Ionizing Radiation Ebooks Catalog

EMF Protection

This ebook is the complete guide to learning about electrical sensitivity and how to prevent getting it in your life. You will learn what electrical sensitivity is, and what causes it. Once you have started learning about it you will learn how to get rid of it and protect yourself from the dangers of electrical sensitivity. You will also learn how to heal yourself. This book is the product of careful research by the scientific and medical communities into the dangers and preventative measures of electrical sensitivity. ES is one of the most under-diagnosed conditions in the world right now, and this ebook is designed to education people as to how it works and how to prevent it. Do not let it take hold of your family; take control and prevent it now! Do not let yourself get any more hurt; learn about this condition and fight it! More here...

How To Beat Electrical Sensitivity Summary


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Author: Lloyd Burrell
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The Shadow Side Of The Wireless Revolution

This ebook seeks to get rid of a lot of the myths that surround electromagnetic waves. The advent of wireless phones and devices has changed the face of our world, but there are sinister side effects to the entire wireless revolution. The ebook is designed to information the public of the dangers of EMF radiation and how to protect you and your family from the dangers that it contains. The chapters cover topics such as how to determine how sensitive (if at all) you are to the dangers of Electromagnetic Frequency Radiation. The next chapter contains the options and studies of real scientists and health professionals, so that you can be fully educated on what goes on inside your body and how to prevent danger. The other chapters discuss how to petition for more safety regulations, how to keep yourself safe, and how to avoid getting hurt. Protect your family from dangerous radiation today!

The Shadow Side Of The Wireless Revolution Summary

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Author: Camilla Rees
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Price: $9.95

Electromagnetic Radiation

It is now well established that electromagnetic radiation from the higher-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum (Scheme 1.1), such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation and Y- or X-rays, can damage cellular DNA and lead to tumorigenesis. More recently, there has been a growing concern about the potential for radio waves and microwaves to cause cancer. Electromagnetic Spectrum SCHEME 1.1 The electromagnetic spectrum. SCHEME 1.1 The electromagnetic spectrum.

Other sources of electromagnetic radiation

Proximity to electric current involves exposure to weak electromagnetic fields. Very low-frequency magnetic fields are generated by a large number of electrical appliances in the home and office (Brcysse 1994). to electromagnetic fields. Childhood exposure to sewing machines or other factors in the home was also mentioned. A seasonally related increase in spontaneous pregnancy loss was reported in users of electric blankets and heated waterbeds (Wertheimer 1986). The authors concluded that either thermal or electromagnetic field effects might be involved. Similar results were reported by the same authors following exposure to ceiling heating coils (Wertheimer 1989). A small increase in risk of pregnancy loss associated with clcctric blanket use at the time of conception and in early pregnancy has also been reported (Belanger 1998). A brief report on pregnant women with a history of subfertility implied that there was an association between electric blanket use and congenital urinary...

Combinations of Platinum Compounds and Ionizing Radiation

Combinations with Ionizing Radiation 94 Ionizing Radiation 95 The contemporary clinical concepts of multimodal oncology include combined administration of ionizing radiation and three different platinum compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin) in a variety of common solid tumors. Examples are sites such as head and neck, esophagus, lung, cervix uteri, rectum, and bladder. All these platinum drugs have demonstrated efficacy against a variety of cell lines, tumor xenografts, and human tumors. Yet, their effects vary with several molecular features of the cells, e.g., p53 status and expression of drug resistance proteins (BluMentHAl et al. 2003, Weaver et al. 2005). Resistance also results from increased expression of the ERCC1 gene (excision repair cross-complementing 1), which is involved in nucleotide Combinations with Ionizing Radiation Fractionated irradiation of tumor cells in vitro might induce resistance to cisplatin (HiLL et al. 1990). In cultured glioma cells, this...

