals will do the trick.

Horticultural oil smothers eggs and can be mixed with pyrethrum and homemade sprays to improve extermination,

Pyrethrum (aerosol) is the best natural miticide! Apply two to three applications at live to ten day intervals, Pyrethrum is the best control for spider mites. Spider mites should be gone after two or three applications at five to ten day intervals, providing sanitary preventative conditions are maintained. Eggs hatch in five to ten days. The second spraying will kill the newly hatched eggs and the remaining adults. The third and subsequent applications will kill any new spider mites, but mites soon develop a resistance to synthetic pyrethrum.

Neem oil works great!

Heavy-duty chemical miticides are available but are not recommended on plants that will be consumed by humans. If using any chemical miticide, be sure it is a contact poison and not systemic. Use StirrupM'u, described below, to improve the spider mite kill rale. Cinnamaldehyde extracted from Cinnamonum zeylanicum kills mites. The synthetic hormonesold under the brand name Si/rru/j/W'H'-attracls spider mites, and is used very successfully to enhance miticides.

Chemical Insecticides and Miticides

Chemical Trade Name*


abamectln Avidw soil

Produced by fungi,

Streptomyces species

dienodilor Pentacti

Slow-acting but selective against mites

aldlcarb Temlkw

Systemic miticide DO NOT USE

methomyl Subdue1"1

Systemic insecticide DO NOT USE

dicofol Kelthanew

Selective miticide, DDT relative, DO NOT USE

acephcite Orthenew

Systemic miticide/ insecticide, DO NOT USE

+All trade names are not included, Check insecticides and miticides for chemical name.

Aphids How They Move From Plant Plant
Ants farm aphids. They move aphids to uninfected plants.


Identify: Aphids, also called plant lice, are about the size of a pinhead. They are easy to spot with the naked eye, but use a I0X magnifying glass for positive identification, Aphids are found in all climates. Normally grayish to black, aphids can be green to pink-in any color, aphids attack plants. Most aphids have no wings, but those that do have wings are about lour times the size of their bodies, Aphids give birth to mainly live female larvae, without mating, and can pump out 3 to 100 hungry larvae every day. Each female reproduces between 40 and 100 offspring that start reproducing soon after birth, Aphids are most common indoors when they are plentiful outdoors. Install yellow sticky traps near base of several plants and near the tops of other plants to monitor invasions of winged aphids, often the first to enter the garden. As they feed, aphids exude sticky honeydew that attracts ants that feed on it. Ants like honeydew so much that they take the aphids hostage and make them produce honeydew. Look for columns of ants marching around plants, and you will find aphids.

Damage: Aphids suck the life-giving sap from foliage causing leaves to will and yellow. When infestation mounts, you may notice sticky honeydew excreted by aphids. They prefer to attack weak, stressed plants. Some species prefer succulent, new growth, and other aphids like older ioliage or even flower buds. Look for them under leaves, huddled around branch nodes, and growing tips. This pest transports (vectors) bacterium, fungi, and viruses. Aphids vector more viruses than any other source. Destructive sooty mold also grows on honeydew, Any aphid control must also control ants, if they are present.

Controls: Manually remove small numbers. Spot-spray small infestations, and control ants. Introduce predators il problem is persistent.

Cultural and physical control: Manual removal is easy and works well to kill them. When affixed to foliage-sucking out fluid—aphids are unable to move and easy to crush with fingers or sponges dipped in an insectlcldal solution.

Biological: Lacewings, Chrysoperla species, are the most effective and available predators for aphids. Release one to 20 lacewings per plant, depending on infestation level, as soon as aphids appear. Repeat every month. Eggs take a few days to hatch into larvae that exterminate aphids. Gall-midge, Aph¡doletes aphidimyz, is available under the trade name Aphidend; parasitic wasp, Aphidius matricaria, is available commercially as Aphidpar.

Ladybugs also work well to exterminate aphids. Adults are easily obtained at many retail nurseries during the summer months. The only drawback to ladybugs is their attraction to the HID lamp-release about 50 ladybugs per plant, at least half of them will fly directly into the HID, hit the hot bulb, and buzz to their death. Within one or two weeks all the ladybugs will fall victim to the lamp, requiring frequent replenishment.

Verticillium lecanii (fungus)-available under the trade name of Vertalecw-is very aphid specific and effective,

Control ants by mixing borax hand soap or borax powder with powdered sugar. Ants eat the sweet mix and borax kills them. They excrete sweet borax mix in the nest where other ants eat the feces and die.

