Herbal Treatment for Hyperhidrosis
Panic Attacks A panic attack, also called an anxiety attack, is a discrete period of intense subjective anxiety accompanied by physical symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, tremor, nausea, and fears of dying, having a heart attack, or going crazy. Panic attacks often begin suddenly and may last from a few minutes to a few hours. Panic disorder (PD) is the diagnostic label generally applied to people with the syndrome of panic attacks.
Its adverse effects include restlessness, prolonged and forced expiration, nausea and vomiting, sweating, and skin reactions the last include rashes (2), occasionally oral lichenoid eruptions (3), and ulceration (4). Muscle twitching and mental disorientation can also occur in the elderly. With large doses, convulsions can occur (5).
Adverse drug reactions to MDMA were first reported in the mid-1980s. Consistently reported findings include rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, teeth grinding, tense muscles, nausea, sweating, difficulty urinating, and headache (Buchanan 1985 Greer and Tolbert 1986 Hayner and McKinney 1986 Bryden et al. 1995). These effects, which may result in part from increased adrenaline (alpha-adrenergic activity), can last from hours to days after MDMA use and occur even after a single dose. Other reported effects of MDMA use have included psychosis, panic, and depression. See Mental Health Problems Associated with MDMA Use for further information on psychiatric complications. Not surprisingly, people whose only complications from using MDMA are teeth grinding or sweating almost never have to go to the hospital. One report indicates, however, that a large proportion of people who do go to emergency departments are first-time users who are experiencing what might be considered typical adverse...
Five cases of severe headache refractory to oral analgesics have been reported in patients treated with 10-38 MU of botulinum toxin for glabella frown lines (n 4) and in a patient treated with 120 MU for palmar hyperhidrosis (10). The headache lasted for 8 days to 4 weeks, did not respond to oral prednisolone, and in some patients was accompanied by photophobia, ear tenderness, or nasal congestion. Two patients had had a similar headache after a previous treatment with botulinum toxin and in another patient a similar headache occurred after the next treatment. None of the patients had a history of severe headaches. A 25-year-old woman was treated with botulinum toxin for hyperhidrosis of the axillae and hands in one session with a total amount of 1400 MU. Six days later she complained of diffuse weakness, diplopia, mild bilateral ptosis, severe weakness in the fingers, and reduced lacrimation, salivary production, and sweating (14). She recovered completely within 2 months.
Panic Disorder The syndrome of panic disorder consists of panic attacks, the sudden onset of intense fearfulness accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain, nausea, and fears of dying or having a heart attack. Panic attacks can occur in a variety of situations and psychiatric disorders but most commonly occur in people who suffer from anxiety. The attacks themselves last from a few minutes to a few hours and are extremely unpleasant and intensely distressing. The worry about having another attack can be as disabling as the attacks themselves, especially if your worrying leads you to stay home and avoid anything that may precipitate an attack.
The elimination of caffeine has been described in a neo-nate weighing 1860 g, born at 31 weeks of gestation, after the accidental administration of 160 mg kg. The first serum concentration was 218 mg l at 36.5 hours after dosing. The half-life was 81 hours, the clearance 0.01 l hour (0.17 ml minute), and the volume of distribution 1.17 liters. Toxic manifestations were hypertonia, sweating, tachycardia, cardiac failure, pulmonary edema, and metabolic disturbances such as metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia, and raised creatine kinase activity. An unusual feature of this infant's illness was gastric dilatation. These signs resolved by day 7 at a serum concentration of 60-70 mg l (39).
Because this group of drugs may have widespread effects, the nurse must closely observe all patients for the appearance of adverse drug reactions. In hot weather, sweating may decrease and may be followed by heat prostration. The nurse observes the patient at frequent intervals for signs of heat prostration (see Adverse Reactions), especially if the patient is elderly or debilitated. The nurse withholds the next dose of the drug and contacts the primary health care provider immediately if heat prostration is suspected. The nurse observes the elderly patient receiving a cholinergic blocking drug at frequent intervals for excitement, agitation, mental confusion, drowsiness, urinary retention, or other adverse effects. If any of these should occur, it is important to withhold the next dose of the drug and contact the
Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs) Named for their chemical structure, TCAs are the gold standard for treatment of depression because of their effectiveness. They need to be taken every day and take some weeks to work. They have been supplanted by other drugs, notably the SSRIs, because of their tendency to cause weight gain, dry mouth, constipation, sweating, and low blood pressure.
Clofazimine is a strongly lipophilic dye and accumulates in tissues, especially fat, bile, macrophages, the reti-culoendothelial system, and skin. This is the basis of adverse reactions, including skin discoloration (1). Lymphedema (2), diminished sweating, and reduced tearing have been observed (3).
Several cases of hypertension have been associated with clozapine (SEDA-22, 57), and alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade has been proposed as a possible mechanism (18). Four patients developed pseudopheochromocytoma syndrome associated with clozapine (23) all had hypertension, profuse sweating, and obesity. The authors suggested that clozapine could increase plasma noradre-naline concentrations by inhibiting presynaptic reuptake mediated by alpha2-adrenoceptors.
Rebound psychosis or delirium or both have been reported after withdrawal of clozapine (166-171). Clozapine withdrawal has also been associated with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, restlessness, agitation, and sweating (172,173), which occur as the result of cho-linergic rebound and which may respond to anticholiner-gic drugs (174), and with dystonias and dyskinesias. Delirium and the return of dyskinetic movements can occur within days after clozapine withdrawal.
As a general rule, mortality is higher when cocaine is used intravenously or as smoked free base than if taken nasally or orally (22). The symptoms of acute cocaine poisoning include agitation, sweating, tachycardia, tonic-clonic seizures, severe respiratory and metabolic acidosis, apnea, and ventricular dysrhythmias. Seizures occur at high doses, and may be a major determinant of fatal outcomes their control with sedatives is important to reduce lethality (23). Associated hyperthermia can contribute as a primary cause in cases of fatal hyperpyrexia, and can potentiate the hypoxic cardiovascular events in cardiac deaths in those who survive the initial acute dose (24,25). A study of a very large number of cocaine deaths showed that the morbidity rate increased by four times on days on which the ambient temperature rose above 31.1 C (26). The final agonal events in cocaine deaths involve the combination of sympathomimetic myocardial responses and or cardiac conduction slowing,...
Tests with normal persons find that flurazepam has equal or less appeal compared to placebo. Medical authorities examining the drug in the 1970s concluded that it probably had little potential for abuse. Despite the drug's apparent low appeal, it can create a physical dependence with a person's body. Withdrawal symptoms can include peevishness, fidgeting, anxiety, sweating, tremors, high blood pressure, and intolerance to light and sounds. One longtime user of flurazepam and diazepam developed such a strong dependence with them that a severe withdrawal syndrome occurred when she suddenly halted dosage cramps, stomach discomfort, nervous unease, sleep difficulty, and nightmares. Milder versions of such symptoms are reported if the original level of dependence is lighter. Symptoms can be avoided if flur-azepam usage is tapered off rather than stopped suddenly. Volunteers who received flurazepam in a long-term experiment consistently detected the difference between the...