Combinations of Hypoxia Targeting Compounds and Radiation Activated Prodrugs with Ionizing Radiation

Diagram Egfr Under Hypoxic Conditions

5.4.2 Combination of Hypoxic Cytotoxins with Ionizing Radiation 72 5.5 Combination of Radiation-Activated Prodrugs with Ionizing Radiation 79 Tumor hypoxia is a major factor contributing to the failure of radiotherapy (Fig. 5.2). This is largely because DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation, which would otherwise become fixed and lethal to cells by reacting with O2 under well oxygenated conditions, can be restored to its undamaged form under hypoxic conditions (Brown and Wiison 2004). Clinically hypoxia predicts poor local control and survival of patients undergoing radiotherapy teins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are increased under hypoxic conditions, potentially resulting in increased tumor angiogene-sis (SHweiKi et al. 1992 Fang et al. 2001). Thus, there is substantial evidence that hypoxia both interferes with the effective therapy of solid tumors and contributes to a more malignant phenotype however, hypoxia may also prove to be a therapeutic advantage...

Consequences Of Excited State Processes To Adverse Effects In Vivo

A drug displaying photochemical reactivity in vitro may give rise to adverse photosensitivity effects in patients that manifest in responses labeled phototoxicity and photoallergy. Phototoxicity is defined as an alteration of cell function by an interaction between a chemical and nonionizing radiation the response is likened to an exaggerated sunburn. The reaction occurs upon simultaneous exposure to a phototoxic chemical and radiation of the appropriate wavelength. The wavelength of radiation implicated in most phototoxic reactions ranges from 300 to 400 nm. Most drug-induced phototoxic reactions are acute, occurring within a few minutes to several hours after exposure. They reach a peak from several hours to several days later, and usually disappear within a short time after stopping the drug or the exposure to radiation.

Technique Overview SPECT

To assess changes in synaptic dopamine (Laruelle 2000). SPECT can also be used to visualize relative perfusion patterns using clinical radiopharmaceuticals labeled with 99mTc (f1 2 6 h) (Iyo et al. 1997). Cerebral blood flow can be measured quantitatively from washout kinetics of 133Xe, though this method yields poor resolution images with relatively high radiation exposure to the airways.

Fluorouracil Based Radiochemotherapy

Ered that the addition of 5-FU to radiation in rodent tumors markedly enhanced the effects of radiation therapy. Based on these early preclinical data, Moer-tel et al. (1969) administered 5-FU with radiation to patients with gastrointestinal cancers and noted significant activity. The pioneering contribution to the use of combined radiotherapy and FU was made by Byfield et al. (1982), who demonstrated that 5-FU radiosensitization resulted from specific time and concentration factors The sensitizing effects of 5-FU in vitro are maximal when its exposure occurs for at least 24 h and up to 48 h after the radiation exposure, thus supporting a prolonged 5-FU exposure approach when given with fractionated irradiation.

Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides multiplanar large field-of-view images of the body with excellent soft-tissue contrast, and without ionizing radiation. As a result, MRI is increasingly being used to image the maternal abdomen and pelvis during pregnancy. During MRI, electromagnetic fields (EMF) are produced which do not differ from those produced by other electric appliances, including radiowaves. The magnetic field strength given to the patient is 2 Tesla (T) for the examination staff it is 5-100mT. MRI has been applied for about 20 years in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, for an increasing number of indications localization of the placenta measurements of the pelvis (when vaginal delivery seems questionable) examination of the fetal brain, lungs, and kidneys and examination of unidentified masses (dc Wilde 2005). No negative effects on the mother or newborn seem to be attributable to MRI, and visual and hearing tests at the ages of 3 and about 8 years also...

Susceptibility Factors

Relative contraindications to PUVA therapy include a history of arsenic intake, previous ionizing radiation, long-term use of cytostatic drugs, skin cancer, cataracts, and severe cardiovascular disease. In patients with photosensitive dermatoses and in patients who are using systemic photosensitizing drugs, PUVA should be administered with caution. The possible long-term adverse effects should be taken into consideration, especially when young patients are candidates for photoche-motherapy. Uncontrolled use of psoralens may lead to life-threatening burns (27).

The Effect Of Lsd On Chromosomal Structure

In the in vitro studies, the blood samples were drawn from normal, healthy persons with no history of prior drug injection, radiation exposure, or recent viral infection. After incubation at 37 centigrade in appropriate media, colcemide was added to stop the cell division at the stage of metaphase. The cells were then harvested, made into specifically stained eytological preparations and examined with phase contrast microscopy. During the period of incubation, LSD dissolved in sterile distilled water was added to the experimental cultures in various concentrations.

