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Immune System Effects

Marijuana impairs cell-mediated and humoral immunity in rodents and decreases resistance to bacterial and viral infections noncannabinoids in cannabis smoke impair alveolar macrophages (10). However, the few nonhuman animal studies that found adverse immunological consequences of marijuana have not been replicated in humans (11). There is no conclusive evidence to suggest that use of marijuana impairs immune function, as measured by number of T-cell lymphocytes, B-cell lymphocytes, macrophages, or levels of immunoglobulin (11). No epidemiological data or data from case reports suggest that marijuana is immunotoxic or that it increases the risk of exacerbating other bacterial or viral diseases in marijuana users. Two recent prospective studies of HIV infection in homosexual men showed no clear association between marijuana use and increased risk of progression to AIDS (12,13). Kaslow and colleagues (13) conducted a prospective study of progression to AIDS among HIV-positive men in a...

Why Chronic Stress Is Bad For Your Immune System

People with type A personalities (the kind of people who are always under the gun, working 80-hour weeks, stressed all the time) have a higher risk of developing health-related problems such as heart disease. They also can develop problems with their immune systems. The body produces its own anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, namely Cortisol. Production of this hormone by the adrenal gland is especially increased during times of psychological stress, whether it is a normal stress response (such as anticipating a final exam, being stuck in traffic, or being chased by a grizzly bear) or an abnormal stress response (such as being chronically depressed). Although the antiinflammatory actions of cortisol can be beneficial in the short run in relieving pain and inflammation, the increases in overall cortisol production in chronically stressed individuals can actually damage the immune system. Cortisol and other corticosteroids suppress the immune system by killing off immune cells and also...

Effects on the Immune System Using In Vivo Models

Effects of drugs on infection and immunity due to their well-defined immune systems. Furthermore, use ofanimal modelshasallowedforthe definitionoffactorsof host resistance that are targeted by drugs under stringently controlled conditions. As a result, acquisition of statistically significant data with minimal confounding variables has been possible, a condition that is difficult to attain for human populations as a result of potential environmental toxic exposures and multiple drug use. The collective data that have been obtained through studies involving experimental animals indicate that cannabinoids alter humoral and cellular immunity and can compromise resistance to a variety of infectious agents including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Rosenkrantz et al. (1975) indicated that THC suppressed the primary immune response in rats. Klykken et al. (1977) extended these studies and demonstrated that 8,9-epoxyhexahydrocannabinol (EHHC) inhibited both humoral and cell-mediated immunity...

Effects of Echinacea Species on the Immune System and Various Immune Cells

Studies show that the plant and its active components affect the phagocytic immune system, but not the specifically acquired immune system. Echinacea is best known as an immunostimulant. A series of studies in mice using purified polysac-charides from Echinacea plant cell cultures showed a stimulatory effect when applied to immune cells in culture or injected intraperitoneally into mice. These effects include an increase in phagocytosis, chemotaxis, and oxidative burst of either neutrophils 26, 36 or macrophages 26, 34, 37 . Peritoneal macrophages produced more tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6, and IL-10 38 and Mice with suppressed immunity due to treatment with cyclophosphamide or cy-closporin also had an increase in these immune functions when given purified polysaccharides from Echinacea 39 . These studies suggest that Echinacea stimulates immune functions in healthy and in immunosuppressed animals. Echinacea is able to stimulate innate immune responses,...

Effects on the Immune System Using In Vitro Models 231

Early experiments involved the use of mixed cell populations, since these more closely replicated the in vivo condition of a complex mixture of distinctive cell types cross-talking through soluble mediators as well as interacting with each other through cell-contact-dependent modalities. Furthermore, the use of mixed cell populations lent itself to the application of depletion and reconstitution studies for the definition of specific cell subpopulations affected by cannabinoids. Lefkowitz et al. (1978) examined the effect of THC on the in vitro sensitization of mouse splenic lymphocytes with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) using a plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay. Splenic lymphocytes from mice injected with THC showed a depressed im-munological response when compared with those from control animals. A similar alteration in the immunological response was obtained when THC was added directly to the culture medium as demonstrated by a reduction in the number of plaque-forming centers. Baczynsky...

Immunotherapy for treatment of drug overdose

Eupatorium Serotonin Images

One approach to treating drug overdose resulting from CNS-acting, high- distribution volume drugs is the use of high-affinity, drug-specific antibodies (Colburn 1980 Owens and Mayersohn 1986 Smith et al. 1979). Currently, the only drug toxicity routinely treated by immunotherapy is the cardiac toxicity due to digitalis (Smith et al. 1982). The use of anti-drug antibodies for treating toxicity due to CNS-acting agents like PCP is currently being tested in a rat model (McClurkan et al. 1993 Valentine et al. 1994). These studies show that the anti-PCP Fab can dramatically change PCP pharmacokinetics (table 1). Earlier pharmacokinetic studies with a tracer dose of 3H PCP (4 micrograms (g)) and very low doses of goat anti-PCP Fab (0.5 to 1 mg) in dogs suggested the therapy could be beneficial (Owens and Mayersohn 1986). However, the major limitation at the time of these earlier studies was the inability to produce large quantities of drug-specific antibody. The development of large-scale...

Substance P Receptor Expression And Amplification Of Immune Responses

Substance Production

A hallmark of the developing immune response is the synergistic interaction between cells and their products in an effort to amplify the response. Such amplification and positive feedback loops serve to recruit cells to the site of infection while providing activation signals which continue to expand the response. Based on our knowledge to date, it appears that substance P receptor expression plays an important role in this amplification in the initial stages of a developing immune response. As shown in Figure 3, ligation of substance P receptors results in an intracellular signal which includes translocation of NF-kB to the nucleus. This signal serves as a co-stimulus to increase cytokine production, like IL-12, which could augment T helper type 1 responses. The resulting interferon gamma production from T helper type 1 cells (or CD8 or Natural Killer cells) would upregulate substance P receptor expression on macrophages, further augmenting the response. Conversely, IL-4 production...


Allergen immunotherapy (allergy shots) is an antiallergy therapy in which continuously increasing doses of an allergen arc injected sub-cutaneously. This therapy stimulates the production of immunoglobulins that bind the allergen before it can react with the mast cells. After immunotherapy, the allergic reaction on exposure to the allergen will be diminished because less histamine will be released by the mast cells. Immunotherapy is often effective for those allergic patients in whom the symptoms persist despite optimal environmental control and drug therapy. No specific embryo- or fetotoxic effects are to be expected after immunotherapy in pregnancy (Gilbert 2005, Shaikh 1993). However, a maternal anaphylactic reaction can cause hypotension and decreased uterine perfusion, which may result in fetal damage induced by fetal hypoxia (Luciano 1997), Recommendation. Allergen immunotherapy can be carefully continued during pregnancy in patients who benefit and are not experiencing adverse...

The Immune System

How do you define health Many would say health is more than just the absence of disease rather, a healthy person tends to be happy and vital, feeling physically and mentally centered and balanced. The immune system is the body's foundation for feeling healthy. It plays a critical role in protecting the body from illness. It even has a backup system so that if one part of our immunity is compromised, another mechanism is ready to participate in the body's protection and wellness. Much research has focused on marijuana's effects on the immune system. Some research has shown that one type of immune system cell called the macrophage (scavenger cell) is particularly sensitive to THC exposure. Macrophages clear the body of viruses, bacteria, and particles that are inhaled or ingested. These studies found the presence of cannabinoid receptors on macrophages, suggesting that THC can disrupt normal immune system functions and may eventually inhibit the body's natural immune response. Other...

Immune system

A9-THC decreases the weight of lymphoid organs and high doses of cannabinoids affected the function of the stem cells and decreased the size of the spleen in rodents (Munson and Fehr, 1983). Cannabinoids can also affect the morphology of macrophages (Cabral et al., 1991), phagocytic and spreading ability (Lopez-Cepero et al., 1986 Spector and Lancz, 1991), superoxide production (Sherman et al., 1991) tumor necrosis factor (Fisher-Stenger et al, 1993 Zheng et al., 1992), and interleukin release (Klein and Friedman, 1990 Shivers et al., 1994). The effects of cannabinoids on B lymphocyte production and T lymphocyte production were investigated. Cannabinoids modulate the production of lymphocytes, however the clinical relevance of these effects is unclear (Dax et al., 1989 Nahas and Ossweman, 1991 Wallace et al., 1988). It has been suggested that AEA plays a role in the immune response to cannabinoids and bacterial endotoxins (Pestonjamasp and Burstein, 1998).