Taking further lithium and contact their psychiatrist promptly. A lithium level should be obtained as soon as possible that same day and the symptoms followed closely for the next several days. The psychiatrist should also be contacted if the patient develops new gastrointestinal symptoms, especially vomiting or diarrhea. These symptoms may reflect an elevated lithium level or may, even if caused by an unrelated factor (such as gastrointestinal infection), trigger an elevation in the lithium level as a consequence of fluid and electrolyte changes. Other causes of fluid loss with insufficient replacement, such as excessive sweating due to heat exposure or fever, should also prompt a temporary discontinuation of lithium treatment until fluid balance is restored. Concomitant use of other medications may also increase levels of lithium and lead to lithium intoxication (See 'Drug Interactions').
Adverse reactions may occur if the dosage is too high or prolonged, or if withdrawal is too rapid. Administration of fludrocortisone may cause edema, hypertension, congestive heart failure, enlargement of the heart, increased sweating, or allergic skin rash. Additional adverse reactions include hypokalemia, muscular weakness, headache, and hypersensitivity reactions. Because this drug has glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activity and is often given with the glucocorticoids, adverse reactions of the glucocorticoids must be closely monitored as well (see Display 50-2).
At high doses the drug exhibits classic amphetamine effects appetite loss, insomnia, hallucinations, paranoia, restlessness, and impaired ability to focus attention and to get along with people. Users have said meth-cathinone is more prone to produce paranoia than methamphetamine. In animal experiments methcathinone interferes with breathing, promotes trembling and epilepticlike seizures, and impedes limb control. In humans a dose may increase body temperature, cause irregular heart rate, excessively reduce blood pressure, bring on nosebleeds, produce red and blue spots in extremities accompanied by cold sweating, promote tics and cramps along with nausea and headaches, generate evidence of liver and kidney damage, and cause in
In any case, MDMA's use in psychotherapy to stimulate positive feelings, such as openness and empathy, would seem to recommend it for a possible clinical role in treating depression. Riedlinger (1985) first proposed this in a discussion of MDMA's positive isomer activity and consequent release of serotonin in the brain. Because it is a potent releaser of serotonin into the synapse, and because of its short duration of effect, MDMA seems to be both effective and efficient as a drug for the medical treatment of depression. It works to enhance serotonergic function and mood in a matter of hours instead of weeks (as is the case for most prescription antidepressants), and it is effective when administered infrequendy, perhaps in weekly or monthly dosing intervals. This compares favorably to the multiple daily dosing required for most of the currendy available drugs that can be prescribed for treating depression (such as tricyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, serotonin reuptake...
Investigations into the use of noradrenergic agents as anxiolytics were first directed toward their use in anxious musical performers. -Blockers such as propranolol were found to be useful in alleviating symptoms of anxiety (e.g., palpitations, sweating). Years later, clonidine was shown by Gold et al. (1978) to be effective in blocking physiological symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. Although not found to be effective in blocking panic, agents such as propranolol, atenolol, and nadolol have been found to be useful when used adjunctively with other agents in reducing symptoms of autonomic arousal associated with panic and social anxiety (Rosenbaum et al. 1998). Importantly, propranolol is metabolized primarily by CYP2D6 and should probably be used in lower dosages in Asians who are slower metabolizers of CYP2D6 substrates.
Headache, infections, diarrhea, gastritis, stomatitis, rash, and sweating. Serum gastrin concentrations increased over time in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in the mean change in fasting serum gastrin from baseline to end-point +40 pg ml with rabeprazole and +19 pg ml with omeprazole. However, mean values at the end of the study were in the reference range in both groups.
The relatively low intensity of physiological withdrawal symptoms resulting from heavy marijuana use may have contributed to marijuana's not being viewed as dependence producing. However, studies have documented that people who use marijuana heavily and chronically may develop both physiological and psychological dependence and that cessation from use may produce a withdrawal syndrome broadly characterized by restlessness, irritability, mild agitation, insomnia, decreased appetite, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stomach pain, nausea, runny nose, sweating, and cramping (Crowley et al. 1998 Haney et al. 1999b Wiesbeck et al. 1996). These symptoms commonly abate within a few days to 2 weeks of abstinence from marijuana.
Ies indicate a pattern of cannabis withdrawal signs. In an early inpatient study, Jones and his colleagues reported that subjects reported a variety of subjective effects upon abrupt discontinuation from chronic oral THC, which included strange dreams, decreased appetite, restlessness, irritability, sweating, chills, and nausea (Jones and Benowitz 1976 Jones et al. 1976). More recently, similar abstinence symptoms were reported by subjects following abrupt withdrawal from continued administration of either oral THC (Haney et al. 1999a) or inhalation of smoked marijuana (Haney et al. 1999b). In these studies, subjects were found to experience increased anxiety, irritability, and stomach pain, as well as exhibit decreases in food intake. The authors of these studies suggested that daily marijuana use might be sustained, in part, to alleviate or avoid withdrawal effects.
While many people report that peyote and mescaline produce euphoria, others have reactions to the drug that are far from enjoyable. Some people have described their experiences with peyote and mescaline as terrifying and horrific. This kind of reaction may be brought on by the physical effects of the drug (increased heart rate, sweating, nausea, vomiting), which sometimes create the sensation that the user is going to lose control or die. Others become so paranoid and suspicious that they may become violent toward those around them. Users can also develop delusions (false beliefs) and feel that other people or things are intent on harming them. This type of reaction is often referred to as a psychosis, and resembles some of the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Treatment guidelines for depression and anxiety increasingly emphasize the value of longer-term maintenance treatment with antidepressants in order to prevent recurrence of illness. It is therefore important to assess the adverse effects burden of longer-term medication. The change in adverse effects profile over 1 year of treatment has been studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of maintenance treatment with imipramine (average daily dose 160 mg) in 53 patients with panic disorder (15). Adverse effects of imipramine, such as sweating, dry mouth, and increased heart rate, persisted over the year of treatment, while rates of sexual dysfunction fell. Weight gain became increasingly problematic, and by the end of the trial imipramine-treated patients had a mean increase in weight of 4.5 kg, significantly more than the placebo-treated subjects, who gained only 1.3 kg. Data of this kind are helpful when advising patients on which adverse effects may remit and which are likely...
Rapid intravenous administration of vitamin K can cause facial flushing, sweating, fever, a rise in blood pressure, a feeling of constriction in the chest, and cyanosis. Cases of cardiovascular collapse after intravenous injection of phytomenadione and phytonadione have been reported (39). Intravenous injection of phytomenadione is recommended to be performed slowly at a rate not exceeding 5 mg minute.
