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Table 8 illustrates the unstable nature of the psilocin molecule during the one-year storage time until analysis in 1988, much of the sample's psilocin had already decayed. Alkaloid concentrations were found to be higher in smaller mushrooms, as shown in Table 8. Larger mushrooms contained about 0.1 of both psilocin and psilocybin. I am not aware of any cases of accidental intoxication nor any self experiments involving Gymnopilus purpuratus. Intoxicating Potions of the Yurimagua Indians In...

Usage In South East Asia And The South Pacific Islands

Since the late 1960s, the custom of using psilocybin-containing mushrooms has been evolving in various countries across Asia and the Pacific Islands. However, there is no conclusive evidence indicating that mushroom usage was endemic among native cultures prior to the discovery of the Mexican species. Most likely, global tourism has been the most significant factor behind increasing knowledge about relevant mushroom species among the populations of these countries, especially after searches for...

Some Comments On Effects Of Mushrooms From The Category Phantastica

Extensive animal research efforts during the 1950s furnished evidence that both psilocybin and psilocin are alkaloids of negligible acute toxicity. Specifically, the dosage of psilocybin that caused death in 50 of the experimental mice (LD 50) was determined to be 280 mg kg body weight. By comparison, noticeable effects in humans generally occur at dosages as low as 0.02 mg kg. Animal tests showed that, on average, psilocybin was a substance only half as toxic as mescaline, and at the same...

Foreword

Nobody knows precisely when the first magic mushroom emerged from the shadows of prehistory to enter the light of consciousness. Nobody knows when the first magic mushroom was eaten by a human being. Nobody knows just who the first magic mushroom eater was. In seeking answers to these questions, we can only speculate. Mycophobes, however, are quick to voice their conviction that only a fool would be reckless enough to want to attain a higher state of consciousness beyond the boundaries of...

Table

Accidental Intoxications with Inocybe aeruginascens in Eastern Germany In all cases, the symptoms subsided after several hours, with no lasting side effects. A psychiatrist surely would have found these situations interesting - especially the last case involving an extended family - and would most likely have welcomed the opportunity to study the psychodynamics and social interactions during the period of collective intoxication. In 1983, Babos reported another case of unintentional ingestion...

Magic Mushrooms Around the World

A Scientific Journey Across Cultures and The Case for Challenging Research and Value Systems * LIS PUBLICATIONS * LOS ANGELES, CA* Figure 1 - Water Color Painting of Psilocybe semilanceata (Germany, 1927) Figure 1 - Water Color Painting of Psilocybe semilanceata (Germany, 1927) TABLE OF CONTENT (With Active Links' Just Click On A Subject To Go To Who Was the First Magician - Foreword by Christian Ratsch 7 2. Reflections on the History and Scientific Study of Magic Mushrooms 10 3. The Current...

Mycophilia In Central And South America

Compared to the time of Wasson and Heim's discovery, recent decades have brought significant changes to several regions of Mexico in terms of how local Indians relate to the psychotropic Psilocybe species. In many remote parts of the country, mushroom cults still exist in their specific contemporary forms which combine Christian views with elements from pagan and pre-Christian Nature religions. By contrast, in other parts of the country, mushroom rituals have fallen into disuse in the wake of...

European Customs

The first report ever published in a scientific European journal about usage of Psilocybe semilanceata in Europe was written by M. Carter and appeared in New Scientist in September 1976. The mushrooms quite suddenly emerged in the spotlight of public attention in 1976, when Judge Blomefield of Great Britain's High Court handed down a verdict of not guilty in the trial of a man accused of possession of psilocybin in the form of dried fruiting bodies from the species Psilocybe semilanceata....

Psychotherapy

We live in an era of profound sociocultural changes, while a growing sense of insecurity pervades many areas of our lives. At the same time, our achievement-oriented society has fostered a set of values propagated by industrious, hard-working and successful citizens. Naturally, not all members of society are able to embody these ideals or embrace them all the time. Oftentimes, the origins of chronic neuroses are rooted in early childhood. Neurotic behavior can evolve under a wide variety of...

Deer Droppings For Fungal Cultivation Psilocybe Semilanceata

Spitzkegliger Kahlkopf Stiel

PSILOCYBE SEMILANCEATA THE CLASSIC SPECIES AMONG EUROPEAN PSYCHOTROPIC MUSHROOMS Listen Well to this Frightful Story from St. About 200 years ago, E. Brande published an account about a remarkable case of mushroom intoxication in London. On October 3, 1799 an impoverished family picked some mushrooms in St. James's Green Park and prepared them for a meal (see Figure 8, p. 15). Shortly after eating the mushrooms, the father and his four children developed symptoms of intoxication, such as...

Products Chemistry

Hofmann began their interdisciplinary research program to study the Mexican species of mushrooms and their usage in Mexican mushroom cults, their efforts culminated in a 1958 landmark report that described the isolation, molecular structure and synthesis of the mushrooms' active ingredients psilocybin and psilocin. Several years later, these substances were also identified in a species of mushroom in Europe, Psilocybe semilanceata, which became the first in a...