Immune Function

The impact of smoked marijuana on immune function remains a controversial topic, particularly given recent medicinal use of the drug. Many people employ cannabis in the battle against AIDS-related wasting and the anorexia associated with cancer chemotherapy. Physicians and patients show an understandable concern about any treatment that might impair the ability to ward off illness. People with AIDS and cancer need all their immune cells to function as well as possible. Research on THC and immunity has focused on individual cells, live animals, and humans. Generally, the impact of the drug is most dramatic on small cultures of cells and has less effect on immunity in people. The vast majority of research on marijuana and immunity focuses on the white blood corpuscles (leukocytes or lymphocytes) known as T-cells. The thymus gland helps these leukocytes develop, hence, the name a reTa * cell. These lymphocytes can bind to cells that have been infected with a virus. The T-cells then...

Genes encoding human cannabinoid receptors

Contained sequence motifs that were common to both clones (Matsuda, 1997). The protein encoded by the CB2 shows 44 identity with the human CBX. A number of functional and expression studies have been performed with the CB2 gene and the results indicate that the CB2 is the predominant Cnr in the immune system, where it is expressed in B and T cells (Munro et al., 1993 Schatz et al., 1997 Gurwiz and Kloog, 1998). Presence of Cnrs in invertebrate immunocytes attests to their primordial role in immune regulation (Gurwiz and Kloog, 1998). It has been proposed that dysfunction of normal endocannabinoid systems, especially those derived from macrophages, might participate in the immune system dysfunctions in HIV-infected individuals. Activation of B and T cell CB2 receptors by cannabinoids leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase in these cells and a subsequent reduced response to immune challenge. In in vitro murine T cell lines, inhibition of signal transduction via the adenylate cyclase...

Other features of the patient

Only one patient developed erythema multiforme. These data suggest that the risk of serious skin reactions in patients with brain tumors is actually low, even though there was an increased frequency of milder rashes. Irradiation did not appear to contribute to the risk. However, it is possible that earlier publications about the risk of serious reactions resulted in the use of lower initial dosages or earlier withdrawal of medication, before the onset of more severe manifestations. The fact that skin rashes were more common in patients with glioma than metastatic disease could be related to the effects of underlying treatments (or disease) on immune function.

Role of Inflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Two types of glial cells, namely microglia and astrocytes, are the primary players of the inflammatory process in the brain (35,36). Under normal conditions, microglia serve a function of immune surveillance. Astrocytes, on the other hand, act to maintain ionic homeostasis, buffer the action of neurotransmitters, and secrete nerve growth factors. In response to immunological stimuli or injuries in the brain, glia, especially microglia, readily become activated. Traditionally, injury- and or neuronal death-induced glial activation have been called reactive gliosis with the term reactive microgliosis specifically referring to the activation of microglia. Perhaps in analogy to certain components of the immune response observed in the peripheral system, activated astrocytes and microglia which are either resident or, as some have speculated, recruited to the injury site play a key role in tissue repair through phagocytosis and secretion of various trophic factors. However, activated glia,...

Measuring Resistance and Treatment Outcomes

Although molecular markers for chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyri-methamine resistance have been advocated as tools for surveillance of resistance for several years, they are still rarely used for this purpose. This is in large part because the prevalence rates of molecular markers for resistance are invariably higher than the prevalence of in vivo drug resistance, almost certainly due to the assistance of the host immune response in clearing parasites following treatment.

Cannabinoid Receptors

Although the observations described here have suggested a role for cannabi-noids in immunomodulation, the mechanisms by which cannabinoids induce these immunomodulatory effects remain elusive. To date, two receptors with high affinity for cannabinoid ligands are known (14-16).The central cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) was first cloned in 1990 by Matsuda et al. (14). This receptor is predominantly found in the central nervous system (CNS) (17-19) and to a much lesser degree in cells of the immune system (20-23). Because of its high expression in the CNS, the CB1R is thought to mediate most, if not all,of the effects of the cannabinoids in the CNS. The peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2R), cloned by Munro et al. in 1993 (15), is predominantly expressed in cells of the immune system (15,22,23). Therefore, the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids are thought to be mediated by the CB2R. Human blood cell subpopulations have different degrees of CB2R expression with the following rank...

Second Generation Effects Pregnancy

There have been no reports that physical and mental development or renal function are altered. In one study, there were changes in T lymphocyte development in seven children born to mothers who had taken azathio-prine or ciclosporin, but immune function assays were normal (203). Thus, development of the fetal immune system is not affected by ciclosporin (204). Renal function in 14 children born to women with transplants treated throughout pregnancy with a ciclos-porin-based regimen has been extensively investigated at a mean of 2.6 years after delivery (205). No renal function abnormalities were found. In particular, glomerular filtration rate was within the reference range. Renal function was found to be normal in 22 children evaluated after a mean of 39 months after birth (206), and no adverse effects on the immune function were identified in the few infants examined in this respect (203).

Pregnancy Category C

The drug was first isolated from coca plants in the mid-1800s. Cocaine apparently functions as an insecticide in the plants, but the substance has had no commercial agricultural use for that purpose. Early medical applications included administration to treat addiction to alcohol and opiates, but persons addicted to those drugs did not better on cocaine. Like many stimulants, cocaine has anorectic (weight-reducing) properties that decline as usage stretches over time but the drug's main medical use has been as a local anesthetic, particularly in ear, nose, and mouth surgery. Experimental use as an antide-pressant has been unsuccessful. Cocaine has been used to treat tonsillitis, earache, toothache, burns, skin rash, hay fever, asthma, hemorrhoids, nerve pain, nausea, and vomiting. It makes the body's immune system more active. For medical purposes cocaine has been largely superseded by drugs having less potential for abuse, but it is still called an excellent anesthetic for nose...

Vaccines and immunoglobulins

Protective and booster immunizations should be carried out before pregnancy. Even though no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects have been proven for any vaccine, the indications for immunization, especially in the first Irimester, should be limited strictly to rare situations. With live vaccincs, the risk of a fetal infection from the vaccine is more of a theoretical nature, but routine immunization should be avoided during pregnancy. Another reason for avoiding vaccinations in early pregnancy is the possible risk of maternal hyperthermia (see Chapter 2.6) as a reaction to the vaccine. This risk is moderate, but common to almost all types of vaccines, if fever occurs, it should be treated with paracetamol (acetaminophen) as soon as it occurs. A third reason for avoiding vaccinations, especially in later stages of pregnancy, would be that postnatally the developing child might not recognize the antigen and since the immune system has become tolerant no seroconversion would be the result.

The Antibody Component

By virtue of their high levels of specificity and binding affinities, antibodies are the ideal choice of agent for drug detection. Antibodies are produced by the immune system as weapons to eliminate invading pathogens (1). Antibodies to a specific DOA can be produced by immunizing animals with the selected DOA conjugated to a carrier protein. A carrier protein is necessary because small chemicals (DOAs) by themselves are usually not immunogenic enough (as a hapten) to elicit an antibody response (2-6). Common protein carriers for this purpose include bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). However, this technique is not as simple as it sounds and is not for the amateur protein chemist. The type of linker used, the length of the linker used, the molar ratio of the drug to the carrier protein, and the type of carrier protein to be used are only some of the factors that must be carefully considered to achieve effective conjugation.

Vitamin B15 And Dimethylglycine

Effects Prevents oxygen deprivation in the body's tissues, while reducing oxidation within cells. The active ingredient is dimethylglycine (DMG), a metabolic brain enhancer said to detoxify the body, lower cholesterol, and protect the liver. Its advocates contend that DMG increases energy, endurance, and strength (mainly by reducing the lactic acid in the muscles), improves the immune system (mainly be creating phosphocreatine, which also helps the muscles contract), and maximizes blood transport from the blood to the heart and brain.

Other Modes of Drug Delivery Including Some Which Are Experimental and Promising

Monoclonal antibodies are homogeneous proteins related to the antibodies which are the products of our body's own natural protective chemistry, the immune system. They can recognize particular chemical groupings and so are extremely tissue-specific. Researchers have chemically linked toxins to antibodies and targeted them for cancer tissue, for example. These could be the pharmaceuticals which are the closest yet to Ehrlich's magic bullets .