Sprays: Homemade and insecticida! soap sprays are very effective. Apply two or three times at five to ten day intervals. Pyrethrum (aerosol) applied two to three times at live to ten day intervals.

Ladybug Traps Homemade

Beetle Borer.

Caterpillars can cause major damage to foliage.

4 ftrtt HVrtri* tn/ft pirn* mm

Wasp Trap

Bees and Wasps

Identify: Bees and wasps that sting are usually from a half inch (1.5 cm) to more than an inch (3 cm) long. Most have yellow stripes around their bodies and others have none. They are especially attracted to indoor gardens when weather cools outdoors- they move right in.

Damage: They cause no damage to plants but can become a nuisance in grow rooms and hurt like hell when they sting.

Controls: Occasionally a problem indoors, bees and wasps are most efficiently controlled with sprays.

Cultural and physical control: They enter grow rooms through vents and cracks, attracted by the growing plants, a valuable commodity in the middle of a cold winter! 5creen all entrances to the room. Install more circulation fans to make flying difficult. Wasp traps, sweet flypaper, and Tanglefoot1^ impair these pests. Bees and wasps are also attracted to the hot HID and fly into it and die.

Biological: Unnecessary.

Sprays: Pyrethrum is recommended. Stuff small nests into a wide-mouthed jar-do it at night when the wasps are quiet-and place the jar in a freezer for a few hours. Use Sevin, Carbaryl, only if there is a problem with a wasp nest.

Beetle Borer.

Caterpillars can cause major damage to foliage.

Beetle Borers

Identify: Larvae from several boring beetles tunnel or bore into stems and roots. Look for their entry hole and dead growth on either side ol the entry hole along the main stem, often discolored and accompanied by sawdust. Borers are more common outdoors than indoors,

Damage: Tunnels inside the stem and roots; curtails fluid flow, and causes plant parts to wilt. If borer damages the main stem severely, fluid flow to the entire plant cou Id stop, causing death.

Controls: Seldom a problem indoors, Borers often cause so much damage on a particular stem that it has to be removed and destroyed.

Cultural and physical control: Handpick all beetle grubs.

Biological: Several mixes of beneficial nematodes control these borers in soil.

Sprays: Bacillus popiiliae is specific to beetles or rotenone individually injected into stems.

Stem Borer Outdoor Cannabis

This cocoon is attached to the bottom of a leaf.

Caterpillars and Loopers

Caterpillars and loopers leave plenty of droppings on the plant. The droppings accumulate in

This cocoon is attached to the bottom of a leaf.

This caterpillar burrows into buds, leaving a wake of poop. The wound and feces both attract more diseases.

Cocoon attached to leaf.

Stem Borer Outdoor Cannabis

Loopers arch their body upward to move forward.

This caterpillar burrows into buds, leaving a wake of poop. The wound and feces both attract more diseases.

two sets of feet at either end of the body. Loopers place their front feet forward, arch their body upward in the middle, and pull their rear sets of legs forward. Some have stripes, spots, and other designs that provide camouflage. Seldom a problem indoors, caterpillars and loopers are in a life stage-between a larva and a flying moth or butterfly—and are most common when prevalent outdoors. One way to check for caterpillars and loopers is to spray one plant with pyrethrum aerosol spray and shake the plant afterward. The spray has a quick knockout effect, and most caterpillars will fall from the plant.

Damage: These munching critters chew and eat pieces of foliage and leave telltale biles in leaves. Some caterpillars will roll themselves inside leaves, An infestation of caterpillars or leafhop-pers will damage foliage and slow growth, eventually defoliating, stunting, and killing a plant.

Cultural and physical control: Manually remove.

Biological: Trichogramma wasps, spined soldier bug (Podisus maculiventris Podibug :u>).

Sprays: Homemade spray/repellent, hot pepper and garlic. Hi, pyrethrum, and rotenone


Identify: Leafhoppers include many small, 0,17.5 inch (3 mm) long, wedge-shaped insects that are usually green, white, or yellow. Many species have minute stripes on wings and bodies. Their wings peak like roof ralters when not in use. Leafhoppers suck plant sap for food and exude sticky honeydew as a by-product. Spittlebug and leafhopper larvae wrap themselves in foliage and envelop themselves in a saliva-like liquid, plant sap.

Damage: Stippling (spotting) similar to thai caused by spider miles and thrips on foliage. Leaves and plant lose vigor, and in severe cases death could result.

Cultural and physical Control: Cleanliness! Black light traps are attractive to potato beetles.

