Herpes Simplex Ebooks Catalog

Stop Herpes Now

You'll discover: What foods are bad for you, encouraging outbreaks. What foods are good for discouraging outbreaks. The connection between genital herpes and stress. What herbs actually suppress the herpes virus. How to heal your body naturally and safely. How to manage stress in your life.

Stop Herpes Now Overview

Rating:

4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: EBook
Author: Dr. David Hogg
Price: $49.95

Download Now

Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

Two types of herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) can cause infections, HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 primarily affects the cornea causing herpes simplex keratitis. A variety of clinical manifestations such as infectious epithelial keratitis, follicular conjunctivitis, neurotrophic keratopathy, necrotizing stromal keratitis, immune stromal keratitis, and endothelitis are associated with HSV keratitis (11). Neurotrophic keratopathy results mainly from decreased corneal innervations and tear secretion as a result of a prior HSV infection of Various therapeutic agents, such as 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IDU) (14), phosphano acetic acid (15), trifluorothymidine (TFT) (16), acyclovir (ACV) (14), penciclovir (17), gancoclovir (18), cyclosporine (19), steroids (20), interleukun-10 (21), and trisodium phosphonoformate (foscarnet) (22) were shown to be effective against herpes keratitis. Irrespective of the agent selected to treat the disease the ultimate goal of the medication recommended is to completely...

Cytomegalovirus Infections

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an opportunistic herpes virus that can cause cytomegalovirus retinitis. It is much more predominant in immuno-compromised patients, especially in AIDS patients with a CD4 cell count of less than 50 cells per cubic millimeter (57). It is an infection, that, if left untreated, can cause partial or complete retinal destruction, ultimately leading to complete vision loss. It develops in about 40 of the patient population with AIDS (58). The disease occurs due to viral replication causing retinal inflammation. The disease initiates at deeper layers of retinal and spread outward towards retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) the site of viral replication and disease progression. The viral replication specifically occurs in RPE and retinal glial cells (59). The spread of disease to RPE from retinal endothelial cells is facilitated by disruption of blood-retinal barrier (60). Histological features of CMV retinitis are thick retinal necrosis and edema, a patch of...

Drugs Active Against Herpesviruses

Skin Aciclovir was the first compound effective against herpesvirus to be introduced. While it is still commonly used, its usefulness is limited by the frequency of dosing, particularly in Varicella zoster infections. Although allergy is unusual, it can occur in one case it resulted in a skin rash (13A).

Human cytomegalovirus

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most frequent congenital infection, affecting 1-3 of newborns. Even more relevant is the postnatal infection, transmitted mainly via breast milk. Of seropositive mothers, 40-96 shed the virus with their milk, reaching a peak 1 month after delivery (survey in Meier 2005, Hamprecht 2001). A reactivated infection in the lactating breast probably explains the frequent detection of HCMV in milk, leading to an infection rate of 10-60 of the infants. Postnatal infection via the breast milk in term infants does not cause illness. Very premature infants, however, develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia and other problems. Approximately 10 of premature infants become severely ill. In up to 50 of the typical problems of premature newborns, such as respiratory distress syndrome, HCMV infection was causative. The virus is killed by pasteurization. Recommendations vary regarding from when (gestational week 28 or week 32, or below a birth weight of 1500g )...

Acyclovir antiretroviral drugs and other virustatics

With acyclovir, with an M P ratio of 2-4, the fully breastfed infant takes in 1 of an oral maternal weight-related dosage (Meyer 1988). When 900 mg daily is administered intravenously, this is on average 5 (Bork 1995). Toxic symptoms have not been observed (Taddio 1994, Meyer 1988). The risk of influencing the infant's immune system as a result of exposure via the mother's milk appears, in the light of current experience, to be simply theoretical. Recommendation. Breastfeeding may continue when acyclovir or valaciclovir are administered externally or systemically. The other virustatics and antiretroviral substances, if really indicated, require an individual decision about continuing breastfeeding. In the case of drugs developed for HIV infection, an additional consideration is the risk of virus transmission via the mother's milk (see Chapter 4.15) here, guidelines only clearly recommend exclusive breastfeeding in those regions where lack of clean water for preparing infant formula...

Drugs Active Against Cytomegalovirus

Urinary tract Nephrotoxicity continues to be the main adverse effect that limits the use of cidofovir. In a rare cytomegalovirus comparison trial, a ganciclovir insert (an intraocular implant) plus oral ganciclovir was compared with intravenous cidofovir (1C ). Based on data from 61 patients (the trial was stopped early owing to low recruitment), cidofovir was associated with a raised serum creatinine concentration of 1.6 mg dl (142 imol l) or greater (0.48 per person-year), 3+ or greater proteinuria (0.29 per person-year), uveitis (0.35 per person-year), and neutropenia (0.11 per person-year).

Herpes zoster shingles chickenpox

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) has not been cultured from the milk with either herpes zoster or chickenpox (Frederick 1986), but VZV-DNA has been identified in breast milk (Yoshida 1992). One case of suspected transfer of VZV to an infant via breastfeeding has been reported, but the virus may have been transmitted by droplet or exposure to the rash. Recommendation. When the mother develops chickenpox 2-4 days after the birth, the baby is given varicella immunoglobulin and perhaps prophylactic acyclovir. The milk can be expressed and fed to the baby. If the mother becomes ill after this point, prophylactic measures are not needed and the baby can be breastfed. If the baby becomes ill, varicella infections normally proceed without complications. With herpes zoster, the baby may continue to be breastfed, but direct contact with the affected part of the skin should be avoided. With the readily available vaccine to prevent chickenpox and the approval of the varicella vaccine for adults to...