Another problem seen in Ecstasy users is acute hyponatremia, a low plasma sodium level due to dilution of the blood with water. Sodium levels are often 125 mmol L or lower (137-147 mmol L is a normal plasma sodium range). This complication occurs among patients who have taken Ecstasy and who also have drunk large amounts of water without losing as much fluid by sweating. This raises a theoretical concern for those users of Ecstasy who are commonly advised by friends to drink plenty of fluids, possibly to guard against hyperthermia and dehydration. The problem is that MDMA causes secretion of antidiuretic hormone. ADH, also known as vasopressin, is a hormone that inhibits urination by promoting increased water reabsorption by the kidneys. An experimental study in healthy volunteers has shown that administration of 40 mg of MDMA (a very low dose) produced a marked rise in levels of ADH in plasma, which was accompanied by a small fall in the sodium concentration (Henry et al. 1998). One...
The high usually begins with a light sickness feeling and thirst, tense muscles and sweating. After 30 minutes the euphoria occurs it has been described as a feeling of universal love and happiness and and urge to get emotional contact with all persons around. There is also a visual impact, the contours of things and persons fade and are colored. For some this is a nice dreamy stage when music, dance and stroboscopic lightning underline the hallucinations but for other or even for the same persons at another time the hallucination can be fearful and give anxiety. Under moderate doses the user seldom lose the complete control of the situation. Many problems users encounter with MDMA are similar to those found with the use of am-fetamines and cocaine. They are Psychological difficulties, including confusion, depression, suicide, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety, and paranoia-during and sometimes weeks after taking MDMA (even psychotic episodes have been reported) Physical...
Dependence may also occur following long-term therapeutic use, but withdrawal symptoms in such cases are mild. Patients complain of gastrointestinal problems, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, sweating, trembling, weakness, anxiety, and changes in perception (e.g. increased sensitivity to light, sound, and smells). Risk of dependency increases if tranquillizers are taken regularly for more than a few months, although problems have been reported within shorter periods. The onset and severity of withdrawal differ between the ben-zodiazepines that are rapidly eliminated from the bod and those that are slowly eliminated. In the former case, symptoms appear within a few hours after stopping the drug and may be more severe. In the latter case, symptoms usually take a few days to appear. If a woman uses tranquillizers regularly, the drug can affect the baby for up to 10 days after birth. Babies may exhibit the withdrawal symptoms common to such other depressant drugs as alcohol and...
Many problems MDMA users encounter are similar to those found with the use of amphetamines and cocaine. Psychological difficulties can include confusion, depression, sleep problems, severe anxiety, and paranoia. Physical problems can include muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating. Use of the drug has also been associated with increases in heart rate and blood pressure, a special risk for people with circulatory or heart disease. Recent research also links Ecstasy use to long-term damage to those parts of the brain critical to thought, memory, and pleasure. Club soda Mixer of carbonated water with some minerals (midway between seltzer and mineral water).
Class of sympathomimetic amines with powerful stimulant action on the central nervous system The class includes amfetamine, dexamfe-tamine, and metamfetamine. Pharmacologically related drugs include methylphenidate, phenmetrazine, and amfepramone (diethyl-propion). In street parlance, amfetamines are often referred to as speed . Symptoms and signs suggestive of intoxication with amfetamines or similarly acting sympathomimetics include tachycardia, pupillary dilatation, elevated blood pressure, hyper-reflexia, sweating, chills, anorexia, nausea or vomiting, insomnia, and abnormal behaviour such as aggression, grandiosity, hypervigi-lance, agitation, and impaired judgement. In rare cases, delirium develops within 24 hours of use. Chronic use commonly induces personality and behaviour changes such as impul-sivity, aggressivity, irritability, suspiciousness, and paranoid psychosis (see Amfetamine psychosis). Cessation of intake after prolonged or heavy use may produce a withdrawal...
A wide variety of psychogenic physical problems have in the past been favorably influenced by LSD psychotherapy this applies equally to organ-neurotic manifestations, symptoms that have the dynamic structure of hysterical or pregenital conversions, and psychosomatic diseases. Painful conditions of various kinds, such as ordinary or migraine headaches, severe menstrual cramps, gastric or intestinal spasms, pains in the neck muscles or in the lumbar area, and even arthritic pains without a detectable organic basis can be traced back to their origins and worked through in the course of LSD therapy. Neurotic disorders of various organs, such as cardiac dysfunction, gastric distress, breathing difficulties, excessive sweating, muscular tremors, constipation or diarrhea, and menstrual irregularities often disappear in the course of LSD treatment. Far-reaching improvements of myopia, which occurred as an unexpected side-effect during LSD psychotherapy with two neurotic patients in Prague,...
Uses Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne. is used mainly to promote urination and treat fever. In China, the wood of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne. is used to promote sweating, digestion, milk secretion and menses, to treat fever, relieve the bowels from costiveness, to resolve inflammation, and to invigorate health. The stalks and fruits are used to expel impurities. The plant is used to treat rheumatism, lumbago, hernia, dropsy, cold and diabetes, to resolve inflammation of the stomach and kidneys, and to assuage headache. In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, the plant is used to invigorate health.The pharmacological potential of Akebia quinata (Thunb.) Decne. remains unexplored. The plant contains saponins (Fujita M et al., 1974) which might be involved in the uses mentioned above.
Postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with morphine either alone or in combination with nefopam (20 mg 4-hourly) or propacetamol (2 g 6-hourly) (132C). Nefopam plus morphine was the most effective treatment. Adverse effects, especially sedation, were comparable in the three groups, but there was significantly more nausea in the morphine group and more sweating in the nefopam group (requiring early drug withdrawal in three cases). Tachycardia was seen more often in the ne-fopam group but did not reach significance.
The alcohol withdrawal syndrome is characterized by tremor, sweating, anxiety, agitation, depression, nausea, and malaise. It occurs 648 hours after cessation of alcohol consumption and, when uncomplicated, abates after 2-5 days. It may be complicated by grand mal seizures and may progress to delirium (known as delirium tremens).
K .Y. (a 31-year-old male) ate five mushrooms. Regurgitation occurred 30 minutes after ingestion, followed by sweating around the head and body his extremities appeared to be slightly paralyzed. This paralysis persisted for another three hours. During this time, the subject had great difficulties handling a pen for writing, his mood was depressed and he experienced hallucinations, such as colorful lights flooding down from the sky. By the following morning, all of these effects had dissipated. The fresh fruiting bodies were bitter, a taste that disappeared after the mushrooms had been cooked in water.
