Clandestine Greenhouse Weed

Here is a look at a THC molecule.

20 percent of the cannabinoid profile in a plant. Little study has been done on this cannabinoid. So far, researchers believe it may interact with THC to make the high more intense.

For a complete background on cannabinoids, including chemical diagrams, resin profiles, and production of cannabinoids, see the classic book, Marijuana Grower's Guide, by Mel Frank, Redeye Press, 1997, 330 pages.

Cannabinoid Reference Chart

Three excellent reference books that all indoor marijuana horticulturists should have on hand are: the Marijuana Grower's Guide, by Mel Frank (Redeye Press), Marijuana Botany, by Robert Connell Clarke (Ronin Press), and I temp Diseases and Pests by J. M. McPartland, R. C. Clarke and D. P. Watson (CAHI Publishing). The hooks are classic cultivation and breeding guides, For more valuable background information on gardening, read some of the 20 magazines we list in the back of this book; and hit the Internet sites listed in this chapter. You may also want to attend some of the cannabis fairs listed in the Introduction, Also, read such publications as Organic Gardening, Sunset Mother kirlh News etc., and the gardening section of your local newspaper.


Grower's Guide

Three excellent reference books that all indoor marijuana horticulturists should have on hand are: the Marijuana Grower's Guide, by Mel Frank (Redeye Press), Marijuana Botany, by Robert Connell Clarke (Ronin Press), and I temp Diseases and Pests by J. M. McPartland, R. C. Clarke and D. P. Watson (CAHI Publishing). The hooks are classic cultivation and breeding guides, For more valuable background information on gardening, read some of the 20 magazines we list in the back of this book; and hit the Internet sites listed in this chapter. You may also want to attend some of the cannabis fairs listed in the Introduction, Also, read such publications as Organic Gardening, Sunset Mother kirlh News etc., and the gardening section of your local newspaper.



Marijuana as Medicine by Dr. John McPartland

Cannabis (marijuana, hashish) has long been used for recreational and medicinal purposes-for 10,000 years or more. Its medical indications are manifold, including glaucoma, muscle spasticity (e.g., multiple sclerosis), movement disorders (e.g., Huntington's disease), and a variety of pain syndromes. Marijuana reduces nausea and vomiting and enhances appetite, so it helps people with AIDS and opposes the side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Research shows it can prevent the death of injured neurons, And everyone knows it alleviates anxiety and depression.

Marijuana research is one of the fastest-moving fields of medical science, so any books we suggest may soon be outdated. In the 2000 edition of Indoor Marijuana Horticulture, we recommended the book Marijuana and Medicine (National Academy Press, 1999). This classic book has been updated by Cannabis and Cannabinoids (Haworth Press, 2002) and The Medicinal Uses of Cannabis and Cannabinoids (Pharmaceutical Press, 2004). Marijuana Medicine by Christian Ratsch (Healing Arts Press, 1998) is a beautiful book that focuses on ethnobotany and the historical uses of cannabis. Notable web sites include, www, medical, www. me.dmjsci, and links posted at www.druglibrary.prg/ schaffer/hemp/medical/medical.htm. For regular updates on the "Science, Politics and Law" surrounding medical marijuana, subscribe to O'Shaughnessy's - The Journal of Cannabis in Clinical Practice ( ■Despite marijuana's unambiguous medical benefits, the USA Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) classifies marijuana as a prohibited Schedule 1 drug (''no currently accepted medical use"). However, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active ingredient in marijuana, is classified as a synthetic Schedule III drug (dronabinol, Marinohc). The DEA's hypocritical classification is rejected by

Eddy Lepp Gardens

The Reverend Charles Eddy Lepp of Eddy's Mediartal Gardens and Multi-Denominational Ministry of Cannabis and Rastafari.

Tgranne and Mishka of Mama Productions and Jack Herrcr (The Emperor Wears No Clothes) enjoy a moment at the Cannabis Cup in Amsterdam.

educates thousands every year about the proper use and benefits of medical marijunana and cannabis.

many Americans. Currently ten states in the USA allow patients to possess marijuana for medical use, contingent upon a physician's recommendation, but possession remains illegal under Federal law.

Because marijuana remains illegal under Federal law, its source remains the black market. Patients must obtain their medicine from unregulated producers. You, dear reader, may be one such unregulated producer. Patients depend upon your ethics and expertise to supply them with high-quality medicine, free from contaminants. Jorge and I reckon that dishonorable laws create honor among outlaws, so we entreat all growers to supply only the best organically grown marijuana. The methods for cultivating pharmaceutical-grade herb are outlined in this book. Crow the healthiest plants possible, by paying careful attention to the basics: light, nutrients, water, and air. Everything must be in balance, especially nutrients. If you get the balance right, you won't need to read the chapters on insect and mold control. The most common contaminants of marijuana are molds or pesticides. Optimal cultivation eliminates the possibility of these contaminants.

Of course, optimal cultivation may sometimes elude even the best grower. This book details the use of natural pesticides such as oils and soaps. Better yet, this book promotes the use of biocontrols-commercially available organisms that combat pests and diseases (ladybugs versus aphids being a classic example). For more information regarding the use of natural pesticides and biocontrols, consult the "bible," Hemp Diseases and Pests (see sidebar). Despite all this great information, we still preach the bottom line: "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." Even "natural" chemicals may cause problems in some people. The latest edition of O'Shaughnessy's details the case of a woman who felt ill while manicuring marijuana that had been sprayed with abamectin. Abamectin is a natural compound produced by a soil bacterium. It is approved for use in organic gardens, but, nevertheless, it nearly killed the

This medical marijuana patient is tending a garden while seated in a wheelchair. Gardening can produce a patient's medicine and provide therapy.

woman. Crow well and ovoid chemicals.