Products of Enediyneinduced DNA Damage

As discussed earlier, enediynes cause DNA damage by forming a diradical species that is capable of abstracting hydrogen atoms from deoxyribose in DNA. The minor groove specificity of the enediynes limits the radical-mediated hydrogen atom abstractions to the 1'-, 4'-, and 5'-positions of deoxyribose, with a spectrum of products shown in Fig. 22.5. Given the numerous reviews of the deoxyribose oxidation chemistry associated with enediynes and other radical-mediated agents such as bleomycin and ionizing radiation 12, 16, 85, 86 , this section will address only the recent studies of the chemistry and biology of deoxyribose oxidation relevant to the enediynes.

Oxidation of the 4Position of Deoxyribose and the Chemistry of Base Propenal

Of the radical centers with deoxyribose on each strand and one or more adducts derived from reaction of neighboring bases with the deoxyribose oxidation products. This would represent a form of complex lesion that has been argued to be a hallmark of ionizing radiation 117 . Such a lesion poses an obvious impediment to DNA repair and could contribute to the potent cytotoxicity of enediyne antibiotics.

Oxidation of the 5Position of Deoxyribose and the Chemistry of Butenedialdehyde

The Dedon group recently discovered that 5 '-oxidation of deoxyribose results in the formation a trans -l,4-dioxo-2-butene product that is likely derived by -elimina-tion of a 2 phosphoryl-l,4-dioxobutane residue, as shown in Fig. 22.5 ( Chatter ji, Venkitachalam, and Dedon, submitted for publication). This four-carbon fragment completes the picture of deoxyribose 5'-oxidation chemistry 12 , with partitioning of the reaction pathway to form an accompanying 3'-formylphosphate residue or a nucleoside-5'-aldehyde residue (Fig. 22.5). Again, it was demonstrated that this potent electrophile reacts with dC in a highly efficient manner to form a novel bicyclic oxadiazabicyclooctaimine adduct, as shown in Fig. 22.8 118 , which in preliminary studies was observed in DNA oxidized by ionizing radiation ( Chatter ji and Dedon, unpublished observation). This second example of base adduct formation from deoxyribose oxidation products suggests an important role for this phenomenon in the spectrum...

Molecular and Genomics Approaches to Understanding Cellular Responses to Enediynes

The molecular studies can be very broadly divided into four categories genetic toxicology, inhibition of DNA transcription and replicaton, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. It was recognized very early that enediynes caused DNA damage 143. 144 . Though it is still unproven that DNA is the cytotoxic target of enediynes, or any other DNA-damaging agent for that matter, there is strong evidence in support of this hypothesis. Perhaps most notable is the hypersensitivity of ataxia telangiectasia cells, which are detective in double-strand break repair, to enediynes, bleomycin, and ionizing radiation 145-150 . Not surprisingly, low concentrations of neocarzinostatin cause a block in the G2 phase of the cell cycle in CHO cells 151-153 . Among the expected consequences of enediyne-induced double- and single-stranded DNA lesions are mutations 154-157 , induction of DNA-repair activities 158. 159 , and chromosome rearrangements 157, 160-167 , an especially important outcome in light of the G2...

Packaging Light Sensitive Cold Kits

Drugs Sensitive Light Containers

Although the contents of light-sensitive injectable drugs can be transferred to a clear and colorless container (e.g., vial or syringe) to examine the clarity and particulate matter, this approach is not suitable for cold kit formulation in radiop-harmaceuticals. The additional step of transferring the entire radioactive solution contained in the light-resistant vial into a colorless and clear syringe or vial increases the risk for degradation of any oxygen-sensitive radiopharmaceutical. The possibility for increased radiation exposure to personnel during the transfer and visual inspection is another concern. Therefore, the light-sensitive cold kits for the preparation of injectable radiopharmaceuticals should be packaged in a clear and colorless or translucent container. This container must be protected by a light-resistant opaque covering such as a paper carton or plastic box in order to comply with the USP 27-NF 22 requirements (Preservation, packaging, storage, and labeling,...