Aciclovir and other herpes antivirals

Aciclovir (acyclovir) is an acyclic nucleoside analog, highly specific for HSV-infected cells. It inhibits viral ribonucleotide production in Herpes 1 and 2 and in varicella zoster infections. Valaciclovir is the prodrug of aciclovir, with the benefit of a greater bioavailability and a longer half-life (less frequent dosing). Aciclovir can cross the placenta, and fetal aciclovir levels arc comparable to maternal levels once a steady state is reached. It is concentrated in the amniotic fluid, approximately four-fold, but does not concentrate in the fetus (Frenkel 1991). There is substantial experience with systemic use of aciclovir during pregnancy. The manufacturer initiated the Acyclovir Pregnancy Registry (June 1984-April 1999). In total, the outcomes of 1234 prospectively registered pregnancies were obtained 756 infants were exposed during the first trimester and 291 in the third trimester. There was no evidence of an increased risk of congenital defects or adverse fetal or...

Acyclovir

This drug is used cautiously in patients with pre-existing neurologic, renal, hepatic, respiratory, or fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. The nurse gives the drug with caution to patients with a history of seizures. Acyclovir is a Pregnancy Category C drug and is used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation. Incidences of extreme drowsiness have occurred when acyclovir is given with zidovudine. There is an increased risk of nephrotoxicity when acyclovir is administered with other nephrotoxic drugs. When administered with amphotericin B, the risk of nephrotoxicity is increased. Administration with probenecid causes a decrease in the renal excretion of acyclovir, prolonging the effects of acyclovir and increasing the risk of drug toxicity.

Herpes simplex

Perinatal herpes infections are transmitted during birth because of the presence of the virus in the birth canal. When lesions are present near the anticipated time of delivery, a cesarian section is performed immediately when labor starts or the membranes rupture, to avoid infection of the infant. With the exception of one case (Dunkle 1979), no herpes simplex virus has been detected in mother's milk. This is as would be expected, because the infection in adults is usually a local one that does not involve viremia. All infant deaths that have been reported have been subsequent to suckling at a breast with a herpetic lesion (Sullivan-Bolyai 1983).

General Information

Aciclovir is active against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, Varicella zoster virus (VZV), Herpesvirus simiae, and to a lesser degree Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Resistant strains of HSV can arise owing to the emergence of thymidine kinase-deficient mutants. Other forms of resistance patterns are less common (2,3). Aciclovir is used topically or systemically, orally or intravenously. Its therapeutic potential is most impressive in active parenchymal or systemic HSV infections. The latency stage of the viral infection is not affected. Since the blood-brain barrier is well penetrated, aciclovir is the treatment of choice for HSV encephalitis.

Results in the NAc and Striatum

Chronic cocaine treatment leads to accumulation in some NAc neurons of stable isoforms of the transcription factor AFosB, so Kelz et al. (45) used transgenic mice in which AFosB was induced in a subset of NAc neurons to model chronic cocaine treatment. These mice showed increased responsiveness to rewarding and locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, as well as increased expression of GluR2 in the NAc but not dorsal striatum. In a place conditioning test, rats that received intra-NAc injections of a recombinant herpes simplex virus vector encoding GluR2 spent more time in a cocaine-paired chamber than controls, while rats made to overexpress GluRl spent less time in the cocaine-paired environment. Although this suggests that increased NAc levels of GluR2 may account for enhanced rewarding effects of cocaine in the AFosB-expressing mice, more work is needed to evaluate the relevance of these findings to the intact cocaine-treated animal.

Herbal Alert Lemon Balm

Lemon balm is a perennial herb with heart-shaped leaves that has been used for hundreds of years. Its scientific name is Melissa officinalis. Traditionally the herb has been used for Graves' disease (see Chap. 51), as a sedative, antispasmodic, and an antiviral agent. When used topically, lemon balm has antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV). No adverse reactions have been reported when lemon balm is used topically.

Second Generation Effects Pregnancy

Even though azathioprine is teratogenic in animals, human experience allows no firm conclusions, being limited to single case reports of birth defects after first trimester exposure to azathioprine. More convincingly, there was no evidence of increased risk or of a specific pattern of congenital anomalies among hundreds of infants born to azathioprine-treated transplant patients (75-77), but large series with adequate long-term follow-up are still lacking. The absence of inosinate pyropho-sphorylase, an enzyme that converts azathioprine to its active metabolites, in the fetus was suggested to account for these reassuring data. Other potential risks, that is miscarriages or stillbirths, were also within the normal range, and intrauterine growth retardation did not appear to be specifically related to azathioprine use. Potential neonatal consequences of maternal azathioprine maintenance during the whole pregnancy should be borne in mind, in view of isolated reports of...

Promoting an Optimal Response to Therapy

Treatment with acyclovir is begun as soon as symptoms of herpes simplex appear. The drug may be given topically, orally, or intravenously. When the drug is given orally, the nurse may give the drug without regard to food. However, if GI upset occurs, acyclovir is administered with food. Patients with a history of congestive heart failure may not be able to tolerate an increase in fluids, so it is important to monitor them closely to prevent fluid overload. Neurologic symptoms such as seizures may occur with the administration of acyclovir. When the drug is administered topically, the nurse should use a finger cot or glove to prevent spread of infection.