So how does marijuana work as medicine? The question is a proverbial onion, with many layers to peel before we get to the core. The first layer is the medicine's herbal essence, which is at odds with current medical science. The D£A and FDA criticize the use of herbs as medicines, saying plants contain a variable mix of compounds and cannot provide a precisely defined drug effect. According to the pharmaceutical industry, medicines are synthetic, single-ingredient "silver bullets" that focus upon solitary metabolic pathways in our physiological systems. Herbalists, on the other hand, applaud the polypharmacy of herbal remedies, and claim two advantages over single-ingredient drugs:

1, The many constituents in herbs may work by multiple mechanisms to improve therapeutic activity in a cumulative or synergistic manner.


2. Herbs may also contain compounds that mitigate the side effects of their predominant active ingredients.

Thus, marijuana lias been characterized as a "synergistic shotgun," in contrast with synthetic, single-ingredient "silver bullets." The many ingredients in marijuana modulate our health via several metabolic pathways, gently nudging our system towards homeostasis. According to the pharmaceutical industry, This kind of "multitasking" makes marijuana impossible to evaluate, according to the pharmaceutical industry. But multi-tasking avoids the unbalanced distortion of solitary metabolic pathways, as produced by synthetic, single-ingredient silver bullets such as Vioxx.

First and foremost in marijuana's list of ingredients is THC. Tetrahydrocannabinol (TITC) is a "new" molecule, produced by cannabis, which evolved within the past 34 million years. Many botanists speculate that THC initially evolved as a toxin to deter herbivores. But this evolutionary strategy was diverted when THC became attractive to humans-the "botany of desire" described by Michael Pollan. THC works in humans by mimicking an endogenous compound that our own bodies make, called anandamide. TI-IC binds to anandamide's receptors, called cannabinoid (CB) receptors. Research indicates that CB receptors originally evolved in primitive organisms about 600 million years ago! However, as with all chicken-and-egg questions, the story of CB receptors and cannabis began long before the current pair of protagonists appeared in evolutionary time. It is probable that both CB receptors and cannabis had evolutionary predecessors. They may date to "deep time," before plants and animals diverged in the primordial soup. Over many eons, CB receptors may have become "vestigial," analogous to an appendix, only to be reactivated when Homo sapiens discovered cannabis. Humans have interacted and coevolved with cannabis for millennia, creating a complex heterogenous medicine by selecting plants that provide maximal benefits and minimal side effects. The success of 10,000 or more years of human refinement with this botanical medication will be difficult to replicate in modern laboratories. This decon-struction of pharmacological theory is radical, and may herald the re-introduction of herbal medicines into modern medical pharmacopeias, with marijuana leading the way.

When THC or anandamide activate CB receptors, the CB receptors activate G-proteins. G-pro-teins are microscopic messengers that migrate around cells and modulate a variety of ion channels and enzymes. Cannabinoid receptors associate with different subtypes of G-proteins, such as Gi and Gs subtypes. The "i" and "s" abbreviate "inhibitor" and "stimulator," which describe the opposite effects these G-proleins have on their targets. Research has shown that different cannabinoids preferentially activate different subtypes of G-proteins. This may explain why different strains of marijuana produce different highs. For example, Afghani plants produce a lot of cannabidiol (CBD), and perhaps CBD preferentially activates Gi and causes an inhibitor/, stony, narcotic-like effect. Whereas plants from Thailand contain letrahydrocannabivarin (THCV, a propyl analogue of THC) that might preferentially activate Gs and cause that speedy buzzy, Thai high.

Thanks to its mix of ingredients, marijuana causes fewer psychological side effects (such as anxiety and panic reactions) than pure, synthetic THC (Marinol). Clinical trials have shown that CBD reduces the anxiety provoked by THC, and CBD demonstrates antipsychotic effects. Anxiety from THC may also be alleviated by terpenoids present in marijuana. Many terpenoids are volatile and possess sedative properties when inhaled, including limonene, linabol, citronellol, and terpineoL Terpenoids may also mitigate memory loss caused by pure THC. Limonene, terpinene, can/acrol, and pulegone increase brain acetylcholine activity. This mechanism is shared by tacrine, a drug used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Terpenoids act on other receptors and neurotransmitters. Some terpenoids act as serotonin uptake inhibitors (as does Prozac»), and augment the neurotransmitter GABA (as does Valium). Terpenoids produce anti-inflammatory effects in the respiratory tract. Their presence in marijuana smoke may explain why inhaling marijuana smoke causes less airway irritation and inflammation than inhaling pure THC. Limonene blocks the carcinogenesis induced by "tar" generated from the combustion of herb. Limonene is currently undergoing tests for the treatment of several lypes of cancer. Terpenoids rock.

Dr. Ethan Russo described "endocannabinoid deficiency syndrome," and suggested that the administration of THC and CBD corrected for deficiencies of either anandamtde or CB receptors. The administration of THC and CBD seems to kick-start our endocannabinoid system. For example, THC stimulates the release ol anan-damide, and CBD inhibits the breakdown of anandamtde. One study has shown that acute administration of THC may increase the density of CB receptors in the central nervous system. Tolerance and addiction to marijuana is uncommon, in part, because THC is a "partial agonist." Agonists are compounds that stimulate receptors, and partial agonists can only partially activate receptors. Perhaps the best medicines are partial agonists-they steer us away from disease, but our innate healing mechanisms are still required to restore us to complete health. We recall the sheep larmer analogy: when the farmer finds a sheep on the wrong side of the fence, the farmer corrects the situation by placing the sheep on the other side of the fence, not by carrying the sheep over the fence and all the way to the center of the pasture.