Any mixture of the following feelings of losing control, distortions of body image, bizarre and frightening hallucinations, fears of insanity or death, despair, suicidal thoughts, and strong negative affect. Physical symptoms may include sweating, palpitations, nausea, and paraesthesias. Although adverse reactions of this type are usually associated with the use of hallucinogens, they may also be caused by the use of amfetamines and other psychomotor stimulants, anticholinergics, antihistamines, and sedatives hypnotics. BADD Acronym for Bartenders Against Drunk Driving. Withdrawal syndrome - following persistent use, rapid reduction or total cessation of barbiturates leads to a range of symptoms nausea, vomiting, weakness, sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity (sweating, rapid pulse, elevated blood pressure), insomnia, coarse tremor of the hands or tongue. Grand mal convulsions occur in a high percentage of chronic barbiturate users after abrupt withdrawal Delirium usually appears...
Many illnesses are accompanied by anxiety, a worried state during which a syndrome characterized by feelings of helplessness, despair, dark premonitions, and asthenia begins to develop. It can be accompanied by headaches, increased perspiration, nausea, tachycardia, dry mouth, etc. A state of anxiety can originate from neurological reasons, and can also be of a somatopsychic nature, which is associated with pathological development in diseases of the cardiovascular system, neoplasms, hypertonia, and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Drugs used for relieving anxiety, stress, worry, and fear that do not detract attention from or affect psychomotor activity of the patient are called anxiolytics or tranquilizers. Most of them have sedative and hypnotic action, and in high doses their effects are in many ways similar to barbiturate action. However, the primary advantage of this group over barbiturates lies in their significantly increased value in terms of the ratio of sedative...
The serotonin syndrome is characterized by three or more of the following symptoms confusion, hypoma-nia, agitation, myoclonus, hyper-reflexia, hyperther-mia, shivering, sweating, ataxia, and diarrhea (47). It is most often seen in patients taking a combination of drugs that increase serotonin availability by different mechanisms. Drug combinations that have been reported to cause the serotonin syndrome have been reviewed and the pathophysiology of the syndrome discussed (45). It is probably mediated by stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors. In most reported cases the drug combination associated with the syndrome included a MAO inhibitor (see Table 2). The syndrome is rare, although it has been reported more often during the past few years, and is often due to a combination of a MAO inhibitor and a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor. In most cases the symptoms are mild and resolve rapidly after drug withdrawal and supportive therapy. It must, however, be borne in mind that this syndrome...
Under normal physiological conditions, acetylcholine commands the secretion of sweat to the eccrine glands which results in heat loss. The antipyretic activity of Olax scandens Roxb. could therefore result from the stimulation of sweating through cholinergic stimulation of the eccrine glands (Fig. 179) just like the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine which stimulates sweat glands and was once used to remove excess water and urea in nephritis. Note the presence of choline in the closely related Loranthaceae family. This mechanism is also valid for many other antifebrile Magnoliopsida.
The sequences of dying and being born (or reborn) that are characteristic of the process of perinatal unfolding are frequently very dramatic and have many biological concomitants, apparent even to the outside observer. Subjects may spend hours in agonizing pain, with facial contortions, gasping for breath and discharging enormous amounts of muscular tension in tremors, twitches, violent shaking and complex twisting movements. The face may turn dark purple or dead pale, and the pulse show considerable acceleration. The body temperature usually dscillates in a wide range, sweating may be profuse, and nausea with projectile vomiting is a frequent occurrence.
It's also important to maintain an appropriate level of caloric intake. Symptoms of many psychiatric disorders can intensify somewhat if you eat only one meal a day, or if you are not eating enough. For example, palpitations, tremor, sweating, restlessness, and irritability from anxiety can be more troublesome if you eat only a single meal at dinnertime.
Methadone is well-suited for use as maintenance treatment. It is effective after oral administration and has a long half-life ( 24 h) it suppresses opiate withdrawal syndrome for up to 36 h and it blocks euphoria induced by other opiates. Chronic administration is associated with minimal side effects, the most frequent of which are constipation, excess sweating, reduced sexual interest, but these rarely result in discontinuation of treatment.
All tricyclic compounds (with the possible exception of protriptyline) have sedative effects, and this may be desirable or undesirable, depending on a particular patient's state of apathy or agitation. They have a spectrum of anticholinergic activity, presenting as troublesome adverse effects, such as dry mouth, sweating, confusion, constipation, blurred vision, and urinary hesitancy, depending on individual patient susceptibility. Weight gain is a common and troublesome adverse effect it is mediated in part by histamine Hx receptor antagonism.
As MS progresses, the myelin sheath deteriorates in places over time. Plaques develop and alter nerve conduction pathways. This leads to abnormalities in many organ systems that depend upon nerve cells to signal environmental changes and carry chemical messages throughout the body. The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is severely affected by multiple sclerosis. The ANS controls many involuntary body functions like heart rate, sweating, and glands. 5 This is why MS can affect so many varied bodily systems. (Lioresal) to relax muscles, benzodiazapines like diazepam (Valium), sedatives and tranquilizers. Common side effects of these drugs range from minimal to incapacitating. Dantrolene can cause drooling, sweating, and pleural effusions, hepatitis and tachycardia. Xanax can cause nausea, constipation, drowsiness, benzodiazepine dependence headache and dry mouth. As with many pharmaceutical regimens, the dosage of the drug is increased as the severity of the disease increases. Thus,...
The psychopathological symptoms that can manifest as a result of incompletely resolved LSD sessions cover a very wide range. Essentially, any aspect of an activated dynamic matrix or specific unconscious material that remains unresolved can persist after the session for an indefinite period of time, or recur at a later date. Most frequently, these are various emotional qualities, such as depression, a sense of inferiority, suicidal feelings, affective lability or incontinence, a sense of loneliness, anxiety, guilt, paranoid feelings, aggressive tension, or manic elation. Psychosomatic symptoms that can occur in this context involve nausea and vomiting, difficulties with breathing, psychogenic coughing and gagging, cardiovascular distress, constipation or diarrhea, headaches and pains in various parts of the body, chills and hot flashes, increased sweating, hangover feelings, flu-like symptoms, hypersalivation, skin rashes, and different psychomotor manifestations such as general...
Often the primary reason why opiate overdose results in death. A related problem is that opiates inhibit the cough reflex, which is why opiates are occasionally included in prescription cough medicines. (In fact, heroin was marketed as a cough suppressant in the late 1800s before its addicting properties led the U.S. government to ban it.) Other side effects of opiates are clouded thinking, constipation, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, lowered blood pressure, sweating, and an inability to urinate. Some opiates induce the release of histamine from immune cells (refer to Chapter 2). This can cause itching and allergic reactions. Finally, tolerance, dependence, and addiction are particularly troubling side effects of opiates.
Data are available on the incidence of adverse effects of this drug (1-3). A review of published studies showed that about 13-15 of patients have adverse effects. The withdrawal rate because of unwanted reactions was 3.2-12 in short-term studies and 4 in one long-term trial. Adverse effects involved the gastrointestinal tract in 812 of patients, the central nervous system in 1-10 and the skin (rash, sweating, and itching) in 1-4 . Cutaneous photosensitivity and edema have also been reported.