Pharmaceutical interest

Antimicrobial properties The seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk. abound in lectins which have versatile application in immunopharma-cological research (Kabir S et a ., 1998 Hashim ON et a ., 2001). One of these lectins inhibits in vitro the growth of Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2), Varicella-zoster Virus (VZV), and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) with IC50 values of 2.5, 5, and 10 Eg mL respectively and stimulates NK lymphocyte (CD16(+) CD56(+)) proliferation

Leukocyte transfusion

Complications after granulocyte transfusions occur in about 15-20 of the recipients (38), most frequently in patients given granulocytes prepared by filtration leuka-pheresis. The complications are predominantly severe febrile reactions, the transmission of cytomegalovirus infection, and graft-versus-host disease. Of particular importance are respiratory reactions with pulmonary edema, which mostly occur in allo-immunized recipients. Leukocyte aggregation may be the cause, with sequestration microemboli and fluid overflow, but other causes have also been suspected. Reactions appear to be more common in patients with sepsis.

Achyranthes bidentata Bl

The survival of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice, by enhancing both specific and non-specific immunological responses (Xiang DB etal., 1993). An extract of Achyranthes bidentata Bl. causes the early expression of the Epstein-Barr (EBV) antigen in Raji cell-line (Zeng Y et al., 1994). Polysaccharides characterized from Achyranthes bidentata Bl. display anti-Herpes Simplex Virus 1 property in vitro and immunomodulatory effects (Li ZK et al., 1997 Zheng M et al., 1997). It will be interesting to know whether further investigation on oligosaccharides from Amaranthaceae will disclose any anti-viral molecule of therapeutic value.

Viral Chemokines And Chemokine HbLtHIURS

Herpesviruses, poxviruses, and lentiviruses all encode chemokine and chemokine recep- Chemokine homologs are mostly encoded fby herpesvirus and include three CC-type chemokines, vMIP-I, vMIP-II, and vMIP-III. yMIP-I is encoded by HHV-8 and binds and fmduces calcium signals in T-cells through CCR8. This same receptor also shows high affinity for vMIP-II. However, vMIP-I seems to as an agonist for the receptor and vMIP-II behaves as an antagonist (348). vMIP-II is a poroad-spectrum chemokine receptor antago-1 vMIP-III acts as a potent CCR4 agonist attracts mainly Th2 T-cells. r Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a human poxvirus that encodes a chemokine ho-named vMCC-I (gene product of (349,350).This protein is related to chemokines but the mature protein lacks five amino acids in the N-terminus that are priticalfor receptor activation. Thus, this molecule binds to several receptors such as CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CCR8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 but not able to induce signaling, acting instead an...

Acute Health Effects Of Cannabis

Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are found in the immune system, (Roth et al., 2002), and animal studies suggest that high doses of cannabis extracts and of THC impair immune functioning. A number of studies in mice and guinea pigs suggest that high doses (200 mg kg) of cannabinoids decrease resistance to infection with Lysteria monocytogenes (Morahan et al., 1979) and herpes simplex type 2 virus (e.g. Cabral & Pettit, 1998). There have, however, been very few epidemiological studies of immune system functioning and disease susceptibility in heavy cannabis users to assess how

Drug Administration Drug contamination

Since viral inactivation methods, such as solvent detergent and heat pasteurization, were implemented in the production process, the risks of HIV and hepatitis have virtually been eliminated. Dry heating at 60oC is insufficient to eliminate all hepatitis C virus, which requires dry heating at 80oC, pasteurization, or treatment with mixtures of solvents and detergents (14). Nevertheless, many viral inactivation methods currently used do not completely eliminate certain (non-enveloped) viruses, for example parvovirus and hepatitis A (11,15) removal of the small, non-lipid-enveloped parvovirus B19 requires 15 nm nanofiltration. HIV appears to progress more rapidly in patients co-infected with hepatitis B and cytomegalovirus (11). In addition, hepatitis C replicated more rapidly in patients infected with HIV (11).

Vaccines and immunoglobulins

When there is a high infection risk without protection from prior immunization, a vaccination should be pursued in the interest of both mother and child, even during pregnancy. Candidate vaccines should be immunogenic, safe, and cause minimal reactions. The potential effect on the incidence of communicable diseases in the newborn and young infant will increase as more candidate vaccines that could be administered during prcgnancy become available. In the future, infections such as herpes simplex virus infection, cytomegalovirus, and human immunodeficiency virus infection could be prevented with this intervention (Munoz 2001). Details of different compounds are discussed below.

Epstein Barr Virus Infections

Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBVs) also belongs to the herpes family. It is transmitted through oral secretions. The virus affects the neuro-ophthalmologic and anterior segment of the eye. It encompasses a wide range of clinical symptoms that include follicular conjunctivitis, dendritic epithelial and stromal keratitis (10,46). Granular or ring shaped lesions may be found distributed through out the cornea and is also associated with corneal vascularization (46). EBV infections of retina are not very common.