In conclusion, marijuana as medicine is becoming accepted around the world, even among scientists and physicians. Professor John Graham was not far off when he predicted in 1976, "The drug has been frowned upon, officially banned, but the interest of the medical profession is slowly reviving. It is not impossible that a limited but respectable niche will be established for it in therapeutics by the end of the century" (Marijuana and Health, by J. D. P. Graham, Academic Press, 1976),

For regular updates on the "Science, Politics and Law" surrounding medical marijuana, subscribe to O'Shaughnessy's • the Journal of Cannabis in Clinical Practice (

A/lore Information on Medical Marijuana

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Safety and Security!

Unfortunately we must include a security chapter in this book. You must keep your crop secure from police and thieves alike. Ironically, the police will cause you more problems than thieves!

Successful indoor growers are good citizens and keep a low profile. They keep the yard and home clean and in excellent repair. They always drive a street-legal car and there are no outstanding warrants on the drivers. Remember, an overdue traffic ticket turns into a warrant for the violator's arrest. Smart growers pay bills on time, are nice to neighbors, and do not throw noisy, wild, crazy parties.

Do not throw out any garbage that could prove that you grow. Cops pick through it like rats to find evidence to make a case against gardeners. Growers live by the motto "loose lips sink ships."

Never have seeds or grow products sent directly to your home.

Growers and tokers have been made into "the enemy" by the American government in the War on Drugs. It is the job of law enforcement to arrest the flower-growing enemy. To wage this war on US citizens, law enforcement wields an impressive arsenal, including draconian laws, misinformation and high-tech surveillance gizmos.

The cardinal rule of growing is: Never tell anybody about any garden.

Clandestine growing is as simple as the name implies. The name of the game is secrecy. Tell nobody and cause no suspicion. Countless underground growers have been harvesting crop after crop for decades in Drug War-torn America. These benevolent souls supply much of America today.

Slay away from other grow houses, wild parlies, real criminals, etc. Always lake a friend's car lo the grow store and go seldom. Travel with others whenever possible. Your car is easy to trace and follow. Keep your consumption habits reasonable; don't show large cash income. Buy large assets, houses and cars, over time. Don't ever tell anybody you are growing or even joke about growing. Always have a job and a reason for your activities. Keep a low profile.

Keep your home and surrounding property in good repair. Make sure the house is painted, lawn mowed, and garbage picked up. Keep electrical use to a reasonable amount, and keep the air clean around the house. Have very few visitors, and keep to yourself. Have minimal conversations with neighbors.

Never trust anybody-friends, family-brother, sister, children, even your mother! In America, "Land of the Free," a grower can go to jail just for giving another grower advice! The Racketeer

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A guard dog is one of the best deterrents against thieves.

Influenced and Corrupt Organizations [Act] (RICO) conspiracy laws were enacted to break up the Mafia. Today RICO laws are used against growers and non-growers alike. Under the law, a person that advises a grower to "water in the morning" is equally guilty of growing the marijuana garden, even if he never saw the garden. RICO laws tread on the very essence of the American Constitution.

The new Homeland Security Act further erodes personal rights of individuals.

Never visit or telephone other growers. If visiting another grow room, that grower can implicate you with circumstantial evidence, and you are considered as guilty as the grower!

DO NOT use booby traps, bear traps, firearms attached to tripwires, etc., to protect your crop

I know of people who use infrared systems that take pictures and/or start recording video when an object of particular size/temperature enters the vicinity.

Depending upon the country in which you live, law enforcement must first have a search warrant to use infrared or thermo imaging devices to secure a search warrant. But if they have a search warrant, such high-tech snooping is perfectly legal. If you want to take a look at what they see, rent heat-sensitive night-vision glasses from your local military supply store, or take a photo of the outside of your grow operation with infrared film. You can also add a filter to your digital camera and convert the fotos with a few clicks of Photoshop to show heat signatures.

Law enforcement has sophisticated telephone bugging devices, super-sensitive directional microphones, infrared scopes, thermal imaging, etc. They can also subpoena telephone, Internet, and electrical company records. Intimidating cops coerce electric company employees to break the law and give them the records of unsuspecting consumers. Tracking telephone numbers, including location, is very easy. There has been more than one case where US law enforcement illegally acquired telephone records and placed illegal taps on garden store telephones. American police use telephone records to target grow houses. Always use pay telephones with an untraceable phone card or pay with coins. Lazy narcs also watch garden store parking lots and follow clients home.

Pay all bills and make all purchases with cash. Cash tells no tales and leaves no trails. Pay for mail order merchandise with a money order. Have the merchandise sent to a "safe" address.

II you want to take photos of your garden, use a digital camera. Using an old-fashioned film camera, you risk discovery when getting the film developed,

Growers who cultivate cannabis, including medical cannabis, should never show their grow show to anyone! Never tell anyone you are growing. Deny growing to everyone, always! You immediately change from a Weed Warrior to a helpless victim subject to extortion the instant anybody knows you are growing in the USA, When the cops arrest a "Iriend" that has seen your grow show, they can legally use deception and intimidation to trick your "friend" into squealing on you. Beware! Interrogations can last for months!

Law enforcement rewards jealous, hateful, and vindictive "friends," lovers, and enemies for implicating a grower under the RICO laws and Homeland Security Act. Hundreds of thousands of growers have had their lives ruined in a matter of moments on testimony from a vindictive "friend."

