Notes

1. One microgram or gama is one millionth of a gram, about thirty-five billionths of an ounce.

2. Conversions are sudden, very dramatic personality changes occurring unexpectedly in psychologically predisposed individuals in certain specific situations. The direction of these profound transformations is usually contrary to the subject's previous beliefs, emotional reactions, life values, attitudes and behavior patterns. According to the area which they primarily influence, we can distinguish religious, political, moral, sexual, and other conversions. Religious conversions of atheists to true believers or even religious fanatics have been observed in gatherings of ecstatic sects and during sermons of famous charismatic prcachers, such as John Wesley. Maya Deren gave in her Divine Horsemen (22) a unique description of her conversion to Haitian voodoo, which occurred during her study of aboriginal dances. Victor Hugo's example of the moral conversion of Jean Valjean in Les Misérables (39) found its way into psychiatric handbooks and gave its name to a special kind of corrective emo tional experience. The most spectacular illustration of political conversion and later reconversion was described by Arthur Koestler in his Arrow in the Blue (47) and The God That Failed. (46) Biblical examples of moral and sexual conversions of a religious nature are the stories of Barabas and Mary Magdalene.

3. The significance of traumatic memories from childhood for the dynamics of psycholytic therapy has been systematically studied and described by Hanscarl Leuner. (57) See also the discussion of psychodynamic experiences in the first volume of this series, Stanislav Grof, Realms of the Human Unconscious: Observations from LSD Research. (32) Subsequent references to this book will be indicated by a shortened title, thus: Realms of the Human Unconscious.

4. Walter Pahnke (76) summarized the basic characteristics of spontaneous and psychedelic peak experiences in his nine mystical categories. According to him, the essential features of these states are: (1) feelings of unity, (2) transcendence of time and space, (3) strong positive affect, (4) sense of reality and objectivity of the experience, (5) sacredness, (6) ineffability, (7) paradoxically, (8) transiency, and (9) subsequent positive changes in attitudes and behavior. The Psychedelic Experience Questionnaire (PEQ) developed by Pahnke and Richards makes it possible to assess whether or not the psychedelic peak experience occurred in an LSD session, and allows for its gross quantification.

5. Hie sunt leones literally means "Here are lions"; this expression was used by early geographers in the old charts to denote insufficiently explored territories, possibly abounding in savages, wild animals, and other dangers.

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