The Original Captain Trips

The stout crew-cut figure riding in the Rolls-Royce was a mystery to those who knew him. A spy by profession, he lived a life of intrigue and adventure befitting his chosen career. Born dirt poor in Kentucky, he served with the OSS during the Second World War and went on to make a fortune as a uranium entrepreneur. His prestigious government and business connections read like a Who's Who of the power elite in North America. His name was Captain Alfred M. Hubbard. His friends called him Cappy,...

Enter LSD

It was with the hope of finding the long-sought miracle drug that CIA investigators first began to dabble with LSD-25 in the early 1950s. At the time very little was known about the hallucinogen, even in scientific circles. Dr. Werner Stoll, the son of Sandoz president Arthur Stoll and a colleague of Albert Hermann's, was the first person to investigate the psychological properties of LSD. The resuits of his study were presented in the Swiss Archives of Neurology in 1947. Stoll reported that...

Prisoner Of LSD

Timothy Leary was brimming with confidence as he strolled into an Orange County courtroom in February 1970. He predicted he would be acquitted of all charges stemming from his drug bust in Laguna Beach the previous winter. The trial lasted ten days. On the morning the case went to the jury, newspaper headlines in Orange County read, DRUG CRAZED HIPPIES SLAY MOTHER AND CHILDREN. An army medical officer named McDonald reported that a gang of longhairs descended upon his home and murdered his...

Psychosis or Gnosis

Therapeutic studies in the 1950S opened up new areas of investigation for a growing number of young psychiatrists. A particularly promising avenue of inquiry involved using LSD as a tool to explore the creative attributes of the mind. Dr. Oscar Janiger (the first person in the US to conduct a clinical investigation of DMT, or dimethyltryptamine, an extremely powerful short-acting psychedelic) noted that many of his patients reported vivid aesthetic perceptions frequently leading to a greater...

Part One The Roots of Psychedelia

1 In The Beginning There Was Madness The Truth Seekers In the spring of 1942 General William Wild Bill Donovan, chief of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the CIA's wartime predecessor, assembled a half-dozen prestigious American scientists and asked them to undertake a top-secret research program. Their mission, Donovan explained, was to develop a speech-inducing drug for use in intelligence interrogations. He insisted that the need for such a weapon was so acute as to warrant any and...

Laboratories of the State

When the CIA first became interested in LSD, only a handful of scientists in the United States were engaged in hallucinogenic drug research. At the time there was little private or public support for this relatively new field of experimental psychiatry, and no one had undertaken a systematic investigation of LSD. The CIA's mind control specialists sensed a golden opportunity in the making. With a sizable treasure chest at their disposal they were in a position to boost the careers of scientists...

Midnight Climax

In a speech before the National Alumni Conference at Princeton University on April 10, 1953, newly appointed CIA director Allen Dulles lectured his audience on how sinister the battle for men's minds had become in Soviet hands. The human mind, Dulles warned, was a malleable tool, and the Red Menace had secretly developed brain perversion techniques. Some of these methods were so subtle and so abhorrent to our way of life that we have recoiled from facing up to them. Dulles continued, The minds...

Bad Moon Rising

It was awesome to behold a wide, sloping pasture paved with humanity, countless bodies nestled together in a swirl of dazzling colors. Close to a half million people had descended upon Max Yasgur's farm in August 1969 to attend the Woodstock music and arts fair. The three-day Aquarian Exposition was the greatest be-in of all, and a good many acid heavies came out of the woodwork to join the celebration. A full busload of Merry Pranksters, wildly attired in their Day-Glo costumes and American...

The First Human BeIn

As the Love Pageant Rally drew to a close and the crowd began to drift away from the Panhandle, the organizers of the stoned festival exulted in their achievement. That same evening members of the Oracle group gathered at the home of Michael Bowen to consider their next step. Bowen was a key personality within the Oracle clique, and his studio served for a time as the office of the psychedelic tabloid. A painter with beatnik roots, he spent much of his time depicting third eyes and occult...

Prologue

Thousands of people jammed the auditorium at the University of California in Santa Cruz. Those who were unable to gain admittance stood outside and pressed their faces against the windows, hoping to catch a glimpse of some of the visiting dignitaries. An all-star lineup of poets, scientists, journalists, and media celebrities had convened for the opening of a weekend conference entitled LSD A Generation Later. Topping the bill was the man they call the Father of the Psychedelic Age. At...

Chemical Crusaders

In addition to a series of formal studies, Leary's group also held psychedelic sessions on their own outside the university. A clinical setting was rejected in favor of the comfortable surroundings of a private apartment where subjects could relax and listen to music by candlelight. Graduate students and selected individuals from the arts were invited to participate in these off-campus experiments, and the vast majority reported positive experiences. Anyone who wanted to take the voyage was...