Excess of both barbiturates and alcohol may result in a form of intoxication with the similar symptoms of impaired mental and psychomo-tor skills. Taken together, barbiturates and alcohol, potentiate each other that is, the effects of the two drugs taken together is greater than the sum of their effects when taken separately. Sudden drug withdrawal can lead to symptoms associated with delirium tremens, such as rapid pulse, elevated blood pressure, profuse sweating, paranoid delusions, and hallucinations. Treatment for chemical dependency, known as detoxification, should only be conducted under close medical supervision, usually in a hospital.
Describe the Associated Symptoms The associated symptoms complete the picture of the main problem. For example, if you are anxious, do you experience chest pain, shortness of breath, trembling, sweating, and feelings of dread that are common in panic attacks, or is your anxiety unaccompanied by physical symptoms If you are depressed, are you unable to function because of low energy, diminished appetite with weight loss, insomnia, suicidal preoccupation, or do you accomplish your daily activities even though you're chronically unhappy
* Notwithstanding his enthusiasm for the psychotherapeutie potential of MDA, Naranjo (p. 77) properly sounds this word of caution MDA has recently proved to be toxic to certain individuals and at varying dose levels as is true of chloroform, among other drugs, what may be a regular dose to most patients may prove fatal to some. Typical warning signals of MDA are confusion, skin reactions, and profuse sweating. Hence, he writes, compatibility of individual patients must be ascertained with progressively increasing test doses before commencing any therapeutic MDA session.
Uses In the Asia-Pacific the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are often used in aromatic baths to resolve swelling, as a perfume, to promote blood circulation, treat skin diseases, heal ulcers and sores. In China, the plant is used to invigorate health, promote digestion, treat asthma, cough, cold, and to clear the voice. In Malaysia, the plant is used to promote urination and to promote recovery from childbirth, and it is believed that diamonds can be found below the roots . In the Palau Islands, the plant is used to combat fever. In the Philippines, Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf is used to promote urination. Asians living in UK use this plant to promote sweating, to invigorate health and to improve digestion.
These amphetamine derivatives have the advantage that they are almost all more active than mescaline, STP being about 80X more active (i.e., requiring only about 5 mg as contrasted with about 400 mg for mescaline), and that they are often easier to synthesize. They do, however, seem to produce somewhat more of the effects of speed (e.g., anxiety, restlessness, sweating) than mescaline. The methyl-enedioxy compounds, on the other hand, produce some of the mildest trips of any psychedelic.
Toxins include Na+ and K+ channel blocking. Intoxication by the proteinaceous toxins mentioned above will produce symptoms of severe local pain (due to other compounds in the venom), sweating, nausea, cramps, hyperglycemia, and respiratory distress. It is well to note here the difference between a venom and a toxin. A venom is a mixture of compounds which each have its own biological action and the chemicals often act in concert to enchance the toxic effects. A toxin is one of the components of a venom, a distinct chemical entity, frequently a protein. It is isolatable and it usually exerts a single biochemical action.
The use of MDMA triggers an excess release of serotonin (McKenna and Peroutka 1990 Rudnick and Wall 1992), which can cause the serotonin syndrome, one of the more serious complications associated with Ecstasy use. This syndrome is a rare, drug-induced event characterized by confusion, difficulty walking, increased sweating, diarrhea, heightened deep tendon reflexes and myoclonus (muscle jerks), poor control of heart rate and blood pressure, shivering and increased muscle tone and rigidity, which can lead to hyperthermia and death (Sternbach 1991 Ames and Wirshing 1993). This syndrome carries a mortality rate of about 10 to 15 percent. Drugs known to affect serotonin metabolism include amphetamines, cocaine, and many different kinds of antidepressants. The occurrence of serotonin syndrome as the result of Ecstasy use may explain some hyperthermic fatalities among patients who engaged in minimal physical exercise. However, since muscle rigidity, a common feature of serotonin syndrome,...
Uses In Indonesia, Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Bl.) Reichb. f. & Zoll. is used to alleviate itchiness, treat cough and assuage toothache. In the Philippines, the leaves are used to treat headache and promote sweating. The pharmacological potentials of Melanolepis multiglandulosa (Bl.) Reichb. f. & Zoll. are yet to be revealed.
Seizures can occur following abuse of GHB and, when combined with methamphetamine, there appears to be an increased risk of seizure. Combining use with other drugs such as alcohol can result in nausea and difficulty breathing. GHB may also produce withdrawal effects, including insomnia, anxiety, tremors, and sweating. Because of concern about Ro-hypnol, GHB, and other similarly abused sedative-hypnotics, the United States Congress passed the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of 1996 in October 1996. This legislation increased Federal penalties for use of any controlled substance to aid in sexual assault. GHB can be produced in clear liquid, white powder, tablet, and capsule forms, and it is often used in combination with alcohol. GHB has been increasingly involved in poisonings, overdoses, date rapes, and fatalities. The drug is used predominantly by adolescents and young adults, often when they attend nightclubs and raves. GHB is often manufactured in homes with recipes...
Methadone is used to substitute for a variety of opioid drugs. It is well absorbed after oral ingestion, with peak blood concentrations after about 4 hours. Steady-state concentrations are reached after about 5 days. By virtue of its long duration of action (the half-life with regular dosing is about 22 hours), methadone suppresses opioid withdrawal symptoms for 24-36 hours. In the early stages of treatment patients may report problems such as drowsiness, insomnia, nausea, euphoria, difficulty in micturition, and excessive sweating. With the exception of chronic constipation and excessive sweating, these effects do not generally persist. Tolerance to the narcotic properties of methadone develops within 4-6 weeks, but tolerance to the autonomic effects (for example constipation and sweating) develops more slowly. The major adverse effects during treatment occur during the initial stabilization phase. In addition to constipation and sweating, the most frequently reported adverse effects...
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor eye drops or exposure to organophosphate insecticides can reduce the activity of plasma cholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase, creating a potentially fatal hazard for surgical patients receiving suxamethonium. During induction of general anesthesia, the presence of anticholinesterase activity in the serum can potentiate the effect of curare-like drugs, such as suxamethonium, used as muscle relaxants, with prolonged apnea after intubation and death. Such eye drops should be stopped 6 weeks before the operation. The importance of inquiring about the use of drugs cannot be overemphasized. Patients often do not regard eye drops as medications and omit this information from their medical history. Complaints of excessive sweating, intermittent diarrhea, muscle weakness, and fatigue over a long period may be due to the usage of ecothiopate eye drops (phos-pholine iodide 0.25 ) for glaucoma and can disappear when the eye drops are withdrawn (13).