Motor and physical development

Some evidence suggests that smoking marijuana may result in long-term impairment of the immune system, which is responsible for fighting infections. A 1997 study from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention titled Effects of Marijuana on the Lung and Its Immune Defenses reported that marijuana may suppress the activity of a variety of immune cells that fight disease. The article cited studies that found that the lungs of habitual marijuana smokers showed a reduced ability to kill fungal and bacterial organisms as well as tumor cells. These findings suggest that marijuana can have significant negative effects on the body's natural defenses, which could have potentially serious health consequences for users with other immune system problems arising from AIDS, cancer, or an organ transplant.

Host Factors Affecting Pathogenesis

Defects in ocular defense mechanism, due to a disease like herpes simplex keratitis, include impaired tear secretion, defective secretion of immunoglobulin A in tears, and defective positioning of lids. These factors facilitate the progression of diseases. In addition to systemic diseases, immune disorders like HIV AIDS are also involved in disease progression and aggravation. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are important in preventing ocular infection by oxygen dependent phagocytic pathway. However, usage of drugs like antibiotics and steroids may lower immune response by inhibiting chemotaxis and ingestion by phagocytes, by blocking degranulation and by reducing the production of phagocytes. These factors further lower the host resistance to fungal infections (104).

Studies reporting minimal effects on immunity and host resistance

Other immune function tests which were performed, such as proliferation, were found to be normal. In addition, Wallace et al. (1998) examined risk factors and outcomes associated with identification of Aspergillus in respiratory specimens from individuals with HIV disease as part of a study to evaluate pulmonary complications of HIV infection. It was indicated that a substantially greater proportion of patients with Aspergillus as compared with control subjects died during the study. However, the use of cigarettes and marijuana was found not to be associated with Aspergillus respiratory infection. DiFranco et al. (1996), through the San Francisco Men's Health Study (SFMHS), evaluated the association of specific recreational drugs and alcohol with laboratory predictors of AIDS. Participants in the study were evaluated at entry into the program in 1984 and in the context of the development of AIDS during six years of follow-up. No substantial association could be obtained between the...

Aids And Needle Exchange Programs

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the most severe and life-threatening result of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection, involves the destruction of a person's immune system and the development of cancers and infections that the body can no longer fight off. The HIV virus has a very long incubation period and may be present seven or more years before active symptoms of opportunistic disease appear. Early symptoms may include a persistent rash or lesion, unexplained weight loss, persistent night sweats or low-grade fever, persistent diarrhea or fatigue, swollen lymph glands, depression, or states of mental confusion.

Future Directions and Conclusion

Several clinical questions remain unanswered. What is the natural history of severe malarial anaemia In particular, what is the role of pre-existing anaemia, pre-existing malaria infection and micronutrient status for the development of severe anaemia Can some immune responses give specific protection and what are they Do children who appear to recover from an episode of severe malarial anaemia suffer medium- and or long-term malaria-specific or other morbidity and mortality Several centres now have well-developed facilities for the longitudinal study of large numbers of children to answer these questions. Schofield and colleagues have used this technology to outline the transcriptional profile of genes in the brain and spleen of mice infected with P.berghei ANKA. In murine splenocytes, enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and IFN-inducible genes were up regulated while genes associated with erythropoiesis were suppressed (Sexton et al. 2004). Significant up-regulation of genes...

Pharmaceutical interest

CK et al., 1992) and the immune system of mice against halothane (Choi SY et a ., 1997). Note also that brazilin inhibits the enzymatic activity of succinic semialdehyde reductase which is responsible for the degradation of GABA (Baek NI et a ., 2001).The anti-inflammatory principles of Caesalpinia sappan L. are known (Hikino H et a ., 1977). An extract of this plant inhibits dose-dependently the mobility of spermato-zoids (Shi IM et a ., 1990). In regard to the haematological properties of the plant, (6aS,cis)-Malonic acid ester methylester has antiplatelet activities (Lee GY et al., 2005).

Endocannabinoid System

With immune function, including spleen, thymus, tonsils, bone marrow, pancreas, splenic macrophages monocytes, mast cells, and peripheral blood leukocytes (19). The messenger RNA for the CB2 receptor varies considerably among various human blood cell populations, with B-lymphocytes natural killer cells monocytes polymor-phonuclear neutrophils T8-lymphocytes T4-lymphocytes (27). There is no evidence that this receptor subtype is associated with neuronal tissue. However, there is evidence that CB2 receptors can be induced in microglia, a cell of macrophage lineage that is present in brain (28). CB1 and CB2 receptors are activated by THC.

Other Than with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

To date, there is no direct evidence that marijuana smoking or therapeutic administration of cannabinoids leads to an increased incidence of infectious disease in humans. Cohen (1976) reported that based on a University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) 94-day cannabis study, exposure to marijuana did not alter immune responses. Hollister (1986) reported that no clinical consequences were noted from the effects of marijuana on the immune system. Sidney et al. (1997) examined the relationship of marijuana use to mortality for a population of 65,171 Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program enrollees, aged 15 through 49 years, who completed questionnaires about smoking habits, including marijuana use, between 1979 and 1985. Mortality follow-up was conducted through 1991. Marijuana use in a prepaid health care-based study cohort was found to have little effect on non-AIDS mortality in men and on total mortality in women. Also, in a study to evaluate the relationship between marijuana use...

General Information

Desensitization is used in the treatment of IgE-mediated disease. Increasing doses of an allergen are injected sub-cutaneously over a varying time span. The aim of the treatment is to decrease sensitivity to the allergen and prevent the clinical symptoms caused by exposure to the allergen. Following immunotherapy, there can be an initial rise in specific serum IgE to the allergen, followed by a fall in specific IgE and a rise in specific IgG (blocking antibody). Immunotherapy also leads to reduced mediator release from mast cells in vitro, altered lymphocyte subsets, and down-regulation of cytokine secretion (inter-leukins 2, 4, and 5) by T cells (1).

Improved formulations

An alternative to injection treatment is oral immu-notherapy. Gastric protein degradation prevents the use of orally administered peptide immunotherapy, but an oral delivery system using enteric-protected antigen pro-topolysaccharide microspheres has been developed. These formulations have been assessed in clinical trials, but to date the patient numbers have been too small to allow any useful conclusions about efficacy or the risk of adverse effects (SEDA-21, 189) (SEDA-21, 190) (SEDA-22, 196).

TABLE 501 Activity of Glucocorticoids in the Body

Interference with the immune response Decreases the production of lymphocytes and eosinophils in the blood by causing atrophy of the thymus gland blocks the release of cytokines, resulting in a decreased performance of T and B monocytes in the immune response. (This action, coupled with the anti-inflammatory action, makes the corticosteroids useful in delaying organ rejection in patients with transplants.) As a protective mechanism, the corticosteroids are released during periods of stress (eg, injury or surgery). The release of epinephrine or norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla during stress has a synergistic effect along with the corticosteroids. Affects mood and possibly causes neuronal or brain excitability, causing euphoria, anxiety, depression, psychosis, and an increase in motor activity in some individuals

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

Influenza infection has been a significant problem in cardiac transplant patients immunization of such patients could therefore be beneficial. However, its use has been limited by concern that stimulation of the immune system might in principle cause an increased risk of cardiac rejection. In the renal transplant experience, influenza infection itself can trigger an immunological response to cause graft rejection, as well as predisposing to other infections. Another concern is whether an immunosuppressed cardiac transplant recipient could seroconvert sufficiently. In a case-control study in 18 cardiac transplant recipients and 18 control patients 6 months or more beyond transplant surgery, there were no differences in the incidence of cardiac rejection or immune responses (28).

Cellmediated Immunity

Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is the result of the activity of many leukocyte actions, reactions, and interactions that range from simple to complex. This type of immunity is dependent on the actions of the T lymphocytes, which are responsible for a delayed type of immune response. The T lymphocyte becomes sensitized Suppressor T cells suppress the immune response Memory T lymphocytes recognize previous contact with antigens and activate an immune response

Public Assistance Recipients

Many parents would undoubtedly rise in protest to any effort to include pharmacotherapy vaccines in the childhood vaccine program because drug use is not an infectious disease however, government rhetoric is already laying the groundwork for responding to such parental objections. According to the 2001 National Drug Control Strategy, drug addiction, like infectious and biological diseases that can weaken a person's immune system or bodily integrity, can also provide a fertile ground for other diseases to attack, place ing people at increased risk for a wide variety of other illnesses. 90 Elaborating on how drug disease breeds infectious disease concern, General McCaffrey writes

Vaccines and Toxoids

Vaccinations containing live organisms are not administered within 3 months of immune globulin administration because antibodies in the globulin preparation may interfere with the immune response to the vaccination. Corticosteroids, antineoplastic drugs, and radiation therapy depress the immune system to such a degree that insufficient numbers of antibodies are produced to prevent the disease. When the salicylates are administered with the varicella vaccination, there is an increased risk of Reye's syndrome developing.