Biological: The fungus, Metarhizium anisopti-ae, is commercially available under the trade name Metaquino«*. Sprays: Pyrethrum, rotenone, sabadilla,

Leaf Miner

Identify: Adult leaf miner flies lay eggs that hatch into one-eighth-inch (0.25 mm) long (green or black) maggots. You seldom see the maggots before you see the leaf damage they

Loopers arch their body upward to move forward.

between buds. Droppings fall out when the buds are hung to dry; inspect below the hung buds to find the poop droppings.

Identify: From half inch to four inches (1.5-10 cm), caterpillars and loopers are cylindrical with feet, often green, but can be virtually any color from white to black. Caterpillars have sets of feet the entire length of the body, while loopers have

Miners Poke

Cocoon attached to leaf.

White Caterpillars Can They Cause Rash

Leaf miner larvae burrow in the leaf. They cause few problems indoors and are most common outdoors in spring and early summer. Kill them by smashing them between your fingers,

Fungus Gnat Damage Marijuana

Microscopic fungus gnats are difficult to see with the naked eye.

create when they tunnel through leaf tissue. Leal miners are more common in greenhouses and outdoors than indoors.

Damage: The tiny maggots burrow between leal surfaces, leaving a telltale whitish-tunnel outline: The damage usually occurs on or in young supple growth. ¡1 is seldom fatal, unless left unchecked. Damage causes plant growth to slow, and if left unchecked, flowering is prolonged and buds are small. In rare cases the damage is fatal. Wound damage encourages disease.

Controls: These pests cause little problem to indoor crops. The most efficient and effective control is to remove and dispose of damaged foliage, which includes the rogue maggot, or to use the cultural and physical control listed below.

Cultural and physical control: Smash the little maggot trapped within the leaf with your fingers. If the infestation is severe, smash all larvae possible and remove severely inlested leaves. Compost or burn infested leaves. Install yellow sticky traps to capture adults.

Biological: Branchid Wasp (Dacnusa sibirica), chalcid wasp (Diglyphus isaco), parasitic wasp (iOpius pallipes).

Sprays: Repel with neem oil and pyrethrum sprays. Maggots are protected within tunnels, and sprays are often ineffective. Hemp Diseases and Pests suggests to water plants with a 0.5 percent solution of neem. This solution works fast and stays on plants for four weeks after application,

Fungus Gnat

Identify: Maggots, larvae, grow to 4-5 mm long and have translucent bodies with black heads. Winged adult gnats are gray to black, 2-4 mm long, with long legs. Look for them around the base of plants in soil and soilless gardens. They love the moist, dank environments in rockwool and the environment created in NFT-type hydro-ponic gardens. Adult females lay about 200 eggs every week to ten days.

Damage: Inlests growing medium and roots near the surface. They eat fine root hairs and scar larger roots, causing plants to lose vigor and foliage lo pale. Root wounds invite wilt lungi like Fusarium or Pythium especially if plants are nutrient-stressed and growing in soggy conditions. Maggots prefer to consume dead or decaying, soggy plant material; they also eat green algae

Leaf miner larvae burrow in the leaf. They cause few problems indoors and are most common outdoors in spring and early summer. Kill them by smashing them between your fingers,

Microscopic fungus gnats are difficult to see with the naked eye.

Cannabis Stem Nematodes
Scale affix themselves to stems and foliage. They arc a minor problem indoors and outdoors,
Fluglarver Inomhus

This nematode attacked the stem. Most often nematodes attack roots. Large knots grow where nematodes damage both roots and stems.

growing in soggy conditions. Adults and larvae can get out of control quickly, especially in hydro-ponic systems with very moist growing mediums. The adult gnats stick to resinous buds like flypaper* The gnats are very difficult to clean from the buds.

Controls: The easiest way to control these pests is with Vectobaci", Gnatroh-, and Bactimosi", all contain Bacillus thurmgiensis var. israelensis (Bt-;). This strain of Si controls the maggots; unfortunately, it is available only in large one-gallon (3.8 L) containers. Difficult to find at garden centers, check hydroponic stores.

Cultural and physical control: Do not overwater, and keep ambient humidity low, Do not let growing medium remain soggy. Cover growing medium so green algae won't grow. Yellow sticky traps placed horizontally 1-2 inches (3-6 cm) over growing medium catches adults.

Biological: The aforementioned Bt-i works best. Alternatives include the predatory soil mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelapumites) and the nematode (Steinemema feltiae).

Sprays: Apply neem or insecticidal soap as a soil-drench.