All electrical outlets, (uses, and connections must be grounded. Inspect electrical connections for signs of heat-blackened wires, melted connections, and smelly wiring.

Have a current fire extinguisher rated to put aut wood, paper, grease, oil, and electrical lires.

When law enforcement has "evidence" ol a growing operation, they look for more. In the USA they look at telephone, electric, and shipping records, for starters. A thermal imaging camera is most often used at this point. Occasionally they use dogs trained to sniff out marijuana. The information is used against the grower to obtain a search warrant If there are plants discovered at the house, they continue to build the case against the grower by using anything the grower says. The police collect most of the information on the grower from the grower!

Surround your property with a bed of cedar shavings instead of bark chips in the flowerbeds. Cedar shavings disguise other odors. Use a carbon filter and an ozone generator to neutralize the marijuana fragrance, Have a ready reason for

Cannabis indica plant with its characteristic broad leaf and short stature.

extra electrical consumption. Unload grow supplies a little bit at a time or from within a locked garage.

Remember the quote from Bart Simpson: "I didn't do it. Nobody saw me. You can't prove a thing!"

Absentee owners are the best landlords. Make sure home inspections are done before you move into the home and the rental agreement should allow for an advance notification of inspections. Put the telephone, electricity, garbage, etc., in a friend's name. Grow in a rented home. If you have bank accounts and stocks, own properly such as a home, automobile, ATV, etc., in the USA, they are often forfeited if you are "suspected" ol growing. You do not need to be convicted of any crime for your assets to be confiscated!

Curb noise and odors by sealing and insulating the grow room with "sound board." Similar to sheetrock, soundboard muffles sounds well. Install rubber feet or grommets on fan feet. Build an extra room or box (allow for air flow)


Security Checklist:

Regular schedule Simple lifestyle

Very little contact with neighbors Always be pleasant

Never open the grow room door for anybody! Electric bill should be about the same as the neighbors and previous tenants Garden and grounds should be tidy and similar to neighbors No light leaks whatsoever Use Iriend's car to visit grow store No noise-humming, fan on/off at night, etc.-

is audible day and night No strange odors, including ozone smell around ballasts to muifle noise. Place a thick pad under ballasts to absorb vibrations. In-line fans are much quieter and more efficient than squirrel-cage blowers. If light escapes from vents, give venting a 90-degree turn and paint the vent black where it turns. This will eliminate unsightly light leaks. Ozone-treated air should discharge through a roof vent or chimney to decrease ground-level odors. See "Ozone

Generators" in Chapter Thirteen. Be careful when installing a ceiling vent or when venting out chimney. Light shining out the chimney and around roof vents looks very suspicious!

"All electric" homes are few and far between. Electrical use information from previous tenants might be available from the electric company. On the average, growers in the USA can use one 1000-watt lamp per bedroom. This means a two bedroom home can host 2000 watts, a three bedroom home 3000 watts, etc. Unhook the dryer and other appliances that draw much electricity, Turn the water heater clown to 120 degrees, and take showers at the gym.

Stealing power from the electric company causes even more exposure than paying for it! The extra risk is insane, and it's wrong to steal!

For more information on Internet, personal, and grow show safely, check out the cannabis grow sites listed earlier in this chapter.

Now, relatively inexpensive (less than 510,000) thermal imaging devices are becoming more affordable for smaller police forces. Thermal imaging devices have been used legally to measure the heat signature escaping from structures. This invasive "evidence" is used with other "evidence" to secure a search warrant.

According to US police sources, the devices are legal only to find heat escaping from windows, venls, etc. Most often narcs use the cameras illegally to secure a search warrant. They slither around the neighborhood early in the morning or under the cloak of darkness to snap the hot shots. The law stipulates specific parameters for the camera, and the technology is relatively arcane. The "approved" imaging devices are able to record differences in heat levels outside of buildings. In the USA, it is illegal to search the inside of a structure for the "heat signature.". However, today there are devices that can actually "see through walls" to provide an image based on the heat a person emits.

Avoid thermal imaging problems by turning grow lights on during the daytime. The daytime heat and light make accurate measurement of

Keep air conditioner water from draining outside. The water is packed with potent cannabis fragrance.

Keep air conditioner water from draining outside. The water is packed with potent cannabis fragrance.

PiU rubber feet on fans and blowers to shunt vibrations and noise.

room air.

expelling grow

room air.

heat coming from vents and windows impossible. Thermal imaging cameras are rendered useless; (he technology will not work during the daytime. Shield and insulate walls and windows from heat loss from lamps. Store ballasts in separate rooms, and channel the heat away from the grow room. Cool grow room air before exhausting outdoors, Air vented out underneath a structure is nice and coo! before mixing with the outdoor environment.

Growers having problems with thermal imaging should contact NORML, 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW, suite 710, Washington, DC 20036, Tel: 1-202-483-7205. They have an excellent study on thermal imaging devices and legal aspects compiled by Carlos Ghigiotti. This information could save another lawyer a lot of time.

In June of 2001, the Supreme Court decided a case brought against Oregon resident Danny Kyllo. The decision determined that the use of a thermal imaging device constitutes an illegal search. High-tech thermal imaging devices often gel as much press as police bullying tactics. Law enforcement officials can legally lie, cheat, and steal to acquire evidence against peaceful, plant-loving growers. Deception is one of their biggest weapons, and snitches their best allies. Law enforcement legally coerccs terrified growers into squealing on their friends and family. The lesson here is simple; do not tell anybody, under any circumstances, that you are growing in the United States of America. Growers are arrested daily on "hearsay" evidence from an arrested informant. Stay away from the heat.