Results And Conclusions

This protocol was chosen based on previous findings that have demonstrated that CB1 mRNA is increased in Jurkat cells, a human T cell line, following activation (16). Similar to murine T cells, Jurkat cells express only low levels of CB1 mRNA at the basal level, however, after stimulation, CB1 mRNA expression increased. To determine whether modulation of CB1 message was occurring as a result of activation of murine T cells in this mixed culture, whole spleen cells were cultured in the presence of anti-CD3. Preliminary results demonstrate that stimulation of murine whole spleen cells with anti-CD3 leads to a decrease in the expression of CB1 mRNA (Fig. 4). The effect of anti-CD3 stimulation on CB1 mRNA expression was similar to what was observed with PMA Io stimulation in the absence of IL-2. It has been demonstrated that PMA and Io stimulation can mimic anti-CD3 stimulation, therefore, the possibility exists that in these experiments stimulation with PMA...

Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

In nature, eukaryotes live closely associated with virulent prokaryotes. This has forced mammals to evolve different defense systems. Plants and fungi, however, do not possess active immune systems, instead they have to rely on physical and chemical defenses. A well-studied example of this is the production of halogenated furanone compounds by the Australian alga Delisea pulchra 134 . This species produces furanones in the central vesicles of gland cells, from which they are released to the surface of the plant 135 . There they prevent extensive surface growth of bacteria and higher fouling organisms 136, 137 . The halogenated furanones have been shown to inhibit several QS-controlled phenotypes, including swarming motility of Serratia liquefaciens, toxin production by Vibrio harveyi, and bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri 134, 138-140 . In a more clinical context, a synthetic derivative of the furanones (C30) was found to downregulate expression of more than 80 of the QS-regulated...

Central Nekvous System

There is some evidence, both real and anecdotal, to suggest lhat cannabis use may have a slight, temporary effect on the body's immune system, Tfcere is nothing to show that this possible effect is more significant than lhat suffered with the similar effects of moderate alcohol or caffeine use. Much o( the evidence may originate from contagious diseases (especially the common cold) hitching a ride on joints passed between friends.

And another thing the coming pandemic

Right now, three types of flu virus are circulating in the human population H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. Flu viruses are named after variants of two proteins that stick out from their surfaces like spikes hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. The hemagglutinin spike allows a virus to enter cells. The neuraminidase spike enables it to get out again, having used the cell's molecular machinery to copy itself, destroying the cell in the process. These two proteins are what the immune system recognizes when a flu virus particle enters the body.

Functional Correlates Of Thc Receptor Binding And Signaling Alterations

The binding of THC to its CB1 or CB2 G protein-7TM coupled receptors is associated with changes in functions of the brain, the immune system and the reproductive organs. In the brain, binding of THC to CB1 receptors is associated with marked changes of sensory perception. These changes first described in 1845 by Moreau (Moreau, 1970), who emphasized alterations of visual, auditory, and body image perceptions. Subsequently, these self-reported alterations were correlated with functional markers used to estimate visual, auditory, and somatosensory perceptions Cannabis intoxication induces an illusion of visual perception characterized by binocular depth inversion that is also observed in unmedicated persons with schizophrenia (Emrich et al., 1997). It is also associated with a delay in the P300 response to auditory evoked potentials, a dysfunction that may persist for weeks after THC (Solowij et al., 1995). Distortion of somatosensory perception reported by Moreau was also observed in a...

Russian Federation

The Russian Federation is facing a deadly epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is driven in part by abuses of the human rights of those most at risk to get the disease and of the over 1 million Russians already living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The principal means of HIV transmission in Russia has been and remains injection drug use. But the Russian state has done little to support low-cost measures that would enable drug users to realize their right to be protected from this incurable disease. Instead, Russia has been a model of repression of drug users and stigmatization of HIV-positive people, putting the country squarely on the path of very high AIDS mortality and continued abuse of people affected by HIV AIDS.

Cannabinoid research today and tomorrow

The field of cannabinoid research is wide open and quickly expanding. This is occurring as an outgrowth of understanding the biochemical actions of cannabinoids for several different conditions. Basic science has now charted the actions of cannabinoids on spastic disorders and analgesia. In the near future researchers will uncover the basic biochemical utilization of cannabinoids in glaucoma and immune function. This deeper understanding of cannabinoid physiology is profoundly altering the knowledge base and giving tremendous impetus to the design of new cannabinoid-based dosage forms. The future will show multiple delivery systems like transdermal patches, creams, and pills. Ironically, this explosion of knowledge is leading medical science back in time as new dosage forms remake the tinctures, lotions, pills and extracts that were widely manufactured and prescribed by physicians more than 50 years ago.

Glucocorticoid Receptors in PTSD

Observations regarding the cellular immune response in PTSD are also consistent with enhanced GR responsiveness in the periphery. In one study, beclomethasone-induced vasoconstriction was increased in women PTSD subjects compared to healthy, non-trauma-exposed comparison subjects (Coupland et al. 2003). Similarly, an enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity of skin test responses was observed in women who survived childhood sexual abuse vs those who did not (Altemus et al. 2003). Because immune responses, like endocrine ones, can be multiply regulated, these studies provide only indirect evidence of GR responsiveness. However, when considered in the context of the observation that PTSD patients showed increased expression of the re

CB2RMediated Antinociceptive Effects

The main effect of inflammatory cells in nociception is to sensitize neurons. This occurs in the periphery when the immune response stimulates peripheral cells to secrete mediators that sensitize primary afferent neurons. Substances released by immune cells that sensitize nociceptors include histamine, serotonin, eicosanoids, interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor- , and nerve growth factor (Dray 1995 McMahon 1996 Tracey and Walker 1995). Sensitization also occurs in the CNS, and centrally located microglia, which express CB2Rs, may be involved in the sensitization of central nociceptive neurons during inflammation (reviewed by DeLeo et al. 2004). CB2R agonists reduce the secretion of inflammatory mediators from immune cells. For example, cannabinoids inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-inducible cy-tokine mRNA expression in rat microglial cells (Puffenbarger et al. 2000) and cy-totoxicity and release of inflammatory mediators from monocytic cells (Klegeris et al. 2003). Activation of...

Review of Immunological Parameters

Immune system damage remains an area of contention with respect to cannabis usage (Zimmer and Morgan 1997), but one in which there is considerably more heat than light. A closer examination of the available literature may allay concern. A seminal review of the topic was undertaken by Hollister (1992), who stated (p. 159), evidence of altered immune functions is derived mainly from in vitro tests or ex vivo experiments, which employed doses of cannabinoids far in excess of those that prevail during social use of marijuana. More recently, Klein, Friedman and Specter (1998) have similarly noted (p. 102), Although cannabinoids modulate immune cell function, it is also clear that these cells are relatively resistant to the drugs in than many effects appear to be relatively small and totally reversible, occur at concentration higher than needed to induce psychoactivity ( 10 pM or 5 mg kg), and occur following treatment with nonpsychoactive cannabinoid analogues. They added (p. 102), The...

The cannabinoid receptor is discovered

The discovery of the second cannabinoid receptor in humans, called CB-2, was announced in 1993. This remarkable discovery described an even more important biological role of the cannabinoid receptor system because, unlike centrally acting receptor systems located only in the brain, CB-2 receptors were found to be widespread in the immune system and throughout the body. This discovery opened up research possibilities aimed at describing the precise biochemical

Enhancement of Immunogenicity of Tumor Antigens

A second general approach is to develop a vaccine capable of making tumor antigens more visible to the immune system. This can be done in several ways, including immune system. Cells can also be infected with the viral vector in the laboratory and then given to patients as a vaccine. Placing genes for other proteins that normally help stimulate the immune system into a viral vector along with a tumor antigen gene.