Host Factors Affecting Pathogenesis

Defects in ocular defense mechanism, due to a disease like herpes simplex keratitis, include impaired tear secretion, defective secretion of immunoglobulin A in tears, and defective positioning of lids. These factors facilitate the progression of diseases. In addition to systemic diseases, immune disorders like HIV AIDS are also involved in disease progression and aggravation. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes are important in preventing ocular infection by oxygen dependent phagocytic pathway. However, usage of drugs like antibiotics and steroids may lower immune response by inhibiting chemotaxis and ingestion by phagocytes, by blocking degranulation and by reducing the production of phagocytes. These factors further lower the host resistance to fungal infections (104).

Decreased resistance to infection with viruses

Studies which have been performed with in vitro models of infection have yielded results consistent with those obtained with in vivo models. In vitro studies have included the use of fully constituted primary cell populations such as splenocytes as well as purified macrophages and lymphocytes from rodents and humans. Immortalized continuous cell types which exhibit macrophage-like or T lymphocyte-like properties also have been employed. Cabral and Vasquez (1991, 1992) reported that THC affects the capacity of macrophages to respond to herpes simplex viruses in culture. THC (10-5 M-10-7M) exerted a dose-dependent effect on macrophage extrinsic antiviral activity to HSV-2 (Figure 9.2), an activity which is characterized by the ability of macrophages to restrict the replication of viruses in adjacent unin-fected permissive xenogeneic cells in an interferon-independent fashion (Morahan et al., 1977). The inhibitory effect was exerted on a variety of murine macrophage-like cells including...

Placebocontrolled studies

In an integrated safety analysis of 1607 patients who had taken famciclovir for the treatment of Herpes zoster or genital herpes, famciclovir was extremely well tolerated with an adverse effect profile similar to placebo (2). Headache, nausea, and diarrhea were the most frequently reported adverse events in those taking both famciclovir and placebo. In an experimental study of Herpes simplex labialis, adverse events (diarrhea and nausea) occurred with similar frequency with famciclovir and placebo (3). No laboratory abnormalities were consistently associated with famciclovir. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study in 455 patients oral famciclovir (125 or 250 mg tds or 250 mg bd) used to suppress recurrent genital Herpes simplex infections, the toxicity profile of famciclovir was comparable to placebo (4). The only serious adverse effects reported as being possibly related to famciclovir were raised bilirubin concentration and lipase activity in one patient after 10 months of...

Implications Of Aberrant Jak Activation In Hematological Diseases

The essential role that JAKs play in normal hematopoietic regulation has been shown by gene-targeting studies that have identified characteristic signaling defects. JAK1 and JAK2 knockout mice are perinatal or embryonic lethal, whereas JAK3 nullizygous mice show severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) (Table 1) (described in more detail in refs. 9 and 62). Consequently, inappropriate inhibition or absence of JAK activity causes immunosuppressive diseases. The prominent example is the presence of mutations in the JAK3 gene that leads to SCID in humans, characterized by an absence of peripheral T- and natural-killer cells and normal or slightly increased numbers of B-cells (63-66). Other heritable human diseases caused by intrinsic inactivating defects in JAKs have not been reported. However, a variety of pathogens, such as human papilloma virus or cytomegalovirus, are able to inhibit JAK-mediated IFN signaling, thereby escaping immunosurveillance (7,67,68).

Interaction Of Kava With Drugs

Heavy consumption of kava has been associated with increased concentrations of 7-glutamyltransferase suggesting potential hepatotoxicity. Escher et al. described a case in which severe hepatitis was associated with kava use. A 50-year-old man took three to four kava capsules daily for 2 months (maximum recommended dose three capsules). Liver function tests showed 60-fold to 70-fold increases in AST and ALT. Tests for viral hepatitis were all negative as were tests for cytomegalovirus and HIV. The patient eventually received a liver transplant (85). Humberston et al. (86) also reported a case of acute hepatitis induced by kava-kava. Other cases of hepatotoxicity due to the use of kava have been documented (87). In January 2003, kava extracts were banned in the entire European Union, Canada and also in the United States (the FDA strongly cautioned against using kava). There are at least 11 cases of serious hepatic failure and four deaths directly linked to kava extract consumption, and...

Methods for Assessing Antiviral Activity

In addition to antibacterial and antifungal activity, researchers are also investigating the use of plant extracts for antiviral activity of particular interest is activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Standard cytopathic assays are used to determine antiviral activity with activity both pre- and post-infection evaluated. As these assays are performed in an aqueous environment the problems of solubility that have been discussed at length previously are also an issue in these assays. These assays also require expertise in cell culture and appropriate laboratory containment facilities for working with viruses these two features make these assays more expensive and labor intensive than other assays. However as viruses require a cell host this assay has the added benefit of being able to assess cell toxicity of the test substance as part of the antiviral assay protocol. This means that those extracts with significant...

Contraindications Precautions And Interactions

The topical antibiotics are Pregnancy Category C drugs and are used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation. Acyclovir and penciclovir are Pregnancy Category B drugs and are used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation. The pregnancy categories of the antifungals are unknown except for econazole nitrate, which is Pregnancy Category C, and ciclopirox, which is Pregnancy Category B both are used with caution during pregnancy and lactation. There are no significant interactions for the topical anti-infectives.

Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

These drugs are contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity to an individual drug or any components of the drug. The NSAID flurbiprofen is con-traindicated in patients with herpes simplex keratitis. Diclofenac and ketorolac are contraindicated in patients who wear soft contact lenses (may cause ocular irritation).