Sub Additive Interaction

Sub-additive interactions between taxanes and radiation have also been reported but infrequently compared with supra-additive and additive effects (Hennequin et al. 1996 Ingram and Redpath 1997 Liebmann et al. 1996). Sub-additivity was observed when paclitaxel was added to, and maintained, in the culture medium for a prolonged period after radiation exposure (Ingram and Redpath 1997 Liebmann et al. 1996). Under these conditions, radiation alone induced both G1 and G2 cell cycle arrest (which allowed repair of sublethal damage) so that subsequently added paclitaxel could not exert further cell-cycle perturbations. This presumably reduced paclitaxel's cytotoxicity. When radiation-induced G2 M arrest was inhibited by pentoxifyl-line administered after irradiation, the sub-additive effect was partially counteracted (Liebmann et al. 1996), thus supporting the above explanation for sub-additivity. A short exposure (1 h) of cells to low concentration of either paclitaxel or docetaxel was...

Radiotherapy and Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

Mcneil Scott Nanoparticles

Unlike heat, sonication, ultraviolet light, and pho-todynamic therapy (PDT), ionizing radiation has advantages that include deep tissue penetration and minimal scatter to adjacent tissues. Moreover, stereotactic radiosurgery and high dose rate brachy-therapy further improve the precision of radiation dose distribution because of abrupt fall-off of dose away from tumor tissue. Ionizing radiation can therefore activate or guide drug delivery to neoplasms with greater precision compared with other forms of energy deposition into tissue. Table 11.1 lists the mechanisms by which ionizing radiation can either guide or activate drug delivery within cancer. The first general principle is the use of monochromatic X-rays to induce auger electron emission from gold or platinum. Cisplatin (CDDP) binds to DNA and auger electrons cause DNA double strand breaks adjacent to the cisplatin conjugation to DNA (Borjesson et al. 1993 Biston et al. 2004 Hainfeld et al. 2004). The second general principle...

Conclusion On Cytotoxic Drugs

Taxanes, a newer class of anticancer agents, of which paclitaxel and docetaxel are most known, have undergone extensive preclinical investigations for their ability to enhance antitumor efficacy of ionizing radiation and to improve therapeutic gain of radiotherapy. They affect mitotic spindle and disrupt dynamics of microtubule organization with consequent arrest of cells in G2 and mitosis, the most sensitive phases of the cell cycle. Formation of stable microtubule bundles in affected cells is considered a hallmark of taxanes' activity, and the resulting mitotic arrest is commonly associated with cell death. Most commonly, taxane treated cells die by apoptosis, although other modes of cell death such as cell lysis and necrosis also occur. At the molecular level, taxanes affect several signaling pathways involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death including Bcl-2 phosphorylation and activation of JNK SAPK and Raf-kinases. Cytotoxic and antitumor actions of taxanes seem to...

Agrobacterium Tumefaciens En Cannabis

Tissue Culture Box

Light gives plants the ability to make their own food through the process of photosynthesis. The chromophore (absorbing pigment) in plant chloroplasts that captures light is chlorophyll. This molecule absorbs strongly at the red and blue ends of the visible light spectrum. This spectrum represents part of a larger electromagnetic spectrum. Since energy travels in waves, this spectrum is divided according to its wavelength. Visible light ranges from 400-700 nanometers (nm), where one nanometer is a billionth of a meter. That's pretty damn tiny Plants have a difficult time using wavelengths in the middle of the visible spectrum ( 500nm), which is reflected and seen by most humans as the color green.

Measurement Of Irradiation Intensity

The lux meter is used in photometry and is simply a radiometer with a spectral responsiveness that closely matches the visual response of the human eye, thus measuring incident radiant power in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this case, the unit of measurement is the illuminance in lux and is calibrated against a specific tungsten lamp. The lux meter should be provided with a set of correction factors to enable compensation for differences in spectral response for lamps with emission spectra different from the calibration lamp.