Plants as Protective Agents Against DNA Damage

Another edible item with proven nutritional and therapeutic values throughout the world since ancient times is mushrooms 24-26 . Numerous kinds of mushrooms are utilized as foods and traditional medicines in many countries and there have been investigations of the biological activities of mushroom extracts. The activities of various mushroom extracts include anticarcinogenic effects, 27-31 , antimutagenic effects 32-36 , and protection from blocks to gap junction-based intercellular communication 37 . At the molecular level, researchers have found that antigenotoxic factors in mushrooms include polysaccharides, such as beta-and alpha-glucan. In Agrocybe cylindracea (yanagimatsutake), the anticarcinogenic substances detected in the mushroom have been identified as alpha-D-glucan-O-carboxy methylated derivatives 38 . Infusion of the dried fruiting bodies has been used as a stimulant and as auxiliary treatment of various diseases, including cancer 39, 40 . Many isolated polysaccharides...

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

HIV is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV kills or damages cells in the body's immune system, gradually destroying the body's ability to fight infection and certain cancers. An estimated 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 persons in the United States were living with HIV AIDS at the end of 2003 (221).

Combinatorial Functionalization of Metalbinding Core Structures

Another approach to generate large libraries of metal-binding proteins is to take advantage of the immune system. Janda and coworkers identified antibodies that bind unique metals with excellent affinity by combining a metallo-panning agent with the high-throughput screening of a combinatorial antibody library 32 . The single-chain antibody (scFv) library was constructed from the blood of 50 healthy volunteers, the resulting phage scFv antibody library was estimated to be 1 x 109 in diversity. This library was then screened against three metal pool mixtures and an immobilized phosphorodithioate metallo-panning reagent that binds metals, leaving them coordinatively unsaturated. Two single-chain antibodies were identified and isolated that bind lanthanum and yttrium in the mM range. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analysis suggests that the selected antibodies contain a single metal ion binding site.

See also Vaccines General Information

The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a live oral human rotavirus vaccine 89-12 has been assessed in 213 US infants in a randomized, placebo-controlled, doubleblind, multicenter trial (2). The infants received two doses of vaccine or placebo and were followed up through one rotavirus season. There was an immune response to vaccine in 94.4 of vaccinees, and vaccine efficacy was 89 . Adverse reactions were mild. Low-grade fever after the first dose was the only adverse effect that was significantly more common with the vaccine than with placebo.

Nahas Prescription for Bloated Police Budges

Incredibly, a famous study which found that cannabis reduces tumors (see Chapter 7), was originally ordered by the Federal Government on the premise that pot would hurt the immune system. This was based on the Reefer Madness studies done by the disreputable Dr. Gabriel Nahas of Columbia University in 1972. This is the same Dr. Nahas who claimed his studies showed pot created chromosome, testosterone (male hormone) damage, and countless other horrible effects which suggested the breaking down of the immune system. Nahas' background is in the OSS CIA and later the U.S. where he worked closely with Lyndon LaRouche and Kurt Waldheim. In fact, using Nahas' refuted and unreplicated synthetic THC petri dish studies on the immune system, hysterical Families for Drug Free Youth, or Just Say No organizations have gotten the press to say marijuana could cause AIDS -which has no basis whatsoever, but the press published all this rhetoric creating more Reefer Madness

Have We Stolen Natures Glory

The living proof of Natural Intelligence is everywhere around us and inside us. Our bodies are spun from it. The text found in a biology book detailing the fantastic biologically constructed 'inner wisdom' of, say, the immune system, is merely a reflection in the formal system of words of the formal system which we call biology. Both forms are intelligible. And a hallmark of intelligent systems is precisely their intelligibility. Which means that both biological systems and their evolution can be regarded as a manifestation of Natural Intelligence. Thus, NASA's hubristic SETI program in which communicatory cries are broadcast out into space reveals a distinct failure to look more closely at organic life itself, for it is Gaia and Nature in their totality that is the highly advanced intelligence we are so keenly interested in locating.

Substance P Receptormodulated Monokine Secretion

While IL-12 functions as a pro-inflammatory mediator and augments the development of cell mediated immune responses8, significant levels of monokines, like transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), can severely limit such immune responses9. If signaling through the substance P receptor on macrophages is pro-inflammatory, we questioned what effect this neuropeptide might have on secretion of a monokine with anti-inflammatory properties. While substance P by itself elicited modest increases in TGF-beta expression, this neuropeptide could dramatically diminish lipopolysaccharide or interferon-gamma induced TGF-beta production10. This effect could be blocked with specific, competitive antagonists of substance P, demonstrating the receptor-mediated nature of the response. Therefore these studies suggested a previously unrecognized mechanism where substance P may act as a proinflammatory mediator by limiting the production of excessive levels of TGF-beta. Taken together, these in vitro...

Poisoning Pot Smokers

In August and September, 1983, Turner went on national television to justify the illegal marijuana spraying (by plane) of paraquat in Georgia, Kentucky, and Tennessee by the DEA. He said it would teach a lesson to any kid who died from paraquat-poisoned pot. Turner was forced to resign after announcing his conclusions in public that marijuana caused homosexuality, the breakdown of the immune system, and, therefore, AIDS.

Increased Susceptibility To Salmonellosis Following Antagonism Of Substance Psubstance P Receptor Interactions In Vivo

The capsaicin-depletion study shown in Figure 1 could not identify the nature of the contribution made by the peripheral nervous system to this immune response. Therefore we focused our attention on substance P as a possible explanation for this observation. Mice were implanted with osmotic pumps which released a constant amount of a substance P antagonist, spantide II. Following oral challenge with Salmonella, groups of mice were monitored for the development of salmonellosis and for immune responsiveness. Mice receiving the substance P antagonist had increased salmonellosis and decreased survival when compared to mice receiving a control peptide13. Furthermore, spantide II treated mice had reduced IL-12 and interferon gamma responses to Salmonella than that seen in control groups. These results were not due to differences in the initial dissemination of Salmonella from the gut or due to global immune dysfunction induced by the substance P antagonist. Rather, these results...

Wanton Disregard For Life

Carlton Turner was forced to resign after Newsweek magazine excoriated him October 27, 1986, in a large editorial sidebar. His resignation was a foregone conclusion after being lampooned in the Washington Post and elsewhere as no other public figure in recent memory for his conclusions (in public addresses) that marijuana smoking caused homosexuality, the breakdown of the immune system, and, therefore, AIDS.

Sporogonic Development

This review concentrates on the second point above vector host defenses that can suppress successful parasite development, genetic variation in those defenses, and potential molecular mechanisms underlying those defenses. Successful development requires that the virulence machinery of the parasite be a good molecular fit for the vector, allowing the parasite to acquire resources and ultimately reproduce. However, a compatible interaction does not mean a harmless one, and there is evidence that malaria parasites decrease vector reproductive fitness (discussed below). This fitness cost to the mosquito probably in part drives the mosquito to mount an active immune response. Efficient resistance to a pathogen can also be passive, and it is likely that genetic variation of critical mosquito molecules can yield parasite-resistant vector phenotypes by making the vector functionally invisible to the parasite at key developmental junctures, analogous to human genotypes with mutant CCR5...

Miscellaneous Antineoplastic Drugs

When asparaginase is administered to a patient with diabetes, the risk for hyperglycemia is increased a dosage adjustment of the oral antidiabetic drug may be necessary. Glucocorticoids decrease the effectiveness of aldesleukin. When aldesleukin is administered with antihypertensive drugs, there is an additive hypotensive effect. Etoposide may decrease the immune response to live viral vaccines.

Symptomatic Relief in Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord Injury

The results of the study were mixed, and a large placebo effect was noted. There was no change in Ashworth score following 15 weeks of treatment with either THC or Cannador, but both active treatments demonstrated significant improvements in subjective measures of spasticity, muscle spasms, pain and sleep, and also in an objective measure of mobility. No effect was apparent on irritability, depression, tiredness, tremor or loss of energy. The authors noted an unexpected reduction in hospital admissions for relapse in the two active treatment groups. The known interaction of cannabinoids with the immune system, and the fact that MS is still regarded as an auto-immune condition led them to comment that this finding was worthy of further investigation. Minor unwanted effects were frequently reported in all three treatment groups, with a higher prevalence for the active treatments. The small number of serious adverse events were evenly spread across the three groups.