William A Carlezon Jr and Rachael L Neve 1 Introduction

The use of any viral vector system for gene transfer studies in brain depends on the dynamic interaction of a number of factors, ranging from the hypothesis that is being tested, the brain region targeted for study, the viral backbone that is used as the vector, the titer of the vector, and the volume of the vector that is injected into the brain. Unfortunately, there is little information in the literature about how one, once in possession of a vector of interest, would embark on a gene transfer study. This chapter describes some of the protocols that we developed for viral-mediated gene transfer studies in which we used herpes

Uses of silver compounds

Over-the-counter products containing colloidal silver or silver salts have been marketed for use in adults and children for a wide variety of diseases, including AIDS, cancer, tuberculosis, malaria, systemic lupus erythemato-sus, syphilis, scarlet fever, herpesvirus infections, pneumonia, typhoid, tetanus, and many others. The US Food and Drug Administration has issued a ruling that a colloidal silver product for any medical use will first have to be approved by the FDA under drug application procedures (11).

Viruses The Acellular Parasite of Cellular Hosts

Viral infections can be controlled either through prophylactic (protective) or therapeutic measures. Being metabolically inert viruses require living cells to replicate, and as most steps in their replication involve cellular metabolic pathways it is difficult to design a treatment to attack the virion or its replication without affecting the infected host 10, 11 . Although a vast number of natural or synthetic compounds have been tested on different viruses, the development of antivirals has been less explored, probably because of the simplicity and nature of viruses. When a virus effectively takes over the control of infected cell there are very few specific viral targets for small molecules to interact with. Fortunately, many viruses have unique features in their structure or replication cycles that can be the potential targets. For example, acycloguanosine (acyclovir) acts against herpesviruses by interfering with certain key viral enzymes having distinctive affinities for...

Lectins Polypeptides and Sugar Containing Compounds

Antimicrobial peptides are often positively charged and contain disulfide bonds. Meliacine isolated from Melia azedarach leaves of Argentina, and many common plants 14 , has strong activity against HSV-1-induced ocular disease 24 . Meliacine is also reported to inhibit multiplication of Junin virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus by blocking virus fusion (i.e. uncoating and budding) 15, 112 and spread of the virus. The larger mannose-specific lectins MAP30 (a 30 kDa protein of Momordica charantia), GAP31 (31 kDa protein of Gelonium multiflorum), and jac-alin inhibited proliferation of HIV and cytomegalovirus (Table 15.2) by inhibiting host-viral interaction 16, 113 . Xylanase, a 15-kDa protein from Panax notoginseng, and 5-kDa peptides isolated from pinto and red beans inhibited HIV reverse transcriptase 114 . Thai bitter gourd protein MRK29 inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its salt-precipitated fraction strongly reduced viral p24 expression in HIV-infected cells but...

Mixtures and Other Compounds

Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese traditional medicine, and many other ethnomedicinal systems rely on both pure single-plant preparations and mixed formulations with many plants. Propolis, a crude extract of the balsam of various trees, contains terpenoids, flavonoids, benzoic acids and esters, phenolic acids and esters, and was found to inhibit hemagglutination activity of influenza virus, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1, adenovirus 2, VSV, and poliovirus, because the compounds in the mixture act synergistically, while flavone and flavonol were active in isolation against HSV-1 119 . On the other hand, the kaempferol crassirhizomoside and sutchuenoside of Dryopteris crassirhizoma inhibited reverse transcriptase-associated DNA polyme- Reports on the antiviral activity of other phytochemicals are very scarce. The methyl esters dehydrochebulic acid and methyl brevifolin carboxylate isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria have anti-HBV activity 123 , while diprenylated bibenzyl of Glycyrrhiza lepidota...

General adverse effects

Even though the glucocorticoid-sparing effect of tacrolimus is greater than that of ciclosporin, the initial hope that tacrolimus might prove less toxic than ciclosporin has not been realized. In trials in renal transplant patients, increased serum creatinine concentrations, tremor, par-esthesia, gastrointestinal disorders, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, pruritus, and angina pectoris occurred more often with tacrolimus, whereas there was a higher incidence of dysrhythmias, hyperkalemia, gingival hyper-plasia, acne, alopecia, and hirsutism with ciclosporin (SEDA-21, 390). In the European Tacrolimus Multicenter Liver Trial, there was some evidence of possible advantages for tacrolimus over ciclosporin in terms of hypertension, cytomegalovirus infection, hirsutism, and gum hyperplasia (SEDA-21, 390). The safety profile of tacroli-mus is very similar in children to that in adults, but in sharp contrast to ciclosporin, gingival hyperplasia, hirsutism, and coarsening of facial features...

History and Recent Therapeutic Uses

This technique of direct injection of pDNA into an intact organ had become a useful tool to analyze the gene expression and promoter function in the respective organ. By the use of a viral promoter, such as that from cytomegalovirus (CMV), a high level of expression was attained initially with pDNA vectors. However, the expression declined sharply to near background within 2-3 weeks. Herweijer et al.