One last bit of simple security detail: grow efficiently! Growers in a Drug War-torn America should harvest 0.5 grams of dried bud every month for each watt of light in the flowering room. Growers that do not harvest this much are cheating themselves and need to master the basics ol growing. Always grow lewer than 99 total plants in America. Federal laws require a five-year minimum sentence with no parole when convicted of growing 100-1000 Ute. P^nts.

Always keep o fire extinguisher nearby.

expelling grow

PiU rubber feet on fans and blowers to shunt vibrations and noise.


Heavy insulation will keep grow room temperature easier to control and will help keep the heat signature inside.

This grow room has been lined with a material to keep the heat signature inside. For more information chcck mm,

I would like to exchange e-mail with every reviewer that reviews my works, tf yoti make a review on any of the websites that we have on our list, (please add those that are not listed below) I would like to give you a personal answer to your concerns about your review, vwvw.amawruom .

Our goal in making the Bible, is to give ynti the absolute best information in Hie world.

We .ire looking for ways to make this book the best possible! Do you have anything to add? II so, please hit our website, www.nwrijuanagtQwing.coni, for instructions.

If we use your information and you leave your name (alias rs OK) you will receive credit in our next edition! - Jorge Cervantes

ran have a beautiful crop of 'Power Plant' indoors or outdoors!

Strong healthy 'Chronic' seeds from Serious Seeds germinated after being soaked in water overnight.

Sprouted seed ivos placed between firo pieces of a rock-wool seed block and caused virtually no transplant shock.

Sweef Purple (Paradise) seedling shows perfect symmetrical growth. Leaflets will increase from three to as many as eleven during vegetative growth.

Strong healthy seedling emerges from a Jiffy"" cube. The sprouted seed was carefully Inserted into a hole with the taproot pointing down.


Strong healthy 'Chronic' seeds from Serious Seeds germinated after being soaked in water overnight.

Sprouted seed ivos placed between firo pieces of a rock-wool seed block and caused virtually no transplant shock.

seed that is planted in the spring will grow strong and tall through the summer and flower in the fall, producing more seeds. The annual cycle starts all over again when the new seeds sprout the following year. In nature, cannabis goes through distinct growth stages. The chart below delineates each stage of growth.

Life Cycle of Cannabis

After 3-7 days of germination, plants enter the seedling growth stage which lasts about a month. During the first growth stage the seed germinates or sprouts, establishes a root system, and grows a stem and a few leaves.


During germination moisture, heat, and air activate hormones (cytokinins, glbberellins, and auxins) within the durable outer coating of the seed. Cytokinins signal more cells to form and gib-

Sweef Purple (Paradise) seedling shows perfect symmetrical growth. Leaflets will increase from three to as many as eleven during vegetative growth.


Strong healthy seedling emerges from a Jiffy"" cube. The sprouted seed was carefully Inserted into a hole with the taproot pointing down.

The key to successful indoor cannabis cultivation is to understand how cannabis produces food and grows. Cannabis, whether cultivated indoors or out, has the same requirements for growth. It needs light, air, water, nutrients, a growing medium, and heat to manufacture food and to grow. Without any one of these essentials, growth stops and death soon results. Indoors, the light must be of the proper spectrum and intensity; air must be warm, arid, and rich in carbon dioxide; water must be abundant but not excessive, and the growing medium must contain the proper levels of nutrients for vigorous growth. When all these needs are met consistently at optimum levels, optimum growth is the result.

Cannabis is normally grown as an annual plant, completing its life cycle within one year. A


berellins to increase cell size. The embryo expands, nourished by a supply of stored food within tiie seed. Soon, the seed's coating splits, a rootlet grows downward, and a sprout with seed leaves pushes upwards in search of light.

Seedling Growth

The single root from the seed grows down and branches out, similar to the way the stem branches up and out above ground. Tiny rootlets draw in water and nutrients (chemical substances needed for life). Roots also serve to anchor a plant in the growing medium. Seedling should receive 16-18 hours of light to maintain strong healthy growth.

Vegetative Growth

Vegetative growth is maintained by giving plants 16-24 hours of light every day. As the plant matures, the roots take on specialized functions. The center and old, mature portions contain a water transport system and may also store food. The tips of the roots produce elongating cells that continue to push farther and farther into the soil in search of more water and food. The single-celled root hairs are the parts of the root that actually absorb water and nutri

This 'Marlcy's Collie' (Sensi Seeds) is planted in a 5-gallori (I9L) bucket and was grown in a greenhouse.
MIDDLE: Strong healthy roots are vibrant white. Feeder roots arc fuzzy white. This rooted clone is ready to transplant.

LEFT: Male pro-flowers (a small nub above the fourth internode) develop on plants after about four weeks of vegetative growth.

Woolseed Plant

This large mother plant is growing in a 10-gallon (381.) container. She can provide more than a hundred clones every month.

This close-up shows female pre-flowers, white pistils growing from newly formed green calyx. Female pre-flowers usually sprout after male pre-flowers.

MARIJUANA HORTICULTURE Th.l ents. Without water, frail root hairs will dry up and die. They are very delicate and are easily damaged by light, air, and klutzy hands if moved or exposed. Extreme care must be exercised during transplanting.