Evolution of Immune Genes in Drosophila Populations

Evolutionary forces acting on insect immune systems have been most thoroughly studied in Drosophila, where molecular and phenotypic analyses suggest that genetic variation in immunocompetence is pervasive in wild populations. Comparable data have not yet been obtained from the Anophe-les-Plasmodium system. It has been recognized for some time that natural populations of D. melanogaster harbor genetic variation in the ability to resist parasitization by endoparasitic wasps (Carton and Bouletreau 1985 Hughes and Sokolowski 1996 Kraaijeveld and Godfray 1997). Although resistance to parasitization in wild flies is very low, artificial selection for true-breeding fly lines exhibiting high rates of wasp egg encapsulation has been successful (Carton et al. 1992 Kraaijeveld and Godfray 1997) and attributable to a small number of genes with large effects (Benassi et al. 1992 Orr and Irving 1997). In at least one case, the resistance phenotype seemed to result from increased hemocyte production...

General risks of multiple immunizations

Some parents, particularly in industrialized countries, believe that infants get more vaccines than are good for them, and they fear that too many immunizations could overwhelm the infant's immune system. However, the actual number of antigens that children receive in the USA (the schedule includes 11 vaccines) or in some Western European countries (on average 9 vaccines) has declined when compared with immunization programs used during the 1960s or 1980s. Whereas smallpox vaccine contained about 200 proteins, the current routinely recommended vaccines for children in countries in which whole-cell pertussis vaccine was replaced by acel-lular pertussis vaccine (for example Austria, Germany, Japan, the Scandinavian countries, the USA) contain a total of 50-125 proteins and polysaccharides. The replacement of whole-cell pertussis vaccine by acellular pertussis vaccine reduced the content of immunogenic proteins and polysaccharides from about 3000 to a range of 2-5. (Table 12) (57). If...

Susceptibility Factors

It is well known that immune deficiency can play a distinct role in the development of adverse effects after immunization, particularly in connection with the administration of live virus vaccines. The first such experience was with smallpox vaccine people with immune defects had a markedly increased risk of complications, for example generalized vaccinia. Disseminated BCG infection is usually associated with severe abnormalities of cellular immunity. The risk of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis is increased in immunodeficient children. There have been several reports of adverse events or death after measles immunization in immunodeficient children. Based on these experiences, there is a general consensus that live vaccines should not be given to people with immune deficiency diseases or to those whose immune response is suppressed because of leukemia, lymphoma, generalized malignancy, or therapy with glucocorticoids, alkylat-ing agents, antimetabolites, or radiation (SEDA-12, 268).

Epidemiological Data

Use of herbal medicines in preoperative patients has sparked great interest because of the possibility that such therapies may alter immune response, retard wound healing or interfere with drugs or coagulation parameters relatively little is known about the incidence of herbal use specifically in the paediatric surgical population.

General Development and Uses

With large number of amino groups on the surface. At the time of transplantation of whole heart in the recipient mice, the dendrimer )3-gal pDNA was directly injected into the graft tissue. X-gal staining revealed a highly efficient and wide spread transgene expression in both myocytes and the graft infiltrating cells with the peak lasting up to 14 days. For organtransplantation, severe tissue rejection is a common immune response. Viral IL-10, a cy-synthesis inhibitory factor, is able to regulate a variety of negative immune responses by suppressing the synthesis of IFN-y or inhibiting IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and TNF-a (239-242). Direct injection of this den-drimer viral IL-10 gene with a-MHC promoter polyplex to the cardiac tissue showed an increased survival of the cardiac allograft. As little as 0.31 xg of the injected pDNAled to an increased mean survival from 13.9 to 38.6 days.

Breastfeeding despite environmental contaminants

Not enough is known about the long-term effect of the contami nants discussed in this chapter. There are indications that polychlo-rinated dioxins and furans may inhibit the immune system and promote tumor development (WHO 1989, Knutsen 1984), but not yet in connection with average exposure via the mother's milk.

Susceptibility Factors Age

The only recognized toxic effect in infants is anemia within the first 6 weeks of life, which is not associated with premature delivery, duration of maternal treatment, degree of maternal immunosuppression, or maternal anemia. An 18-month follow-up of 342 children born to mothers who had taken zidovudine or placebo during pregnancy has recently been reported (38). There were no differences in growth parameters or immune function in uninfected children. In addition, no childhood neo-plasias were reported in either group.

Robert V House Peter T Thomas and Hemendra N Bhargava introduction

Drug abuse is a problem of increasing worldwide significance. In addition to the obvious socioeconomic problems associated with the use of so-called street drugs, the abuse of ethical pharmaceuticals may also result in serious untoward health effects depending upon a wide range of variables (Chiang and Goldfrank 1990). One possible medical complication of drug abuse is modulation of the immune system, or immunotoxicity (Pillai and Watson 1990). The immune system is a highly regulated organ system that presents a variety of potential targets for modulation by drugs. This modulation may take the form of immunosuppression, leading to an enhanced susceptibility to infection or neoplasia conversely, it may take the form of immunostimulation, resulting in hypersensitivity (allergy) or autoimmunity (Luster and Rosenthal 1993). Closely associated with drug abuse in recent years has been the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a retroviral infection spread by sexual...

BCG Bladder Instillation

BCG is a live, attenuated strain of bacterium derived from Mycobacterium bovis that works by stimulating the immune system at a local level in the bladder. The two commercial products, ImmunoCyst and OncoTICE , are derived from the Connaught and TICE strains of bacteria, respectively. BCG is licensed as a bladder instillation for the treatment of primary or recurrent bladder carcinoma, and for the prevention of recurrence following transurethral resection. BCG is contraindicated in patients with active tuberculosis, an impaired immune response, or other infections (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus, urinary tract infection).

Tetravalent pentavalent and hexavalent immunization

DTaP or DTwP vaccine can be combined with other antigens, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), inactivated poliovaccine (IPV), and hepatitis B vaccine. In children DTaP or DTwP vaccines are the basis for such combinations, while in adults it is mostly Td or Tdap vaccine combined with inactivated poliovaccine (IPV). Current safety concerns regarding combination vaccines have been defined and reviewed (7). The author concluded that there is no evidence that adding vaccines to combination products increases the burden on the immune system, which can respond to many millions of antigens. Combining antigens usually does not increase adverse effects, but it can lead to an overall reduction in adverse events. Before licensure, combination vaccines undergo extensive testing to assure that the new products are safe and effective. The Hexavalent Study Group has compared the immunogenicity and safety of a new liquid hexavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis,...

Nancy E Buckley Diep Burbridge Manop Buranapramest Tanya Ferguson and Renee Y Paau

Marijuana components, such as A-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and endogenous cannabinoids, such as anandamide and 2-arachydonoylglycerol, alter diverse immune functions. Two cannabinoid receptors have been discovered to date, the central cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) and the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2R). The CB1R is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system. The CB2R is expressed mainly in cells of the immune system, suggesting that the CB2R is involved in immunoregulatory events. Cannabinoids have been shown to modulate diverse immune functions including cytokine production, lymphocyte proliferation, and humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, cannabinoids have been shown to induce different signal transduction pathways. However, the role of cannabi-noids and their receptors in the immune system remains unclear. The objective of the experimental methods described herein is to investigate the role of CB2R activation in specific splenocyte and macrophage...

Hyperthyroidism and thyrostatics

The adrenal cortex synthesizes two classes of steroids the corticosteroids (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) and the androgens. Corticosteroids act on the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the preservation of the normal function of the cardiovascular and immune systems, the kidneys, the skeletal muscle, and the endocrine and nervous systems. In addition, corticosteroids allow the organism to resist stressful circumstances such as noxious stimuli and environmental changes. The effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by genomic and non-genomic mechanisms (Czock 2005). Corticosteroids interact with specific receptor proteins in target tissues to regulate the expression of the corticosteroid-rcsponsive genes, modifying the levels of proteins synthesized by these target tissues. The genomic mechanism includes activation of the cytosolic glucocorticoid receptors that lead to activation or repression of protein synthesis,...

Edible Mushroom Maitake Grifola frondosa

Since the boiled water extracts did not show cytotoxicity against Meth A tumor cells, maitake extracts probably strengthen the immune system in vivo to inhibit the growth of tumors. A principal constituent in maitake extracts with antitumor activity is considered to be p-D-glucan, which might affect the human immune system in complex ways 2 . However, our data showed that the RNA fraction in maitake extracts was more effective in antitumor activity than that of p-glucan (Table 4.9), suggesting that the RNA also contributes substantially to the antitumor activity of maitake, working together with p-glucan.