Fitness Costs and Evolution of Malaria Resistance

A related consideration is that the lack of robust natural resistance may at least in part result from indirect or direct parasite modulation of host defenses. Indirect effects could result from bloodmeal-related factors. For example, some malaria-responsive An. gambiae genes are transcriptionally regulated by an infected bloodmeal beginning before actual ookinete invasion of the midgut (J. Xu, J. Li, F. Oduol, M. Riehle, and K.D. Vernick, unpublished results Bonnet et al. 2001 Tahar et al. 2002). This early expression could represent a response to soluble parasite-produced immune elicitors, to the quality of the bloodmeal derived from an infected vertebrate host, or to immune signaling molecules from the infected vertebrate host that might influence mosquito immune signaling pathways (Luckhart et al. 2003). Finally, the parasite may actively and directly manipulate components of host defenses. This mechanism has numerous precedents, for example insect polydnavirus proteins that...

Comparative studies

The effects of aciclovir and valaciclovir for anogenital herpes have been studied in HIV-infected individuals in two controlled trials (5). In the first study, 1062 patients with CD4+ counts over 100 x 106 l received valaciclovir or aciclovir for 1 year and were assessed monthly. In the second study, 467 patients were treated episodically for at least 5 days with valaciclovir or aciclovir and were assessed daily. Valaciclovir was as effective as aciclovir for suppression and episodic treatment of herpesvirus infections. Hazard ratios for the time to recurrence with valaciclovir 500 mg bd and 1000 mg od compared with aciclovir were 0.73 (95 CI 0.50, 1.06) and 1.31 (0.94, 1.82). Valaciclovir 1000 mg bd and aciclovir had similar effects on the duration of infective episodes (HR 0.92 CI 0.75, 1.14). The most common adverse events, which occurred at similar rates with all regimens, were diarrhea, headache, infections, rashes, nausea, rhinitis, pharyngitis, abdominal pain, fever,...

Antiviral Ethnomedicines Against Common Virus Families

Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) are reported to be a high risk factor for HIV infection and scientists are looking towards ethnomedicines as a source of novel antiherpes and antiretroviral drugs. A large number of phytophores, such as phenols, polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and sugar-containing compounds, have promising antiherpetic 17 and antiretroviral 1 activities. HSV, herpes simplex virus VSV, vesicular stomatitis virus VZV, varicella zoster virus PRV, pseudorabies virus PV, poliovirus ADV, adenovirus RSV, respiratory syncytial virus HBV, hepatitis B virus HCV, hepatitis C virus HIV, human immunodeficiency virus SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. HSV, herpes simplex virus VSV, vesicular stomatitis virus VZV, varicella zoster virus PRV, pseudorabies virus PV, poliovirus ADV, adenovirus RSV, respiratory syncytial virus HBV, hepatitis B virus HCV, hepatitis C virus HIV, human immunodeficiency virus SARS-CoV, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. ant...

Geranium nepalense Sweet

Antiviral and antibacterial properties Extracts of Geranium sanguineum L. inhibit the growth of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HIV-1) (Serkedjieva J et al., 1999). A methanolic extract of Geranium phaeum inhibits the enzymatic activity of HIV-1-reverse-transcriptase at an IC50 value of 0.067 mg mL (MLi-naric A et al, 2000), probably due to the presence of geraniin and corilagin, which inhibit the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 in HeLa CD4+ cells at an EC50 value of 0.24 g mL (Notka F et al., 1999). Geranium extracts protect mice against Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae infection (Ivancheva S et al., 1992).

Cynanchum caudatum Miq Maxim

Uses In Indonesia, the leaves of Dischidia imbricata (Bl.) Stend. are heated and applied externally to heal feet injuries, whereas gonorrhea, Dischidia nummularia R. Br. is used to heal painful wounds caused by certain poisonous fish the leaves and latex are used to treat sprue. In Malaysia, the roots of Dischidia rafflesiana Wall. are chewed with Areca catechu L. (betel nut) to alleviate cough. In Vietnam, an infusion of Dischidia acuminata Cost. is used to treat blenorrhoea and to promote urination. In the Philippines, the leaves of Dischidia platyphylla Schltr. are used to counteract putrefaction, and a poultice of Dischidia purpurea Merr. or an oily preparation obit is used to treat eczema and herpes infection. A paste of Dischidia vidalii Becc. is mixed with salt to treat goiter.

Phenolics and Polyphenols

The phenolic eugeniin from Geum japonicum and Syzygium aromaticum can block viral DNA polymerase and thereby inhibit acyclovir-resistant and thymidine kinase-deficient HSV-1, wild HSV-2, and Epstein-Barr virus 17, 85 . Extracts of Bergenia ligulata rhizomes of Nepal inhibit influenza virus replication by blocking RNA and protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner 86 . Similarly, the gallo-tannin geraniin isolated from Phyllanthus amarus inhibited HIV-1 replication by inhibiting reverse transcriptase in a dose-dependent manner 87 . The hydrolyzable tannin casuarinin obtained from Terminalia arjuna bark is virucidal and inhibits HSV-2 attachment and penetration 88 , but camelliatannin H from Camellia japonica pericarp inhibits HIV-1 protease 89 . Tannin from Prunella vulgaris and Rhizoma cibotte inhibit HIV-1 entry to CD4 cells by blocking gp41 six-helix bundle formation, a critical step of membrane fusion between HIV and the target cell 90 . Lignans are widely distributed in plants...

Antiinfective agents

No risk during pregnancy has been identified for the virostatic acyclovir (see also extensive experience with sytemic use during pregnancy, Chapter 2.6) or for local treatment for condylomata acuminata (venereal warts) with podophyllotoxin, a plant-based mitosis inhibitor (Robert 1994, Bargman 1988, Kami 1980).

