Notes

1. The interested reader will find more information on the multilevel over-determination of LSD experiences in the first volume of this series, Stanislav Grof: Realms of the Human Unconscious. (32)

2. It is interesting to compare this psychedelic cartography with the four levels and stages described by R.E.L. Masters and Jean Houston in their pioneering book The Varieties of Psychedelic Experience. (65) The authors distinguish (1) The sensory level (eidetic images and other perceptual changes, altered body image, temporal and spatial distortions), (2\ The recollective-analytic level (reliving of important emotional experiences xrom the past, confronting personal problems, conflicts in relationships, life goals), (3) The symbolic level (historical, legendary, mythological, ritualistic, and archetypal images), and (4) The integral level (religious enlightenment, mystical union, illumination, psychological integration). The first two levels of both cartographies show essential correspondence with each other. The Masters-Houston map does not specifically mention the level of the death-rebirth process which plays an important part in my conceptual model. Their symbolic and integral levels are combined in the cartography presented here and appear in the category of transpersonal experiences.

3. In this context, the significance of COEX systems for the dynamics of LSD sessions can only be briefly outlined. The interested reader will find a detailed discussion of this theme with several clinical examples in my first book, Realms of the Human Unconscious. (32) Another source of information about this topic is Hanscarl Leuner's book, Die experimentelle Psychose (Experimental Psychosis) (57). His concept of "transphenomenal dynamic systems" is closely related to, but not identical with, that of COEX systems. C. G. Jung's (43) definition of a "complex" represents yet another approach to the same problem area.

4. It is interesting to point in this context to the striking parallels between this observation from psychedelic therapy and Abraham Maslow's (64) concept of metavalues and metamotivations derived from the study of spontaneous peak experiences occurring outside the drug context.

5. The therapeutic philosophy of those early days can be exemplified by the approach of Dr. van Rhijn (2) from Holland, who described at an LSD conference his vision of the psychiatric facility of the future. It involved a system of small treatment cells in which patients would spend their days alone working through their emotional problems with the help of LSD.

6. The interested reader will find a good example of an LSD session entirely dominated by the transference aspects in my first book, Realms of the Human Unconscious. (32) (The case of Charlotte, p. 224).

7. The description of the LSD session of Charlotte, published in my first book, Realms oj the Human Unconscious, p. 224, has many good examples of the illusive transformations described above. (32)

8. The interested reader will find a condensed case history of Renata in my book Realms of the Human Unconscious, p. 52. (32)

PSYCHOLYTIC AND PSYCHEDELIC THERAPIES WITH LSD: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATION OF APPROACHES

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