The Psychedelic Manual

Life at Millbrook had a mythic dimension that was nourished by a sense of having embarked upon a journey into unknown waters. Once they had eaten the apple of expanded consciousness, there was no going back. The umbilical cord that tied them to the world of the mundane was irretrievably sundered. Caught between a past that was no longer accessible and a future without precedent, they had only one option to plunge headlong into the moment, to ride the crest of the wave that was still building,...

Info

Since information obtained from a person. CR Truth Drugs in Interrogation, Project MK-ULTRA, The CIA's Program of Research In Behavior Modification, Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, August 3, 1977, p.32 Although no Soviet data are available D (CIA) An OSI Study on the Strategic Medical Significance of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25), 30 August 1955. I'm...

Politics of the Bummer

The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency convenes yet another round of hearings in Washington, DC, to deal with the growing LSD problem. Chairman Thomas Dodd, a conservative Democrat from Connecticut and a noted Communist hunter, speaks out against the use of psychedelic drugs. He dismisses consciousness expansion as an alibi for sheer kicks and proposes strict new laws aimed at the pseudo-intellectuals who advocate the use of drugs in search for some imaginary freedoms of the mind and...

Chapter Three Under The Mushroom Over The Rainbow Manna From Harvard

Luce encouraged his correspondents to collaborate with the CIA A Carl Bernstein, The CIA and the Media, Rolling Stone, October 20, 1977. Luce turned on a half dozen times B W.A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, p. 463 and Wilfred Sheed, Clare Boothe Luce, p. 125. Oh sure, we all took acid O Clare Boothe Luce, remarks on The Dick Cavett Show, April 9, 1982. We wouldn't want everyone doing too much B quoted in Abbie Hoffman, Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture, p. 73. We were nevermore awake A R....

Magical Politics

The peace movement had reached a crossroads in the spring of 1967, after people took to the streets in unprecedented numbers all across the country to protest the war in Vietnam. Despite this tremendous outpouring of public sentiment President Johnson continued to escalate the war effort. American troop strength swelled to nearly a half-million, and young men were returning in body bags at a rate of five hundred a month. All of this was deeply disturbing to David Dellinger, director of the...

Chapter Nine Season Of The Witch Armed Love

The school they attended was known as Hoover University A Jeff Cohen, Cril Payne Undercover for the FBI, LA. Weekly, December 28, 1979-January 3, 1980. Between lectures on the New Left, drug abuse, and FBI procedure ibid. the Yippies were infiltrated by an FBI agent named George Demmerle B Rubin, We Are Everywhere, pp. 142-43, 216-18. one out of six demonstrators at the Chicago Convention was an undercover operative A Todd Gitlin, Seizing History, Mother Jones, November 1983. Bob Pierson. a...

The Crackdown

When LSD was first introduced to the United States in 1949, it was well received by the scientific community. Within less than a decade the drug had risen to a position of high standing among psychiatrists. LSD therapy was by no means a fad or a fly-by-night venture. More than one thousand clinical papers were written on the subject, discussing some forty thousand patients. Favorable results were reported when LSD was used to treat severely resistant psychiatric conditions, such as frigidity...

Armed Love

It was a typical sixties scene a group of scruffy, long-haired students stood in a circle passing joints and hash pipes. The setting could have been Berkeley, Ann Arbor or any other hip campus. But these students were actually FBI agents, and the school they attended was known as Hoover University. Located at Quantico Marine Base in Virginia, this elite academy specialized in training G-men to penetrate left-wing organizations. To cultivate the proper counterculture image, they were told not to...

The Great LSD Conspiracy

While Leary was in the slammer, his erstwhile patron Billy Hitch-cock got tangled in a legal mess of his own making. It had taken almost four years for the government to gather enough evidence to indict the young Mellon heir for income tax evasion. He also faced charges stemming from stock market malpractice. A lengthy jail term seemed almost certain unless he struck a bargain with the authorities. He called Tim Scully, who had dropped out of the acid business a few years ago, and explained the...

Gathering Storm

There is the story of the Zen master who tells his student, Don't think of a carrot. Naturally a carrot is the first image that pops into the student's mind. So, too, the establishment media constantly decried LSD and warned in shrill tones of an epidemic of drug abuse sweeping the nation. The net effect of the immense publicity, even though much of it was negative, was to arouse intense interest and curiosity, leading to ever-widening patterns of use. For in an era of generational disaffection...