Like the roots, the stem grows through elongation, also producing new buds along the stem. The central or terminal bud carries growth upward; side or lateral buds turn into branches or leaves. The stem functions by transmitting water and nutrients from the delicate root hairs lo the growing buds, leaves, and [lowers. Sugars and starches manufactured in the leaves are distributed through the plant via the stem. This fluid flow takes place near the surface of the stem. If the stem is bound too tightly by string or other tie downs, it will cut the flow of life-giving fluids, thereby strangling and killing the plant. The stem also supports the plant with stiff cellulose, located within the inner walls. Outdoors, rain and wind push a plant around, causing much stiff cellulose production to keep the plant supported upright. Indoors, with no natural wind or rain present, stiff cellulose production is minimal, so plants develop weak stems and may need to be staked up, especially during flowering.

Once the leaves expand, they start to manufacture food (carbohydrates), Chlorophyll (the substance that gives plants their green color) converts carbon dioxide (CO,) from the air, water, and light energy into carbohydrates and oxygen. This process is called photosynthesis. It requires water drawn up from the roots, through the stem, into the leaves where it encounters carbon dioxide. Tiny breathing pores called stomata are located on the underside of the leaf and funnel CO, into contact with the water. In order for photosynthesis to occur, the leaf's interior tissue must be kept moist. The stomata open and close to regulate the flow of moisture, preventing dehydration. Marijuana leaves are also protected from drying out by an outer skin. The stomata also permit the outflow of water vapor and waste oxygen. The stomata are very important to the plant's well being and must be kept

This close-up shows female pre-flowers, white pistils growing from newly formed green calyx. Female pre-flowers usually sprout after male pre-flowers.

This large mother plant is growing in a 10-gallon (381.) container. She can provide more than a hundred clones every month.


Branch tips are cut and rooted to form clones. Clones take 10-20 days to grow a strong healthy

'Haze Heaven' female is starting to flower heavily. Branch fnternodes are shorter and white female pistils grow from calyxes.

Male plants flower before females. Males show signs of flowering after receiving a week or more of 12/12 day/night phatopcriod.

Once the branch tip has been cut, bottom leaves are trimmed off ixfore planting the clone, an exact replica of the mother plant


clean to promote vigorous growth. Dirty, clogged stomata would breathe about as well as you would with a sack over your head!

Mother Plants

Growers select strong, healthy, potent mother plants they know are female. Mothers are given 18-24 hours of light daily so they stay in the vegetative growth stage. Growers cut branch tips from the mother plants and root them. The rooted cuttings are called "clones." Cultivating several strong, healthy mother plants is the key to having a consistent supply of all-female clones.


Branch tips are cut and rooted to form clones. Clones take 10-20 days to grow a strong healthy

'Haze Heaven' female is starting to flower heavily. Branch fnternodes are shorter and white female pistils grow from calyxes.

Male plants flower before females. Males show signs of flowering after receiving a week or more of 12/12 day/night phatopcriod.


Cannabis grown from seed dawns pre-flowers after the fourth week of vegetative growth, They generally appear between the fourth and sixth node from the bottom of the plant. Cannabis plants are normally either all male or all female. Each sex has its own distinct flowers. Pre-flowers will be either male or female. Growers remove and destroy the males (or use them for breeding stock) because they have low levels of cannabinoids (THC, CUD, CBIM, etc.). Female plants are cultivated for their high cannabinoid content.

Once the branch tip has been cut, bottom leaves are trimmed off ixfore planting the clone, an exact replica of the mother plant

Clones grow a strong root system in 14-21 days fluorescent light. Once rooted, they spend from 7-30 days in vegetative growth.


Pistils Marijuana
Many receptive female pistils on this 'Hash Plant' await pollination from male pollen. Left unfertilized, female plants continue to produce more and more cannabinoids.

MARIJUANA HORTICULTURE The indoor r— _ _'r" ~ ' üfi frtMMBfiHf root system. Clones are given 18-24 hours of light so they stay in the vegetative growth stage. Once the root system is established, clones are transplanted into larger containers. Now they are ready to grow for 1-4 weeks in the vegetative growth stage before being induced to flower.


Cannabis flowers outdoors in the fall when days become shorter and plants are signaled that the annual life cycle is coming to an end. At flowering, plant functions change. Leafy growth slows, and flowers start to form. Flowering is triggered in most commercial varieties of cannabis by 12 hours of darkness and 12 hours of light every 24 hours. Plants that developed in tropical ^ pQjjjna(e(j femaie ¡s paci(cc] ^/j/, seeds. Once fertilized with male pollen, regions often start flow- females put the bulk of their energy into producing strong, healthy seeds. ering under more light and less darkness. Flowers form during the last Cannabis has both male and female plants, stage of growth. Lelt unpollinated, female flow- When both male and female flowers are in ers develop without seeds, "sinsemilla." When bloom, pollen from the male flower lands on fertilized with male pollen, female flower buds the female flower, thereby fertilizing it. The male develop seeds. dies after producing and shedding all his pollen.

Unpollinated, female cannabis flowers contin- Seeds form and grow within the female flowers, ue to swell and produce more resin while wait- As the seeds are maturing, the female plant ing for male pollen to successfully complete slowly dies. The mature seeds then fall to the their life cycle. After weeks of heavy flower and ground and germinate naturally or cannabinoid-laden resin production, THC pro- are collected for planting next duction peaks out in the unfertilized, frustrated spring, sinsemilla!

w out as many seedlings as possible to select the best mothers.

w out as many seedlings as possible to select the best mothers.


The main bud on this 'Thai' plant growing under the tropical sun appears to be much denser that it actually is.

Leaf from the strain 'Thaitanic' demonstrates the classic C. sativa characteristics-long, thin blades or fingers.