Topoisomerase Inhibition Enhances Radiation In Vivo and In Vitro

The principle mechanism of radiation's lethality is the creation of irreparable DNA damage. Chemotherapy that disrupts normal DNA repair may act definitively to cause cell death or serve to complete partial damage caused by ionizing radiation thereby causing cell death (Ng et al. 1994 Amorino et al. 2000 Kim et al. 2002). The DNA strand breaks are a critical pathway by which ionizing radiation exerts a lethal effect on a cell. Che-motherapeutic agents that induce or prevent repair of DNA strand breaks may act synergistically with ionizing radiation to kill cells. The DNA topoisomerases are one such class of enzymes involved in DNA strand break repair. If the DNA topoisomerase enzymes are blocked, then transient DNA breaks cannot be repaired. Cells thus affected die. The effect of combining these The exact mechanism by which topoisomerase inhibitors act to sensitize cells to ionizing radiation is unknown. Stabilization of the cleavable complex of the topoisomerase and DNA occurs with...

Mechanisms of Radiosensitization with Antimetabolites

These activities and have reported significant tumor growth delay with the combination of antimetabo-lites and ionizing radiation in animal models however, the mechanism of radiosensitization has yet to be fully understood. Initial studies have focused, as the mechanism, on the modulation of the metabolism of deoxynucleotides, the changes in cell cycle distribution, the role of the tumor suppressor protein p53, and the induction of apoptosis.

Radiation associated with the nuclear industry

Although background ionizing radiation is a known mutagen, few studies have examined transgenerational effects in human beings. A study was performed using the workforce at the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in Cumbria in the UK, which is considered to be the most highly exposed workforce in Western Europe and North America (Parker 1999). The aims of this study, which is part of a larger program investigating the health of the children of the Sellafield workforce, were to determine whether there was evidence of an association between stillbirth risk and paternal exposure to ionizing radiation. Data from birth registration documents for all singleton live births (248 097) and stillbirths (3715) in Cumbria between 1950 and 1989 were analyzed. Within this cohort, the 9078 live births and 130 stillbirths to partners of male radiation workers employed at Sellafield were identified, A significant positive association was found between the risk of a baby being stillborn and the...

Introduction On Cytotoxic Drugs

Physical And Chemical Room Design

There is a strong biological rationale for combining chemotherapeutic drugs with radiotherapy. By their independent cytotoxic action chemothera-peutic agents reduce the number of cells in tumors undergoing radiotherapy and in addition these agents may render the remaining tumor cells more sensitive to killing by ionizing radiation. This radio-sensitizing property of chemotherapeutic agents constitutes a major rationale for concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Because of their systemic activity, In this chapter, we review preclinical findings on the interaction of taxanes with ionizing radiation.

Localized Pancreatic Cancer Clinical Studies

Epelbaum R, Rosenblatt E et al. (2000) Phase II study of gem-citabine combined with radiation therapy in localized, unresectable pancreatic cancer. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 19 1029 (abstract) Evans DB, Rich TA et al. (1992) Preoperative chemoradiation and pancreaticoduodenectomy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Arch Surg 127 1335-1339 Gorski DH, Beckett MA et al. (1999) Blockage of the vascular endothelial growth factor stress response increases the antitumor effects of ionizing radiation. Cancer Res 59 3374-3378

Radiosensitizing Agents

Misonidazole and pimonidazole work, at least in vitro, by virtue of their high electron affinity. This induces the formation of free radicals and depletes radioprotective thiols, thereby sensitizing hypoxic cells to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation. This allows single-strand breaks in DNA to occur, with subsequent inhibition of DNA synthesis followed by cell death. However, despite the promising in vitro results, the combination of misonidazole and radiation in several clinical trials (including a number of Phase III trials) since 1978 has failed to demonstrate improved survival. Furthermore, the clinical usefulness of misonidazole and a close analog (desmethylmisonidazole) was limited by severe but reversible toxicities, including nausea and vomiting and, more seriously, neurotoxicity (peripheral neuropathy).

Oxidation of DNA bases

Attack of hydroxyl radicals to purine or pyrimidine bases produces other DNA damages. The structures of the degradation products arising from this reaction have been established mainly from studies with ionizing radiation,9 but many of them were similarly isolated from patients receiving anthracyclines for the treatment of breast cancer.10

Role of Repopulation

The fractionated treatment of tumors with ionizing radiation is associated with the phenomenon of repopulation (Kim and Tannock 2005). Speaking simply, a certain amount of tumors cells repair the induced damage in between two fractions and proliferate. Repopulation may neutralize around 0.5 Gy day however, the range of repopulation is considerably large and may reach levels exceeding 4 Gy (Trott 1990 Baumann et al. 1994 Budach et al. 1997). Based on these findings, radiation biologists advocated the use of accelerated radia