Bibliography On Magic Muchrooms

Considering the vast amount of relevant mycological literature, it makes sense to subdivide citations into categories representing distinct subject areas and specific species and genera. While some entries deal with more than one mushroom species, they are listed only once, under the category heading of the species that is the main focus of the work cited. This will aid in locating citations about specific species, as well as those with a more generalized scope, since titles alone often do not...

Japanese Experimentation

Mushroom species containing psilocybin are also found in Japan. Tales about the infamous Laughing Mushroom date as far back as the Middle Ages. An account from the 11th century became famous Several lumberjacks from Kyoto got lost in the woods for reasons that remain unknown. Suddenly they encountered four or five Buddhist nuns, whose behavior did not at all conform to expectations instead of immersing themselves into their inner selves in a quiet quest for Nirvana, the search for Absolute...

Reflections On The History And Scientific Study Of Magic Mushrooms

It is remarkable that cultures native to the American continent knew about a relatively large number of natural mind-altering substances compared to early cultures that evolved in Europe or Asia. Botanical evidence does not support the notion that Europe is home to fewer hallucinogenic plants than other regions. Furthermore, the growing number of recently discovered European mushroom species containing psilocybin indicate a flourishing psychotropic mycoflora in Europe similar to those found in...

Psilocybe Cyanescens Potent Mushrooms Growing On Wood Debris

At least one other Psilocybe species in addition to Psilocybe semilanceata is known to exist in Europe. At this point, I must emphasize that the differentiation of single species within the Psilocybe genus is subject to considerable controversy among eminent taxonomists. For example, there are different methods of distinguishing the Hypholoma genus from the Stropharia genus. While Psilocybe semilanceata is a species that has long been clearly defined and is well known by this name, there are,...

Gymnopilus Purpuratus Magnificent Mushrooms From South America

Another controversy documented in the literature revolves around the psychoactivity of several species of the genus Gymnopilus. More than 50 years ago, in October 1942, a remarkable case of intoxication occurred m Cleveland, Ohio, which was attributed to Pholiota spectabilis. Today, these mushrooms have been identified as Gymnopilus spectabilis (Fr.)A.H. Smith (USA). In Europe, they are also Known as Gymnopilus junonius (Fr.) Orton. A woman had been out for a walk in the woods one afternoon and...

Intoxications And The Oldest Known Mushroom Cult In Africa

So far, the mycoflora of the African continent has been studied only peripherally and remains largely unknown. During the late 1980s, Italian mycologist G. Samorini and Terence McKenna, working independently, found evidence for the oldest known mushroom cult in Africa. Their discoveries were not just sensational, but most surprising as well. On the other hand, it really shouldn't come as a surprise that the oldest traces of human contact with mushrooms were found on the very continent known as...

Spotlight On North America And Hawaii

Tyler became the first investigator to report the detection of psilocybin in Psilocybe pelliculosa (Smith) Singer & Smith, a North American mushroom species. One year later, two research groups, working independently, discovered psilocybin, as well as psilocin, in samples of Psilocybe baeocystis Singer & Smith from the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Additional chemical and taxonomic findings on that region's mycoflora have been published up to the present day....

Mushroom Cultivation Classic Findings And New Techniques

While conducting research on the Mexican mushroom species during the 1950s, R. Heim and R. Cailleux determined the basic conditions essential to the cultivation of various mushrooms. Before providing additional details, I would like to briefly summarize the nutritional requirements and characteristics of fungal growth, to the extent that these issues are of interest here. Extraterrestrial or Earthly Organisms In terms of cultivation parameters and nutrients, the psychotropic species are no...

Outlook

Sculptures Mushroom Psychedelic

Apparently, all of the most important psilocybin-producing European mushroom species are already well known. Their geographic distribution and migration patterns, however, have not yet been adequately investigated. This knowledge gap primarily applies to recently discovered species outside the Psilocybe genus. In addition, there is a lack of comprehensive sources of information on distribution patterns of Psilocybe cyanescens for a number of different countries. More Taxonomic, Ecological and...

Pluteus Salicinus A Littleknown Woodinhabiting Species

Within the Pluteaceae family, there are about 45 European species of the genus Pluteus, some of whom also produce psilocybin. Historically, the Pluteus species were classified as belonging to the Amanitaceae family, which also include the death cap and its relatives, as well as the fly agaric mushroom, both of which belong to the genus Amanita. Unlike all the other psychoactive mushrooms mentioned here in this book, the Pluteus species are classified as light-spored mushrooms, because of their...

The Australian Mycolfora Attracts Attention

Cleland publicized the existence of 12 mushroom species of the genus Psilocybe in South Australia. Up to that time, there had been no accounts about psychotropic intoxications from the fifth continent. Cleland was probably the most renowned Australian mycologist of the 20th century. As early as 1927 he had already described a new species named Psilocybe subaeruginosa. This mushroom grows in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia and turns bluish-green with age or in response...

Acknowledgments

I am particularly grateful to Claudia Taake. Without her translation, her technical support and our stimulating, creative discussions, the publication of this book in its present form would not have been possible. I want to thank Scott Bradbury for his contribution of original artwork on both covers and on page 1, and for assisting with cover design and layout. I am grateful to several individuals who introduced me to mycology special thanks are due those who have provided me with a number of...