Cannabis Strains

Technically and legally, all cannabis, whether rope or dope, is classified as Cannabis sativa. Regardless ol origin, all cannabis is considered Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) under international law. However, according to Hemp Diseases and Pests, Dr. J. M. McPartland, R. C. Clarke, and D. P. Watson, CAB International, Cannabis sativa can be further classified as: Cannabis sativa (= C. sativa var. sativa), Cannabis indica (= C sativa var, indica), Cannabis ruderalis (= C. sativa var. sponclcmea), Cannabis afghanica (= C. sativa var. afghanica). Each has distinct growth patterns, look, smell, taste, etc.

Cannabis Sativa

Cannabis sativa (= C. sativa var. sativa), originated predominately in Asia, the Americas, and Africa. Each area of origin has specific characteristics, but all have the following general traits: tall, leggy stature with spacious internodal length, a large sprawling root system, large narrow-bladed leaves, and somewhat sparse flowers when grown indoors under lights. Sativas bloom several weeks to months later than indica strains. While good producers outdoors, often growing to 15 feet (4.5 m) or more, indoors pure sativa strains often grow too tall too fast-some up to ten feet in three months-to be practical for grow room cultivation. An HID bulb is unable to efficiently illuminate tall plants, and the yield-per-watt-of-light or yieId-per-square-foot-of-space is very low. Mexican, Columbian, Thai, and Jamaican strains can be very potent, with a high THC to CBD ratio that produces a soaring, energetic, "speedy" high. But potency can also be minimal, with low levels of THC. Most exported Columbian, Mexican, Thai, and Jamaican marijuana is poorly treated throughout life and abused when dried and packed. This abuse causes more rapid degradation of THC. Consequently, seeds from fair smoke are often more potent than the parent.

Central African sativas, including the THC-potent 'Congolese', grow similarly to Columbian strains, with a tall leggy stature, often growing more than 15 feet (4.5 meters) tail with loosely packed buds.

South Africa has major seaports. Sailors brought Cannabis sativa from many different places and planted it in South Africa. Consequently, potency of South African weed can be very high or very low, and can grow short, tall, leggy, bushy, etc. The famous 'Durban Poison' yields potent, pale-green, early buds and is the best-known South African strain.

Asian sativas, including Thai, Vietnamese, Laotian, Cambodian, and Nepalese, have diverse growth characteristics and vary significantly in potency. While Thai and other sativas from the area are often super THC-potent, they are some of the most difficult to grow indoors and the slowest to mature. Thai strains produce very light, wispy buds after flowering for about four months on plants with large, sprawling branches. Thai, Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Laotian sativas are more prone to grow into hermaphroditic adults.

Nepalese sativas can grow oversized leaves on tall leggy plants that produce sparse, late-blooming buds, but other strains from this region develop into short, compact plants that bloom earlier. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) production and potency is often quite high, but can also be second-rate.

Hemp strains are all considered to be Cannabis sativa, Hemp, affectionately referred to as "rope," is Cannabis sativa grown for fiber content. Hemp is often seeded and contains very, very low levels of THC.

Clandestine Greenhouse Weed

This leaf from an industrial hemp plant came from the French entity Chanvre & Co. Industrial "no high" cannabis will pollinate drug cannabis,

Cannabis Indica

Cannabis indica C. sativa var. indica) originated in Pakistan and India. Indica is prized by indoor growers and breeders for its squat, bushy growth; condensed root system; stout stems; broad leaves; and dense, THC-laden, fat heavy flowers. Foliage is very dark green, and in some strains, leaves around buds turn reddish to purple. Short, whitish pistils turn reddish to purplish in hue. A few indicas from this part of the world have narrower leaves, long white pistils, and pale green foliage. Indica strains generally contain a higher ratio of CBD to THC, which causes an effect often described as a heavy, incapacitating "sit-on-your-head" stone. Potency of the "high" ranges from fair to stupefying. Some indicas have a distinctive odor similar to that of a skunk or cat urine, while others smell sweet and exotic. Heavily resin-laden plants tend to be the most fungus and pest-resistant. Few indicas with heavy, dense, compact buds are resistant to gray (bud) mold.

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Cannabis indica leaf has broader blades than C, sativa leaves, hut not as broad as C. afghanica.

'Lowryder' is one of the few C. ruderalis crosses that is auto-flowering and THC-potent.



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Cannabis RuderaIis

Cannabis ruderalis (= C saliva var. spon-danea) was first brought to Amsterdam from Central Europe in the eariy!980s by the Seed Bank to enhance their breeding program. Very similar, if not the same "ruderalis" plants grow from Minnesota north through Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada. G ruderalis is a short, weedy, scrubby plant containing very, very little THC, but it starts the flowering cycle after a few weeks growth. Photoperiod does not induce flowering in C ruderalis. Sometimes confused with more potent indicas, pure C ruderalis is true ditch weed. It yields a headache rather than a high! Today a few breeders have incorporated the early flowering C. ruderalis genes with other early blooming C. sativa, C. indica, and C. afghanica.

'Lowryder' is one of the few C. ruderalis crosses that is auto-flowering and THC-potent.

Cannabis indica leaf has broader blades than C, sativa leaves, hut not as broad as C. afghanica.

Cannabis Afghanica

Cannabis afghanica (= C. sativa var, afghanica) originated near present day Afghanistan, It is quite short, seldom reaching six feet, with distinctive, broad, dark-green leaflets and leaves. Dense branching and short internodes, most often with long leaf stems (petioles), dominate the profile of C. afghanica. The most common examples of pure C afghanica include the many different hash plants and Afghani strains, C afghanica is cultivated exclusively for drugs with much of the resin being made into hashish. It is known for the high cannabinoid content. Many growers and breeders do not distinguish C. afghanica from C. incfica, lumping them both into the C. indica category.