Xray examinations

X rays are ionizing radiation, and doses arc expressed in rad or in Gray (Gy), where 1 Gray 100 rads 100000 mrad. Only the radiation dose that reaches the organ in question - in this case, the uterus, ovaries or the fetus - is relevant. In the target organism, i.e. the embryo, the actually determined dose is expressed in rem or Sievert (Sv), where 1 Sievert 100 rem 100 000 mrem. Assuming that the emitted dose to the organ corresponds to the dose delivered to the embryo, 1 Sv corresponds to 1 Gy. eye malformations. These effects are a function of the dose administered and of the stage of development of the embryo. Embryo fetai death may also occur during the first 5 days after conception (i.e. in the all-or-none period ) the lowest lethal dose is 10 rads (0.1 Gy). During embryogenesis, the lowest lethal dose for the embryo increases to 25-50 rads and later to more than 100 rads (lGy) (Brent 1999). Severe CNS malformations are to be expected with exposures above 20 rads during early...

Radiofrequency Tags

Microreactor System

A transceiver controlled by a computer is used to interrogate and receive the ID code of each RF tag. The transceiver antenna transmits a specially modulated, 125kHz electromagnetic field. This field is of very low energy and is not harmful. When an RF tag is held within about 1 cm from the transceiver's antenna, energy is picked up by the RF tag's antenna. A rectifier in the chip converts this energy to microwatt levels of direct current (DC) power, which is enough to power-up the logic circuitry on the chip. In a very real sense, the RF tag is similar to a crystal radio (which does not require an external power source), except that the device serves as both receiver and transmitter. It is ''self-contained'', in that the chip used no internal batteries and has no external metallic connections.


Independent of radiation exposure, continues at its normal rate. It has to be noted that the sterilized proliferating cells usually undergo a limited number of so-called abortive divisions before terminal differentiation. lial cells, macrophages, etc. These changes can be directly induced by the radiation exposure, or indirectly, by the epithelial changes. Interactions with the epithelial response are currently unclear, but an influence on clinical symptoms, like pain, is obvious.

DNA Damage

One of the underlying molecular aspects of the efficacy of the combination of radiation and chemotherapy, which has been understood in some more detail, is influence on DNA repair. The induction of DNA damage is probably one of the most crucial events after irradiation of cells. In this regard, ionizing radiation triggers a wide array of lesions including base damage, single-strand breaks, and notably, double-strand breaks (DSB). After irradiation, different molecular systems are involved in recogni The biochemical pathways implicated in DNA repair and DNA synthesis overlap in several regards thus, drugs acting on the synthesis of DNA puta-tively also interfere with the repair of DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation. Several prototypical radiation sensitizers, including 5-FU, fludarabine, and gemcitabine, may act via these mechanisms. Besides cisplatin, 5-FU is probably the most commonly employed drug in clinical combined modality settings. Basically, 5-FU inhibits thymidilate...


In spectrophotometry, a tester subjects a sample substance to one of two forms of electromagnetic radiation ultraviolet (UV) waves or infrared (IR) waves. The molecules that make up every substance absorb certain wavelengths of radiation and reflect others. For example, the molecules that make up grass absorb all wavelengths of the radiation we call visible light except for the green wavelengths, which they reflect that is why grass appears green. Similarly, when certain illicit drugs are subjected to UV and IR radiation, they absorb some wavelengths and reflect others.


Radiotherapy is one of the major approaches to cancer therapy, and can be defined as the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment. It is based on the generation of hydroxyl radicals from homolytic fragmentation of water molecules on local application of ionizing radiation. This fragmentation can be preceded by ionization of water molecules (Fig. 4.40A) or by their excitation (Fig. 4.40B). Damage by ionizing radiation is enhanced by the presence of oxygen by a factor of 2- to 3.5-fold and therefore oxygen can be considered to act as a radio-sensitizer. This so-called ''oxygen effect'' is due to the property of oxygen of reacting with biomolecule radicals to generate other radicals that cannot be FIGURE 4.42 Enhancement of the effects of ionizing radiation by oxygen.

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