Mealybugs and Scales


Identify: Somewhat common indoors, these 0.08-0.2 inch (2-7 mm) oblong, waxy-white insects move very little, mature slowly, and live in colonies that are usually located at stem joints. Like aphids, mealybugs excrete sticky honeydew,


As uncommon indoors as mealybugs, scale looks and acts similar to mealybugs but is usually more round than oblong. Scales may be white, yellow, brown, gray, or black, Their hard protective shell is 0.08-0,15 inch (2-4 mm) across. Mealybugs rarely or never move. Check for them around stem joints where they live in colonies. Scales sometimes excrete sticky honeydew.

Damage: These pests suck sap from plants which causes growth to slow. They also exude sticky honeydew as a by-product of their diet of plant sap which encourages sooty mold and draws ants that eat the honeydew.

Controls: These pests present little problem to indoor growers. The easiest and most efficient control is listed under Cultural and physical below.

Cultural and physical control: Manual removal is somewhat tedious but very effective. Wet a Q-Tip in rubbing alcohol and wash scale away. A small knife, fingernails, or tweezers may also be necessary to scrape and pluck the tightly affixed mealybugs and scales after they are Q-Tipped with alcohol.

Biological: There are numerous species of mealybugs and scales. Each has natural predators including species of ladybeetles (ladybugs) and parasitic and predatory wasps. There are so many species of each that it would be exhaustive to list them here. For more specific information see Hemp Diseases and Pests.

Sprays: Homemade sprays that contain rubbing alcohol, nicotine, and soaps all kill these pests. Insecticidal soap, pyretbrum, and neem oil are all recommended.


Identify: Of the hundreds and thousands of species of microscopic nematodes-sometimes,, big ones are called eelworms~a few are destructive to plants. Most often nematodes attack roots and are found in the soil; however, a few nematodes attack stems and foliage. Root nematodes can often be seen in and around roots with the help of a 30X microscope. Often growers just diagnose the damage caused by destructive nematodes rather than actually seeing them.

Damage: Slow growth, leaf chlorosis, wilting several hours during daylight hours from lack of fluid How-symptoms can be difficult to discern from nitrogen deficiency. Root damage is often severe by the time they are examined. Root knot nematodes are some of the worst. They cause roots to swell with galls. Other nematodes scrape and cut roots, compounded by fungal attacks. Roots turn soft and mushy.

Cuftural and physical control: Cleanliness! Use new, sterilized potting soil or soilless mix to exclude nematodes entrance. Nematodes rarely cause problems indoors in clean grow rooms.

Biological: French marigolds, Tagetes patulci, repels soil nematodes, fungus (Myrothecium verrucaria, trade name DeTera f:S'"')

Sprays: Necm used as a soil-drench.

Root Maggot

Identify: Both the seed corn maggot and the cabbage maggot attack cannabis roots. The seed corn maggot is 1.5 to 2 inches (5-6 cm) long. The seed corn maggot converts into a fly and is a bit smaller than a common housefly. Cabbage maggots are 0.3 inch (1 cm) long, and the adult fly is bigger than a housefly. These pests winter over in the soil and live in unclean soil. In the spring, they emerge as adult flies and soon lay eggs in the soil at the base ol young plants. The squirmy, whitish larvae hatch several days later with a ravenous appetite.

Damage: Root maggots chew and burrow into stems and roots. The seed corn maggot attacks seeds and seedling roots. Cabbage maggots attack roots, leaving hollowed out channels and holes in larger roots. Both maggots destroy small ha'tr-like feeder roots. Wounds made by the root maggots also foster soft rot and fungal diseases.

Cultural and physical control: Cleanliness! Use fresh, new store-bought soil when planting in containers. Cover seedlings with Agronet"1 to

Marijuana Roots Attraction Magic
Root knot nematodes cause roots to develop lumps. Fluid flow from roots causes impaired growth.

exclude flies, and plant late in the year to avoid most adult flies. Place a collar 18-inch (45 cm) of foam rubber around the base of the plant to exclude flies.

Biological: Control with parasitic nematodes, Steinernema feltiae or Heterorhabditis bacterio-phora.

Sprays: Kill root maggots with neem and horticultural oil used as a soil-drench.

Slugs and Snails

Identify: Slugs and snails are soft, slimy white, dark, or yellow, and occasionally striped. They are 0,25-3 inches (1-9 cm) long. Snails live in a circular shell, slugs do not. They hide by day and feed at night. Slugs and snails leave a slimy, silvery trail of mucus in their wake. They lay translucent eggs that hatch in about a month. They reproduce prolifically, and the young mollusks often eat relatively more than adults.