To evaluate the patient's response to therapy, and depending on the drug administered, the nurse may check the patient's blood pressure every hour, inquire whether pain has been relieved, or monitor the pulse every 15 minutes. After evaluation, certain other decisions may need to be made and plans of action implemented. For example, the nurse may need to notify the primary health care provider of a marked change in a patient's pulse and respiratory rate after a drug was administered, or the nurse may need to change the bed linen because sweating occurred after a drug used to lower the patient's elevated temperature was administered.
Users of ecstasy face many of the same risks as those who use other stimulants. These include increases in heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating. In high doses, ecstasy can interfere with the body's ability to regulate temperature. This can cause a sharp increase in body temperature known as hyperthermia, which can lead to liver, kidney, and cardiovascular system failure. Ecstasy can interfere with the body's ability to break down the drug. As a result, potentially harmful levels of the drug can accumulate inside a user's body with repeated doses over a short period of time. On rare occasions, an overdose of ecstasy can be fatal.
Cocaine can cause hyperthermia, primarily in hot weather, perhaps through a hypermetabolic state impaired heat dissipation may be another contributing factor. Seven healthy, cocaine-naive subjects participated in tests of progressive passive heat stress, during which each received intranasal cocaine or lidocaine as placebo (170). Esophageal temperature, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and perceived thermal sensation were measured. Cocaine augmented the temperature increase during heat stress and also increased the temperature threshold for the onset of both cutaneous vasodilatation and sweating. It also impaired the perception of heat. This study elicited commentary, in which it was pointed out that measured effects of small doses of cocaine may not be reflective of true cocaine poisoning (171). Also, the subjects in the study did not have psychomotor agitation, which is often prominent in cocaine toxicity and which improves with sedatives.
Primary Sleep Disorders Primary sleep disorders are disturbances in sleep itself. Night terrors, most common in children, are episodes, lasting a few minutes, of intense fearfulness, sweating, screaming, elevated pulse, and rapid breathing. They typically occur during the early part of sleeping in non-REM sleep Stages 1-4. In Sleepwalking (somnambulism), the individual gets out of bed and engages in activity while still asleep. These episodes also occur in non-REM sleep. Sleep apnea is a condition in which the individual stops breathing for brief periods during the night. This disrupts sleep and causes fatigue the next day. In restless legs syndrome, sleep is disrupted because of uncomfortable sensations that lead to an intense urge to move the legs. In periodic limb movements, the limbs jerk, preventing the start of sleep or awakening the individual from sleep.
I suffered in complete silence, afraid that people would mock me. I was embarrassed by the whole thing. Me, suffering from a problem with my mind Don't make me laugh I'm joe cool, mr confident, mr arrogant, a hit with the ladies, always ready for a laugh, always funny and happy. What would my friends think I couldn't let them see me like this, terrified, shaking, with sweating palms, ready to escape at a moments notice. Always on the look out for a what if' situation, always seeing the negative in everything.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice a return of your symptoms if alprazolam is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. The rate at which you should taper it is affected by the duration of your use and the size of your dose, but it may take months if you have been on it for an extended period of time. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if alprazolam is stopped abruptly. They are potentially life-threatening. You should never stop alprazolam abruptly, and you should always work with your physician to taper it gradually.
SIDE EFFECTS Usual (50-100 ) Blurry vision, constipation, dry mouth, fatigue, increased heart rate, low blood pressure. Common (10-50 ) Sweating, weight gain. Less common (1-10 ) Sexual dysfunction, urinary difficulty. Those requiring attention from your physician Physical or emotional changes not listed, such as suicidal thoughts or behavior.
Oxybutynin (Ditropan) acts by relaxing the bladder muscle and reducing spasm. Oxybutynin is used to treat bladder instability (ie, urgency, frequency, leakage, incontinence, and painful or difficult urination) caused by a neurogenic bladder (altered bladder function caused by a nervous system abnormality). Adverse reactions observed in patients taking oxybutynin include dry mouth, constipation or diarrhea, decreased production of tears, decreased sweating, gastrointestinal disturbances, dim vision, and urinary hesistancy.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You will experience narcotic withdrawal symptoms runny nose, sneezing, sweating, goose bumps, fever, chills, restlessness, irritability, weakness, anxiety, depression, dilated pupils, rapid heart beat, abdominal cramps, body aches, twitching, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The severity of these symptoms depends on the length of time you have taken buprenorphine, how much you took each day, whether you also take other drugs, and the rate of tapering. There may be psychological dependence and a craving for narcotics long after the last dose is taken. If stopped abruptly The withdrawal symptoms will be pronounced.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice a return of your symptoms if clonazepam is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. The rate at which you should taper is affected by the duration of your use and the size of your dose but may take months if you have been on it for an extended period of time. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if
SIDE EFFECTS Usual (50-100 ) Blurry vision, constipation, dry mouth, fatigue, increased heart rate, low blood pressure. Common (10-50 ) Agitation, sweating, weight gain. Less common (1-10 ) Insomnia, sexual dysfunction, urinary difficulty. Those requiring attention from your physician Physical or emotional changes not listed, such as suicidal thoughts or behavior.
Precautions Any thyroid drugs should be taken only under the guidance of a physician. Common symptoms include tremors, headaches, irritability, insomnia, changes in appetite, diarrhea, leg cramps, menstrual irregularities, fever, heat sensitivity, unusual swelling, weight loss, and nervousness. Less frequent symptoms include hives, rash, vomiting, chest pain, heartbeat irregularities, and shortness of breath. Overdose symptoms, which can be life-threatening, consist of a hot feeling, heart palpitations, nervousness, sweating, hand tremors, insomnia, rapid and irregular pulse, headaches, irritability, diarrhea, weight loss, muscle cramps, angina, and congestive heart failure.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice a return of your symptoms if diazepam is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. The rate at which you should taper is affected by the duration of your use and the size of your dose, but may take months if you have been on it for an extended period of time. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if diazepam is stopped abruptly. They are potentially life-threatening. You should never stop diazepam abruptly and you should always work with your physician to taper it gradually.
Estrogen is most commonly used in combination with progesterones as contraceptives or as hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. The estrogens are used to relieve moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms of menopause (flushing, sweating), female hypo-gonadism, atrophic vaginitis (orally and intravaginally), osteoporosis in women past menopause, palliative treatment for advanced prostatic carcinoma, and in selected cases of inoperable breast carcinoma. The estradiol transdermal system is used as estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) for moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, female hypogonadism, after removal of the ovaries in premenopausal women (female castration), primary ovarian failure, and in the prevention of osteoporosis. Estrogen is given IM or intravenously (IV) to treat uterine bleeding caused by hormonal imbalance. When estrogen is used to treat menopausal symptoms in a woman with an intact uterus, concurrent use of progestin is recommended...