Nutritional Content Not known

A complex group of polysaccharides have been isolated from this mushroom which reportedly stimulate the immune system. One theory is that these polysaccharides stimulate helper T cell production which attack infected cells. Ganoderic acids have also been isolated from Ling Chi and purportedly have anti-coagulating effects on the blood and lower cholesterol levels (See Morigawa et al., 1986). Most recently, studies have been published showing its modulating effects on blood Studies by Stavinoha ( 1990) on mice at the Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio showed thafrntft 'g l powder (sic) or ether extracts of the mushrooms showe significant anti-in-flammatc activiw comparable to hydrocortisone. Weil (1993) noted that it s difficult to reconcile fhaTa l hroom ou d both be an immune stimulator and an anti-inflammatory agent. His point is a n tflamm ory agents generally suppress immune function, not enhance it. However, many tos of STarevi Jed as autoimmune disorders. If the mode of...

Acyclovir antiretroviral drugs and other virustatics

With acyclovir, with an M P ratio of 2-4, the fully breastfed infant takes in 1 of an oral maternal weight-related dosage (Meyer 1988). When 900 mg daily is administered intravenously, this is on average 5 (Bork 1995). Toxic symptoms have not been observed (Taddio 1994, Meyer 1988). The risk of influencing the infant's immune system as a result of exposure via the mother's milk appears, in the light of current experience, to be simply theoretical.

Concluding Remarks And Future Directions

The recent significant progress in marijuana-cannabinoid research has led to a new understanding about the biological effects and the unique therapeutic possibilities of targeting the EPCS, which is activated by THC and marijuana use. In just a few years since the discovery of endocannabinoids that serve as cannabinoids in vivo, these lipid-signaling molecules and endolipids have been shown to participate in a broad array of physiological and pathological processes. However, the impact of lipidomics and these new lipid-signaling pathways in modulating behavioral neurobiology and aspects of drug addiction is of current interest. It is now clear that marijuana use is addicting in vulnerable populations. Just like most medications that are not benign, benzodiazepines, opiates, and marijuana have side effects that accompany their therapeutic use. Unlike opiates, the intensity of the craving and withdrawal reactions appear to be mild and vary from individual to individual. Thus, we can...

Diphtheriatetanus or diphtheria tetanuspertussis vaccines in combination with other vaccines

DTaP or DTwP vaccine can be combined with other antigens, such as Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and hepatitis B vaccine. In children DTaP or DTwP vaccines are the basis for such combinations, while in adults it is mostly Td vaccine, Current safety concerns regarding combination vaccines have been defined and reviewed (17r). The author concluded that there is no evidence that adding vaccines to combination products increases the burden on the immune system, which can respond to many millions of antigens. Combining antigens usually does not increase adverse effects, but it can lead to an overall reduction in adverse events. Before licensure, combination vaccines undergo extensive testing to assure that the new products are safe and effective.

Ethylene diamine tetraacetate

Median Lethal Dose

The possibilities for intracellular sites of action are numerous. We have already discussed enzyme inhibition and induction. There are compounds used in cancer chemotherapy which will become involved in DNA and RNA superstructures preventing transcription and translation or replication. Also recall the action of colchichine, the drug used for gout. It interfered with microtubule and microfilament formation necessary for cell proliferation during the inflammatory response of the immune system.

Gordon Farrell Ethridge

Response D The possibility of arrest is itself a terrible punishment for seriously ill patients. Imagine the stress of knowing that you can be arrested and taken to jail at any moment. Stress and anxiety are proven detriments to health and the immune system. Should patients have to jump out of bed every time they hear a bump in the night, worrying that the police are finally coming to take them away

Exogenous Cannabinoids

They indicated that THC, 48-THC, 1-methyl 48-THC and abnormal 48-THC caused immunosuppression, based on reduction of the humoral immune response to SRBC as measured by spleen plaque-forming cells. Furthermore, this suppression was not related to CNS activity, since 1-methyl48-THC and abnormal 48-THChad minimal CNS activity. Titishovet al. (1989) injected mice with (+) and (-)enantiomers of the dimethyl heptyl derivative of THC, HU-210 and HU-211, and reported that they exerted stereospecific effects on the immune system. It was concluded, however, that immune suppression was effected both by receptor and non-receptor-mediated modes. Schatz et al. (1992) reported that inhibition of adenylate cyclase by THC constituted a potential mechanism for cannabinoid-mediated immunosuppression. Diaz et al. (1993) treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures with THC and a variety of cAMP stimulators. Lymphocyte cAMP levels were stimulated using three hormone receptor...

Models and Mechanisms of Plant Disease Resistance

Like insects, plants lack a circulating immune system and rely exclusively on a form of innate immunity to defend themselves from pathogen attack. The best-understood form of plant disease resistance is known as gene-for-gene resistance. It is so named because of early observations that particular loci in

Medical And Behavioral Toxicity Overview

These include cancer of the esophagus, oropharynx (mouth and throat), and liver. Other cancers possibly associated with alcohol consumption include cancer of the breast, stomach, prostate, and colon (Geokas, 1984). Alcohol plays a synergistic (multiplicative) role with smoking tobacco in the development of cancer, particularly with respect to the head, neck, and esophagus. There are several possible mechanisms through which alcohol enhances the onset of cancer. Alcohol appears to modify the immune response to cancers, facilitate delivery of carcinogens (substances which enhance cancer onset), and impair protective responses. Overall, alcohol is considered to act as a co-carcinogen for example, it increases the likelihood of certain smoking-induced cancers. Cortisol is a hormone (chemical messenger) responsible for multiple effects on the body, including changes in the immune response, glucose regulation, fat breakdown, blood pressure, and mood....

Immune Globulins and Antivenins

Antibodies in the immune globulin preparations may interfere with the immune response to live virus vaccines, particularly measles, but also others, such as mumps and rubella. It is recommended that the live virus vaccines be administered 14 to 30 days before or 6 to 12 weeks after administration of immune globulins. No known interactions have been reported with antivenins.

Special hazards of smoked cannabis

In volunteers who were subjected to a saline rinse of their lungs in order to sample the population of white blood cells present, about 2-3 times more macrophages were collected from the lungs of tobacco or cannabis smokers versus non-smokers, suggesting the presence of an inflammatory response (125C, 126C). The macrophages from both tobacco smokers and cannabis smokers also had significantly impaired ability to kill and engulf yeasts (Candida albicans) or bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). The macrophages from smokers were also less able to generate some of the chemical toxins (e.g. superoxides) that they normally use to kill invading micro-organisms, or the cytokines that help to activate further inflammatory and immune system responses (126C). In addition, the macrophages had impaired ability to attack and kill cancer cells (small cell cancers) in vitro. The depressed immune function may be caused by an interaction of THC with the CB2 receptors present on macrophages (126C). These...

Conclusion On Cytotoxic Drugs

The ability of taxanes to arrest cells in the radiosensitive G2 and M phase of the cell cycle was the original rationale for using taxanes as radiation enhancers however, subsequent studies revealed additional mechanisms to be involved, particularly for the in vivo augmentation of tumor radioresponse. These include tumor reoxygenation, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, and taxane-induced stimulation of antitumor immune response mechanisms. Of these mechanisms, tumor oxygenation seems to dominate in tumors that respond to taxanes by both mitotic arrest and apoptosis (or necrosis taxane-sensi-tive tumors), and G2 M arrest seems to dominate in tumors that respond to taxanes only by mitotic arrest (taxane resistant tumors). These mechanisms may be decisive in designing the most effective taxane-radiation treatment schedule. There is some evidence suggesting that the best treatment schedule for tumors sensitive to taxanes would consist of one or two doses of taxane weekly in combination...

Display 544 Example of Passive Immunity

Both vaccines and toxoids are administered to stimulate the immune response within the body to specific antigens or toxins. These agents must be administered before exposure to the pathogenic organism. The initiation of the immune response, in turn, produces resistance to a specific infectious disease. The immunity produced in this manner is active immunity. Display 54-5 gives examples of indications for use of toxoids and

Allergic Drug Reactions

A drug allergy occurs because the individual's immune system views the drug as a foreign substance or antigen. The presence of an antigen stimulates the antigen-antibody response that in turn prompts the body to produce antibodies. If the patient takes the drug after the antigen-antibody response has occurred, an allergic reaction results.