Ethnomedicinal Antivirals Scope and Opportunity

Assay methods to determine in vitro and in vivo antiviral activity are needed to link antiviral efficacy or potency and laboratory-based research. The relative success achieved in the last two decades with such plant extracts which are capable of acting therapeutically in various viral infections, has raised optimism about the future of phytoantiviral agents. This chapter reviews some potentially useful ethnom-edicinal plants and compounds, evaluated and exploited for therapeutic applications against genetically and functionally diverse virus families including Retrovir-idae, Hepadnaviridae, and Herpesviridae causing sexually transmitted viral infections.

Radiotherapy and Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery

Mcneil Scott Nanoparticles

Promoters that cause an increased expression of the therapeutic gene within irradiated tumors. The third general principle is the use of radiation to increase proliferation of a therapeutic virus. This technique has been used to increase the efficacy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) within irradiated neo Advani SJ et al (1998) Enhancement of replication of genetically engineered herpes simplex viruses by ionizing radiation a new paradigm for destruction of therapeutically intractable tumors. Gene Ther 5 160-165 Agnihotri SA et al (2004) Recent advances on chitosan-based micro- and nanoparticles in drug delivery. J Control Release 100 5-28 Arap W et al (1998) Cancer treatment by targeted drug delivery to tumor vasculature in a mouse model. Science 279 377-380

Atalantia monophylla DC

Pharmaceutical interest Anti-herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2)-guided fractionation of the leaves of Atalantia monophylla DC. resulted in the identification of pyropheophorbide (Chansakaow S et a ., 1996). The plant is also known to produce limonoids and acridone alkaloids (Dreyer DLR et a ., 1976 Gururaj H eta ., 1981). No recent reports on the pharmacological potential are available on this interesting medicinal species.

Eye nose and ear drops

Glucocorticoids, cromoglicic acid, antihistamines, antibiotics, and acyclovir, as well as artificial tears'' such as, for instance, povidone, may be used for the appropriate indications. The antibiotic chloramphenicol should not be used (see Chapter 2.6). Nasal or inhalative application of budesonide (Kallen 2003) or nasal fluticason (Ellegard 2001) has not been associated with developmental disorders in the newborn. There is no specific experience yet with loteprednol during pregnancy.

Artemisinin A Versatile Weapon from Traditional Chinese Medicine

Abstract Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commands a unique position among all traditional medicines because of its 5000 years of tradition. Our own interest in natural products from TCM was triggered in the 1990s by sesquiterpene lactones of the artemisinin type from Artemisia annua L. The first description of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. (qinghao, Sweet wormwood) dates back to 168 B.C.E. Artemisinin (qinghaosu) was identified in 1972 as the active antimalarial constituent of Artemisia annua L. Artemisinin and its derivatives are used for the treatment of malaria. As shown in recent years, this class of compounds also shows activity against cancer cells, schistosomiasis, and certain viruses, i.e., human cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B anc C virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Interestingly, the bioactivity of artemisinin seems to be even broader and also includes the inhibition of other protozaons such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as some...

Respiratory effects of inhaled cannabis vapor andor smoke

Cannabis Respiratory Effect

CANCER, AIDS HIV Cannabis reduces the gut-wrenching nausea caused by chemotherapy (and radiation therapy), while it stimulates the appetite to help patients eat and combat excessive weight loss (the wasting syndrome) and cachexia. It reduces pain and helps cancer patients sleep and rest. It often raises the patients' spirits and mood, improving their will to live and chance of recovery. Direct application of THC in vitro shows promise as a tumor-killing or reducing agent and also kills the herpes virus.

The Oral Cavity Infections of the Oral Cavity

Infections of the oral cavity are often caused by overactivity of endogenous flora (e.g. dental caries) and also by primary pathogens (e.g. candidiasis). Typical disorders include viral infections such as Herpes simplex (cold sores) fungal infections such as oral thrush caused by the Candida albicans and other Candida species bacterial-induced infection such as gingivitis leading to periodontitis in some cases.

Future Trends For Otc And Lifestyle Drugs

What will the future of OTC look like Back in the 1990s, Rx-to-OTC switches were deemed to be the driving force for growth in the OTC industry. We did see rapid growth in the mid-1990s, but the number of switches has dwindled substantially near the end of the 20th century (323). The so-called easy ones have been switched. Pharmaceutical companies need to be creative with future switches. Several seemingly promising switches such as the and acyclovir have been denied by the Advisory committee (35). Refusal by the FDA to switch a product in the past does not mean there is no opportunity for future switch. It simply means the sponsor will need to develop more data. Most switches need to go through a few passes in front of the Advisory Committee before they are eventually switched. Some of the therapeutic categories such as hair growth and smoking cessation that have not been incorporated into the monograph system by the OTC review panel were eventually switched. The reason why these OTC...

Pregnancy Category None

American mandrake is a traditional Native American medicine, and in former times it was considered a substitute for mercury's medical employment. Folk medicine uses the plant to treat fever, worms, constipation, warts, syphilis, jaundice, liver disease, and cancer. Etoposide, a substance derived from the plant, is scientifically known to work against cancer. American mandrake contains podophyllotoxin, a substance that acts against viruses causing measles and herpes simplex type I. A study found podophyllotoxin and podo-phyllin (another American mandrake substance) to be effective against a type of wart. Application of American mandrake natural product preparations to the skin must be skillful because the plant can injure the skin and even be fatal if too much drug content is absorbed.