SIDE EFFECTS Usual (50-100 ) Blurry vision, constipation, dry mouth, fatigue, increased heart rate, low blood pressure. Common (10-50 ) Agitation, sweating, weight gain. Less common (1-10 ) Insomnia, sexual dysfunction, urinary retention. Those requiring attention from your physician Physical or emotional changes not listed, such as suicidal thoughts or behavior.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice a return of your symptoms if estazolam is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if estazolam is stopped abruptly, although this is extremely unlikely with routine use at recommended doses. Seizures are potentially life-threatening. As a result you should always consult with your physician about how to stop it safely.
Some persons experience euphoria from methadone. Unwanted effects can include vitamin deficiency, constipation, sleepiness, breathing difficulty, and low blood pressure. People may feel faint if they suddenly stand up from a sitting or prone position. Nausea, vomiting, constipation, urinary difficulty, sweating, lowered sex drive, and impaired sexual performance are other well-known problems. Liver disease may allow dangerous buildup of methadone levels from normal doses.
Analgesics are drugs which relieve pain without producing unconsciousness. This is accomplished by the ability of these drugs to exert a central depressant action on the optic thalimi of the brain. Most of the drugs listed also create antipyretic effects, along with their analgesic properties. Other than excessive sweating, this should not cause a problem for the recreational drug user. Some of the other drugs, however, do not possess the antipyretic effects.
Lithium should be discontinued or the dosage reduced during risk situations especially when there is prolonged loss of liquid from the body (e.g. vomiting, diarrhoea, excessive sweating, dehydration due to various reasons) other risk situations include physical disease with fever, prolonged unconsciousness, surgery with narcosis, low salt intake, rigorous slimming, and concurrent treatment with diuretics, with non-steroidal antirheumatics, or with ACE inhibitory antihypertensives.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You will experience narcotic withdrawal symptoms runny nose, sneezing, sweating, goose bumps, fever, chills, restlessness, irritability, weakness, anxiety, depression, dilated pupils, rapid heart beat, abdominal cramps, body aches, twitching, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The severity of these symptoms depends on the length of time you have taken methadone, how much you took each day, whether you also take other drugs, and the rate of tapering. There may be psychological dependence and a craving for narcotics long after the last dose is taken. If stopped abruptly The withdrawal symptoms will be pronounced.
Panic attacks are brief, recurrent, unexpected and discrete periods of feelings of intense fear or discomfort. For a diagnosis according to DSM-IV, at least four of the following typical panic symptoms must be present pounding heart or accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling or shaking, sensations of shortness of breath or smothering, feeling of choking, chest pain or discomfort, nausea or abdominal stress, feeling dizzy, light-headed or faint, unsteady, de-realization (feelings of unreality) or depersonalization, fear of losing control or going crazy, fear of dying, paresthesias, and chills or hot flushes. Spontaneous panic attacks occur out of the blue without any obvious environmental or situational triggers. The DSM-IV also identifies (1) situationally bound (cued) panic attacks, in which the panic attack almost invariably occurs immediately on exposure to the situational trigger, and (2) situationally predisposed panic attacks, which are more likely to occur on exposure to...
Social phobia can be characterized as overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in social situations. The fundamental clinical feature of social phobia is a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in the presence of unfamiliar people or when scrutiny by others is possible, even in the context of small groups. Examples would be concern about being unable to speak in public or choking on food when eating in a restaurant. Exposure to such social and performance situations provokes an immediate anxiety response or results in maladaptive avoidance behaviour. Associated features of social phobia frequently include poor social skills, hypersensitivity to criticism and negative evaluation and difficulty of being assertive, as well as low self-esteem and feelings of inferiority. This fear of social situations can be associated with physical symptoms such as blushing, sweating, trembling or heart palpitations. Many people with social phobia recognize that...
SIDE EFFECTS Usual (50-100 ) Blurry vision, constipation, dry mouth, fatigue, increased heart rate, low blood pressure. Common (10-50 ) Sweating, weight gain. Less common (1-10 ) Sexual dysfunction, urinary retention. Those requiring attention from your physician Physical or emotional changes not listed, such as suicidal thoughts or behavior.
Anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. The rate at which you should taper is affected by the duration of your use and the size of your dose, but may take months if you have been on it for an extended period of time. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if oxazepam is stopped abruptly. They are potentially life-threatening. As a result you should never stop oxazepam abruptly and you should always work with your physician to taper it gradually.
Precautions None of its alkaloids are known hallucinogens. It contains the alkaloid cytisine, which is highly toxic and has resulted in many deaths. Side effects include over-excitement, headache, nausea, vomiting, sweating, salivation, diarrhea, sluggishness, heart palpitations, convulsions, unconsciousness, paralysis of the respiratory muscles, and death from asphyxiation.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice insomnia if quazepam is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if quazepam is stopped abruptly, although this is extremely unlikely with routine use at recommended dosages. Seizures are potentially life-threatening. You should always consult with your physician as to how to stop it safely.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice insomnia if temazepam is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if temazepam is stopped abruptly, although this is extremely unlikely with routine use at recommended dosages. Seizures are potentially life-threatening. You should always consult with your physician as to how to stop it safely.
Precautions Nothing is known about the effects it might have on those without MS. Those taking Interferon beta may experience flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, muscle aches, sweating), mood swings, excessive sleep, severe depression, and suicidal tendencies. Common side effects include some form of pain at the site of injection, sinusitis, migraine headaches, fever, weakness, chills, muscle aches, abdominal pain, flu-like symptoms, menstruation that is painful or irregular, constipation, vomiting, liver inflammation, sweating, and a reduction in white blood cells. Less common side effects include swelling, pelvic pain, cysts, suicidal tendencies, thyroid goiter, heart palpitations, high blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, bleeding, laryngitis, breathing difficulties, stiffness, tiredness, speech problems, convulsions, uncontrolled movements, hair loss, visual disturbances, pink eye, feelings of a need to urinate, cystitis, breast pain, and cystic breast disease. Rare side effects...
Tolerance to the subjective effects of marijuana has been reported (Georgotas and Zeidenberg 1979), and a minority (16 ) of regular smokers experienced at least one of the following symptoms following abrupt withdrawal of cannabis irritability, insomnia, tremor, sweating, gastro-intestinal disturbance or appetite change (Wisbeck et al. 1996). These effects peak between 2 and 6 days after abrupt withdrawal (Budney et al. 2003). It has been reported that a third of regular users experienced some difficulty in controlling their use of the drug (Thomas 1996). All research in this area is dogged by serious methodological problems, including highly selected samples, non-validated measures, poor response rates in community surveys, and the existence of many confounding variables. However, it seems reasonable to accept that psychological dependence will occur in a small minority of cannabis smokers. The existence of a clear-cut physical dependence syndrome is much less convincing on the basis...
Effects In rats, it produces definite improvements in maze learning and visual and spatial discrimination. In humans, it has a stimulating effect on the spinal cord. It can produce a painful erection, a dangerously high heart rate, excessive body heat, and profuse sweating.