One of the first Seed Bank catalogs from 1987 shows a C. ruderalis plant alongside the highway in Hungary. Many breeders mistakenly hailed this plant as the "Holy Grail" of cannabis.
'Hash Plant, of which there are many, is one of the classic C. afghanica strains.

C. afghanica has very wicfe and distinctive leaflets and leaves.



Close-up of 'Eclipse' seeds.

'Kali Mist' seeds are spotted and mottled.

'Kali Mist' seeds are spotted and mottled.


Explosive growth of seed breeders and legal seed sales in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Switzerland, Spain, etc., has given way to more strains of cannabis than ever before. Most popular strains of cannabis are a combination of two or more of the following; C. sativa, C. indica, C. rucleralis, and C. afghanica. But there are also many seeds with the genes from just one of the above. These strains of cannabis are bred to grow best indoors. Others grow best in greenhouses, and still others outdoors in specific climates. See Chapter Seventeen, "Breeding," for information about hybrid seeds including Fl, F2, F3, etc., hybrids.

A seed contains all the genetic characteristics of a plant. Seeds are the result of sexual propagation and contain genes from each parent, male and female. Some plants, known as hermaphrodites, bear both male and female flowers on the same plant. The genes within a seed dictate a plant's size; disease and pest resistance; root, stem, leaf, and flower production; cannabinoid levels; and many other traits. The genetic makeup of a seed is the single most important factor dictating how well a plant will grow under artificial light or natural sunlight and the levels of cannabinoids it will produce.

Strong, healthy parents and proper care yield strong seeds that germinate well. Strong seeds produce healthy plants and heavy harvests. Seeds stored too long will germinate slowly and have a high rate of failure, Vigorous seeds initiate growth within seven days or sooner. Seeds that take longer than a month to germinate could always be slow and produce less. However, some seeds take longer to germinate even under the best conditions,

The cask, or outer protective shell, on some seeds never properly seals, which allows moisture and air to penetrate. It also causes m

Root Cap



Root Cap


^Shoot Apex Primary Leaves



^Shoot Apex Primary Leaves



Side View


Side View

The cutaway drawing in the center shows how the seed will develop into different plant parts.

hormone concentrations to dissipate and make seeds less viable. Permeable seeds signal diseases and pests to move in. Such seeds are immature, white, fragile, and crush easily with slight pressure between finger and thumb. These are weak seeds and do not have enough strength to grow well.

Typically, a grower who acquires a bag of ten quality seeds from a reputable seed company germinates them all at once. Once germinated, the seeds are carefully planted and grown to adulthood. By and large, of the ten seeds, some will be male, some will be weak and grow poorly, and two or three seeds will grow into strong, super females. Of these "super" females, one will be more robust and potent than her siblings, This super female is selected to be the mother of countless super clones.

A simple picture of a seed reveals an embryo containing the genes and a supply of food wrapped in a protective outer coating. Mature seeds that are hard, beige to dark brown, and spotted or mottled have the highest germination rate. Soft, pale, or green seeds are usually immature and should be avoided. Immature seeds germinate poorly and often produce sickly plants. Fresh, dry, mature seeds less than a year old sprout quickly and grow robust plants.


Cannabis seeds need only water, heat, and air to germinate. They do not need extra hormones to germinate. Seeds sprout without light in a wide range of temperatures. Properly nurtured seeds germinate in two to seven days, in temperatures from 70-90°F (2i-32°C). Temperatures above 90°F <32°C)

Seeds in this seeded female swell and break open the seed bract.

Timeline for germinating seeds

At 55-72 hours

Water is absorbed Rool tip (radicle) is visible

At 10-14 days

First roots become visible

At 21-30 days

At least half of seeds are rooted by day 21, Seeds not rooted by day 30 will probably grow slowly

Once seeds are rooted, cell growth accelerates; stem, loliage, and roots develop quickly. Seedlings develop into full vegetative growth within four to six weeks of germination.

impair germination. At germination, the outside protective shell of the seed splits, and a tiny, white sprout (radicle) pops out. This sprout is the root or taproot. Cotyledon, or seed leaves, emerge from within the shell as they push upward in search of light.

Seeds are prompted to germinate by:



Air (oxygen)


Soaking seeds in water allows moisture to penetrate the protective seed shell within minutes. Once inside, moisture continues to wick in to activate the dormant hormones. In a few days, hormones activate and send enough hormone signals to produce a radicle. The radicle emerges upward to bring a new plant into the world. Once a seed receives moisture, there must be a constant stream of moisture to transport nutrients, hormones, and water in order to carry on life processes. Letting germinated seeds suffer moisture stress now will stunt seedling growth.


Low temperatures delay germination.

High temperatures upset seed chemistry causing poor germination.

Seeds germinate best under the native conditions where they were grown.

Once germinated, move seedlings to a slightly cooler growing area, and increase light levels. Avoid high temperatures and low light levels, which cause lanky growth.

Air (oxygen)

Seeds need air to germinate. Moist, soggy growing mediums will cut off oxygen supplies and the seed will literally drown. Planting seeds too deeply also causes poor germination. Seedlings do not have enough stored energy to force through too much soil before sprouting. Plant seeds twice as deep as the width of the seed. For example, plant a 0.125-inch (0.3 mm) seed 0.25-inch (6 mm) deep.

Household water contains enough dissolved solids (food) to nourish seeds through their first few weeks of life. Although seeds need only 30-50 ppm of nitr

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