Damage: They make holes in leaves often with a web-like appearance. They will eat almost any vegetation, roots included, These creatures winter over in warm, damp locations in most climates, Slugs and snails especially like tender seedlings. They will migrate to adjacent gardens in quest of food,

Cultural and physical control: A clean, dry perimeter around the garden wilt make it difficult lor them to pass. Spotlight and handpick at night A thin layer of lime, diatomaceous earth, or salty beach sand two to six (6-15 cm) inches wide around individual plants, beds, or the entire garden will present an Impassable barrier. The lime is not thick enough to alter the pH and will repel


Hoof maggots arc found in contaminated soil. They gnaw off root hairs and hollow out larger roots.

Cleaning Chart For Marijuana
Slugs and snails cause most damage to seedlings outdoors. Look for slime trails and holes in leaves to help identify the pests.

ur dissolve pests. To trap, attach short one inch (3 cm) feet on a wide board and leave it In the garden. The pests will seek refuge under the board. Pick up the board every day or two, and shake the slugs off and step on them.

Poisonous baits usually have metaldahyde as a base. Confine the bait to a slug hotel. Cut a 1 x 2-inch (3-6 cm) slot in a covered plastic container to make a slug and snail hotel. Place slug and snail bait inside the hotel. The hotel must keep the bait dry and off the soil. In a slug hotel, none of the poison bait touches the soil, and the bait is inaccessible to children, pets, and birds. Place slug and snail hotels in out of the way places. Natural baits Include a mix of jam and water and beer. If using beer, it must be deep enough to drown mollusks.

Biological: The predatory snail, Ruminia decol-/crfo-avaliable commercially-is yet another way to combat plant-eating slugs and snails.

Sprays: Young slugs and snails are not attracted to bait. Spray for young at night or early morning with a 50 percent ammonia-water solution.


Identify: More common in greenhouses than indoors. These tiny, winged, fast moving little critters are hard to see but not hard to spot. From 0.0/l-0.05 inch (1-1.5 mm) long, thrips can be different colors, including white, gray, and dark colors, often with petite stripes. Check for them under leaves by shaking parts of the plant. If there are many thrips present, they choose to jump and run rather than fly to safely. But often you will see them as a herd of specks thundering across foliage. Females make holes in soft plant tissue where they deposit eggs that are virtually invisible to the naked eye. Winged thrips easily migrate from infested plants to the entire garden.

Damage: Thrips scrape tissue from leaves and buds, afterward sucking out the plant juices for food. Stipples-whitish-yellowish specks-appear on top of leaves; chlorophyll production diminishes and leaves become brittle. You will also see black specks of thrip feces and little thrips. Many times thrips feed inside flower buds or wrap-up and distort leaves.

Cultural and physical control: Cleanliness! Blue or pink sticky traps, misting plants with water impairs travel. Manual removal works okiiy if only a few thrips are present, but ihey are hard to catch. Thrips can be very vexing to control once they get established.

Biological: Predatory mites (Amblyseius cuc-umens and Amblyseius barkeri, Neoseiulus cuc-umeris, Iphiseius degenerans, Neoseiuius bark-eri, Ease i us hibisci), parasitic wasps (Tflripobis sumHulcus, Ceranisus menes, Goetheana Shakespeare!), pirate hugs {Orius species), fungus, Vcrticillium lecani, is effective.

Sprays: Homemade sprays such as tobacco-nicotine base; commercial pyrethrum, synthetic pyrethrum, insecticida! soap. Apply two to four times at five to ten day intervals.


Identify: The easiest way to check for the little buggers is to grab a limb and shake it. II there are any whiteflies, they will fly from under leaves. Whiteflies look like a small, white moth about 0.04-inch (I mm) long, Adult whiteflies have wings. They usually appear near the top of the weakest plant lirst. They will move downward on the plant or fly off to infest another plant. Eggs are also found on leaf underside, where they are connected with a small hook.

Damage: Whiteflies, like mites, may cause white speckles, stipples, on the lops of leaves. Loss of chlorophyll production and plant vigor diminishes as infestation progresses.

Cultural and physical control: Mites are difficult to remove manually because they fly. Adults are attracted to the color yellow. To build a whitelly trap similar to flypaper, cover a bright, yellow object with a sticky substance like Tanglefoot"*, Place the traps on the tops of the pots among the plants. Traps work very well. When they are full of insects, toss them out.

Biological: The wasp, Encarisa form osa, is the most cflective whitefly parasite. The small wasps only attack whiteflies, they do not sting people

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