How does methamphetamine get out of the body The average half-life of methamphetamine is about 12 hours. This means it takes about 12 hours for half the amount of meth snorted, swallowed, smoked, or injected to be processed and excreted through the body's natural exits, such as through sweating, urinating, or moving the bowels.2, 9
SIDE EFFECTS Usual (50-100 ) Blurry vision, constipation, dry mouth, fatigue, increased heart rate, low blood pressure. Common (10-50 ) Sweating, weight gain. Less common (1-10 ) Insomnia, mental status changes, nausea, palpitations, rash, sexual dysfunction, tremor. Infrequent (less than 1 ) Tardive dyskinesia, urinary difficulty. Those requiring attention from your physician Symptoms of fever, muscular rigidity, and mental status changes, as you may have neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially severe reaction any abnormal involuntary movements that suggest tardive dyskinesia, any physical or emotional changes not listed, such as suicidal thoughts or behavior.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice insomnia if flu-razepam is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if flurazepam is stopped abruptly, although this is extremely unlikely with routine use at the recommended dose. Seizures are
SIDE EFFECTS Usual (50-100 ) Blurry vision, constipation, dry mouth, fatigue, increased heart rate, low blood pressure. Common (10-50 ) Sweating, weight gain. Less common (1-10 ) Sexual dysfunction, urinary retention. Those requiring attention from your physician Any physical or emotional changes not listed, such as suicidal thoughts or behavior.
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice a return of your symptoms if clorazepate is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. The rate at which you should taper is affected by the duration of your use and the size of your dose, but may take months if you have been on it for an extended period of time. If stopped abruptly Seizures can occur if clor-azepate is stopped abruptly. They are potentially life-threatening. You should never stop clorazepate abruptly, and you should always work with your physician to taper it gradually.
In one case sassafras tea caused sweating (16). In Germany, the health authorities have proposed the withdrawal of sassafras-containing medicines, including homeopathic products up to D3, from the market (17). Of particular concern is the uncontrolled availability of sassafras oil because of its use in aromatherapy. Internal use of sassafras oil in recommended doses up to 12 drops day can lead to a daily intake up to 0.2 g of safrole (18).
Zonisamide can cause lack of sweating (11). In 16 patients taking zonisamide, acetylcholine stimulation testing after about 1 month was normal in four cases and reduced in 12 (12). There was reduced sweating in There have been reports of heat stroke associated with reduced sweating in young patients. A 2-year-old mentally retarded boy with frontal lobe epilepsy developed hyperpyrexia with oligohidrosis and central neurological symptoms, including chorea-like involuntary movements, resting tremor, and cogwheel rigidity, while receiving zonisamide (14). A sweat test using pilocarpine iontophoresis showed a marked reduction in the sweat response, which suggested a postganglionic sweating dysfunction. A skin biopsy showed no morphological abnormality in the sweat glands. He regained the ability to sweat within 2 weeks of withdrawal. Children receiving zonisamide should be monitored closely for evidence of reduced sweating and increased body temperature, especially in warm or hot weather...
WHAT TO EXPECT WHEN YOU STOP You may notice a return of your symptoms if chlordiazepoxide is tapered gradually. Other withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, irritability, headaches, tremors, nausea, diarrhea, sweating, and confusion. The rate at which you should taper is affected by the duration
One recurring painful condition that may benefit from cannabis treatment is headache. Migraine, a form of headache that often includes severe throbbing accompanied by disturbed vision, chills, sweating, nausea, and vomiting, can be extremely debilitating. Bright lights, loud sounds, or pungent odors can initiate the pain. Symptoms often begin with visual disturbances like seeing flashes or auras. Then sufferers feel extreme tension and fatigue (Grinspoon & Bakalar, 1997 Russo, 1998). Eventually, a pulsing begins, sometimes on only one side of the head, where blood vessels outside the cranium dilate. These expanded arteries activate nerve fibers in the scalp, causing absolute agony. In the United States, roughly
SIDE EFFECTS Common (10-50 ) Insomnia, nausea, sedation, sexual dysfunction, tremor, weight gain. Less common (1-10 ) Agitation, confusion, dry mouth, hallucinations, headaches, light-headedness. Those requiring attention from your physician A sudden headache, palpitations, rapid heart rate, sweating, throat constriction, neck stiffness, nausea, or vomiting can be a sign that you are having a hypertensive crisis you should consult your physician immediately and go to the emergency room for treatment of any elevation of blood pressure physical or emotional changes not listed, such as suicidal thoughts or behavior.
Many members of the Ephedra family have been used medicinally (ie, E. sinica and E. intermedia). Ephedra preparations have traditionally been used to relieve cold symptoms, improve respiratory function, as an adjunct in weight loss, and to treat a variety of conditions from headaches to sexually transmitted disease. Large doses may cause a variety of adverse reactions, such as hypertension, irregular heart rate, tremors, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, weakness, and possible dependence. Ephedra is contraindicated in patients with hypertension, glaucoma, hypertrophy of the prostate, urinary tract problems, clotting disorders, anxiety, anorexia, colitis, thyroid disease, or diabetes. Ephedra should not be used with the cardiac glycosides, halothane, guanethi-dine, MAOIs, oxytocin, and in patients taking St. John's wort. Weight loss preparations containing ephedra should be avoided.
The acute form of diarrhea is short-lived and can be effectively prevented or rapidly suppressed by concomitant atropine. The cholinergic symptoms are accompanied by abdominal cramps (36 ), sweating (57 ), salivation (11 ), visual disturbances (15 ), lacrimation (12 ), and piloerection (3 ). The recommended dose of atropine is 0.25 mg intravenously for prevention or 0.251.0 mg for acute treatment of patients with early choli-nergic symptoms. As cholinergic symptoms have not been observed with other camptothecin derivatives, it can be speculated that these adverse effects are restricted to irinotecan, whose piperidino group bears some structural similarity to the potent nicotine receptor stimulant dimethylphenylpiperazinium (106).
Hyperthermia is an increase in body temperature to the extent of endangering life it can be a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The condition usually occurs at temperatures over 40 degrees Celsius or 104 degrees Fahrenheit. A commonly reported scenario involves an Ecstasy user who spends time at a dance club, where the ambient temperatures may be high, usually dancing for many hours without adequate fluid replacement. This behavior leads to collapse or convulsions (seizures) (Simpson and Rumack 1981 Henry 1992b Singarajah and Lavies 1992 Logan et al. 1993 Maxwell et al. 1993 Tehan et al. 1993 Satchell and Connaughton 1994). Clinical examination shows dilated pupils, sweating (though in severe cases sweating sweating. Henry (1992) writes that the most seriously ill patients in his experience were people at crowded parties where Ecstasy was used as a dance drug. He concludes that the severe toxicity of MDMA may be due mainly to the circumstances in which it is misused. This...
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