Catalytic antibodies for treatment of drug abuse

Currently the immunotherapy literature is not clear about the dose of antibody that would be needed to rapidly reduce the body burden, and thereby the toxicity, of drugs. Nevertheless, some studies suggest it is necessary to use approximately 0.3 to 1.0 mole equivalent doses of anti-drug antibodies. Since the Km values for cocaine catalytic antibodies are likely to be relatively high compared to the Kd values for anti-drug antibodies, it is especially difficult to estimate the amount of catalytic antibodies that would be necessary to be effective in various medical situations. Nevertheless, based on the expected high Km values for cocaine metabolism, the amount of antibody needed for effective treatment will likely be significantly greater than the 0.3 to 1.0 mole equivalents of a high-affinity (low Kd value) anti-cocaine antibody. It has also been suggested that cocaine catalytic antibodies could be used for chronic treatment (for months) of cocaine addicts to augment behavioral...

Cempoalxochitl Tagetes

Centedrin Methylphenidate hydrochloride. Centek Polish colloquial term for LSD. Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies US Center which mission is to promote the identification, prevention and effective treatment of alcohol and other drug use problems in our society through research, publications, education and training. Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research A consortium between the US University of Pittsburgh and St. Francis Medical Center. CEDAR serves to elucidate the factors contributing to the variation in the liability to drug abuse and determine the developmental pathways culminating in drug abuse outcome, normal outcome, and psychiatric behavioral disorder outcome. Center for Substance Abuse Research CESAR, The US Center for Substance Abuse Research located at the University of Maryland and provides a weekly fax service on drug abuse related topics also. Center-ef-barb Phenobarbital. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, agency of the United States Public...

The Effects Of Drugs And Neuropeptides On Immunomodulation And Opportunistic Infection Summary Of Symposium

The use of recreational drugs of abuse by a large number of individuals in this country and abroad has aroused serious concerns about the consequences of this activity. The relationship between drug abuse and increased incidence of infectious diseases has stimulated investigations of whether and how such drugs affect immune function, especially against infectious agents. This symposium session focused attention on newer information about immunological effects of drugs of abuse and neuropeptides on infectious diseases. Dr. Kenneth L. Bost of the University of North Carolina summarized studies from his laboratory concerning the receptor to P-septins in the neurological system and initiation of the mucosal immune response. Antagonism of substance P binding to its receptor early in the mucosal immune response against intracellular pathogens such as Salmonella limited the host's capacity to resist infection. His laboratory defined the mechanisms for this finding by snowing that substance P...

Cotrimoxazole trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole

Skin Toxic-epidermal necrolysis due to co-trimoxazole has recently been reviewed (39R). Almost a third of cases are associated with sulfonamides and occur in patients who are slow acetylators and unable to detoxify a reactive metabolite that binds to epidermal cells, inducing an immune response. The onset usually occurs within 2 weeks of initial treatment with co-trimoxazole. It is not dose-related and can occur in individuals with no previous adverse reactions to co-trimoxazole. Management is supportive systemic corticosteroids are not recommended.

Role of Salvage Cystectomy

Salvage cystectomy plays an important role in an organ-preserving treatment concept in bladder cancer. In contrast to local recurrences after radical cystectomy, which are considered as incurable and are therefore nearly exclusively treated with palliative intent, local recurrences in the preserved bladder can be treated with curative intent. Thirty to 40 of patients who undergo an organ-preserving treatment with radio- or radiochemotherapy present with residual microscopic disease or locally recurrent tumors after completion of radiotherapy. About half of these recurrences are superficial tumors which play an important role in the long-term follow-up of patients. Most of these tumors represent new primaries and are not true local recurrences. Non-invasive tumors (Tis, Ta) can be successfully managed by transurethral surgery again, either as sole treatment or in combination with intravesical chemo- or immunotherapy. Deeply infiltrating muscle invasive recurrences (most of them are...

The Long Term Health Effects of Methamphetamine

Health Effects Methamphetamine

Heavy use of meth lowers immune function (the body's ability to heal). Meth raises blood pressure, and over time weakens and destroys blood vessels. This cuts off blood flow to parts of the body. Crank bug sores often take a long time to heal, and meth users' skin in general loses it elasticity and shine. Chronic meth users tend to forget about basic self-care, such as brushing teeth, taking a shower, eating, sleeping, or wearing clean clothes. All of these combine to dramatically age the body, making a meth user look much older than he or she really is.7

Cannabinoids and Immunomodulation

Immune inflammatory responses are at the basis of a number of pathological conditions. CB1 are mainly found centrally and mediate analgesic effects of cannab-inoids. CB2 receptors are mainly found on cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, T-lymphocytes, and natural killer cells (93). High doses of cannabinoids suppress immune responses, whereas low doses cause metabolic stimulation of lymphocytes (94,95). The mechanism of immunomodulation by cannabinoids is still unclear, but evidence suggests that CB2 receptors mediate most of these effects, with The immunomodulatory effects of THC have been tested in a laboratory model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Placebo-treated animals died, whereas THC-treated animals survived and had no or minimal signs (97) and notably reduced inflammatory response. These results were reproduced with various THC-like drugs, and anecdotal reports from multiple sclerosis patients that marijuana would decrease...

Health Supplement Alert Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain. The use of melatonin obtained from animal pineal tissue is not recommended because of the risk of contamination. The synthetic form of melatonin does not carry this risk. However, melatonin is an over-the-counter dietary supplement and has not been evaluated for safety, effectiveness, and purity by the FDA. All of the potential risks and benefits may not be known. Supplements should be purchased from a reliable source to minimize the risk of contamination. Melatonin has been used in treating insomnia, overcoming jet lag, improving the effectiveness of the immune system, and as an antioxidant. The most significant use is for the short-term treatment of insomnia at low doses. Individuals wishing to use melatonin should consult with their primary health care provider or a pharmacist before using the supplement. Possible adverse reactions include headache and depression. Drowsiness may occur within 30 minutes after taking...

Structure Activity Relationships

Large Molecular Formulas

A-Melanotropin (a-MSH), was one of the first peptide hormones isolated from the pituitary gland (131-135). This hormone plays an important role in skin pigmentation. Other effects ascribed to this hormone include (l)regulation of the release of pituitary and peripheral hormones, such as somatostatin and corticotropin (2) sebotro-phic effects, adrenal steroidogenesis, immune response, cardiovascular and metabolic effects and (3) important roles in the CNS such as (a)control over learning, memory, motivation, sleep, sexuality, and food intake (associated with obesity) (b) effects on neurotransmission such as cholinergic and dopaminergic systems (c) neurochemical effects (d) hypothermic and antipyretic effects (e) effects on nerve regeneration and (f) interactions with other neuroactive compounds such as opiates.

Cannabinoid Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes

Marijuana smoking and purified THC were first proposed as immune modulators in the 1970s when abnormal leukocyte proliferation was observed in spleen cells collected from THC-treated animals (55) and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from a sample of chronic marijuana smokers (56). However, similar findings were not reported in other clinical studies (57,58), and it was not until the discovery of the two different cannabinoid receptors that interactions between cannabinoids and the immune system began to be investigated in detail (59-62). Both CB1 and CB2 are seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors that block forskolin-induced accumulation of intracellular cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) when activated (63). They have also been linked to a number of other signaling events, including changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinases, and nuclear factor for immunoglobulin k chain (NF-kB). Whereas CB1 receptors are expressed at high levels in the central...

Lymphocyte Modulation By Seven Transmembrane Receptors A Brief Review Of Session

In his Symposium Lecture, Guy Cabral, from the Medical College of Virginia, summarized converging lines of evidence showing that a variety of seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors expressed in the brain are identical to, or have similar subtypes, as those found on immune cells. Included are receptors for cannabinoids, chemokines, opiate alkyloids, and opioid peptides. Two cannabinoid receptor subtypes with the following tissue expression patterns have been identified the first, designated as has been localized primarily to neural tissue, but has also been identified in testis and cells of the immune system the second, termed has only been detected in cells of the immune system, including B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer localization of CB receptor protein with a microglial marker reactive to Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4, have all confirmed the presence of the CB receptor on rat microglial cells. Although there is much to be learned about the...

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