Marijuana Addiction Introduction

Marijuana, Cannabis sativa, is a highly complex substance which contains in excess of 400 chemical entities including A9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its major psychoactive component. THC has been reported to have therapeutic potential in terms of its anti-nociceptive properties, ability to reduce intraocular pressure and bronchial constriction, and action as an anti-convulsant and antiemetic agent (Munson and Fehr, 1983 Dewey, 1986). Accumulating experimental evidence indicates, also, that marijuana and cannabinoids can alter functional activities of the immune system. Studies extending back to the 1970s, in which in vitro and in vivo experimental models have been used, have indicated that marijuana or THC impairs cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity, and cellular defenses against a variety of infectious agents (reviewed in Cabral and Dove Pettit, 1998 Friedman and Klein, 1999). Compromised resistance in mice, rats, and guinea pigs to infection with amebae, herpes simplex virus,...

Effects on the Immune System Using In Vitro Models 231

Studies as early as 1977 indicated that THC alters human T lymphocyte functions (Nahas et al. 1977). THC has since been reported to suppress a variety of functions of T cells from a variety of sources, including cytolytic activity and proliferation responses to T cell mitogens. Klein et al. (1991) examined the effect of cannabinoids on the activity of murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The cytolytic activity of CTLs generated by co-cultivation with either allospecific or trinitrophenol (TNP)-modified-self stimulators was suppressed by THC and 11-hydroxy-THC. Allospecific CTLs generated in vivo also were inhibited by in vitro exposure to these cannabinoids. Drug treatment of mature CTLs appeared to have a minimal effect on binding of these cells to their targets. In addition, THC inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes responding to an allogeneic stimulus as well as the maturation of these lymphocytes to mature CTLs. Similarly, THC was shown to inhibit CTL activity developing in...

Results in the VTA and Substantia Nigra

Another finding relevant to this controversy is that overexpression of GluRl in the rostral VTA using a herpes simplex virus resulted in intensification of the locomotor stimulant and rewarding properties of morphine (16,17). Although this is an interesting finding, it does not necessarily imply that increased GluRl expression is involved in the naturally occurring pathways that produce behavioral sensitization to morphine or psychomotor stimulants. A state resembling behavioral sensitization can be produced by a number of diverse experimental manipulations, all sharing the ability to produce brief but intense activation of VTA DA cells. These include repeated electrical stimulation of the VTA (18) or PFC (19), and pharmacological disinhibition of VTA DA cells (20).

Prostaglandins in ophthalmology

Cystoid macular edema, iritis, Herpes simplex keratitis, periocular skin darkening, and headaches have been described in patients treated with prostaglandin analogues. These adverse effects occur rarely, and cystoid macular edema, iritis and H. simplex keratitis occur in eyes with risk factors. Repeated rechallenge with masked controls is required to establish a causal relation. However, even without firm establishment of a causal relation, caution is advised with the use of prostaglandin analogues in the eyes of patients with risk factors for macular edema, iritis, and H. simplex keratitis (76).

Topical administration to the eye

Clinicians should not prescribe glucocorticoid-contain-ing eye-drops unless they have performed a slit-lamp examination with tonometry, have assurance of appropriate follow-up, and understand the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. Unless clearly indicated, prescribing volumes larger than 5 ml or providing refillable prescriptions should be avoided. It should be stressed that excessive use of glucocorticoids can result in corneal Herpes infection and mycosis.

Epidemiology

Aspergillosis cases have increased three- to four-fold over the past 20 years (1-3). Unfortunately, these infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cells transplantation and those with hematologic malignancies (4,5). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is also observed in patients undergoing solid organ transplantation. However, the risk of these infections differs depending on the type of organ transplantation, with lung transplant recipients having the highest risk. Similarly, the risk of such infections is higher among patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation versus autologous stem cell transplants (4,6). Classic risk factors associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis include neutropenia, defects in cell-mediated immunity, the use of corticosteroids, and graft-versus-host disease (7,8). For allogeneic stem cell recipients the incidence of infection has been shown to be bimodal. Both...

Zidovudine

This drug is used cautiously in patients with bone marrow depression or severe hepatic or renal impairment. Zidovudine is a Pregnancy Category C drug and is used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation. There is an increased risk of bone marrow depression when zidovudine is administered with antineoplastic drugs, other drugs causing bone marrow depression, and in patients having or recently taking radiation therapy. An additive neurotoxicity may occur when zidovu-dine is administered with acyclovir. Clarithromycin decreases blood levels of zidovudine. The blood levels of zidovudine are increased when it is given with lamivudine.

Licorice

Effects Licorice has been used to treat depression, as well as digestive, respiratory, kidney, and bladder ailments. In Japan, it has been used to treat chronic hepatitis B and C. It can also inhibit tooth decay, inhibit the growth of cancer in vitro and in mice, is helpful in the treatment of sore throats and coughs, and may aid in the treatment of Addison's disease. An extract, glycyrrhizin, has been used to treat such viruses as herpes zoster (shingles), herpes simplex 1, polio type 1, and vaccinia in vitro, and to inhibit HIV. Derivatives have also led to such drugs as Carbenoxolone, used in the treatment of various types of ulcers. Used by herbalists to treat allergies, asthma, chronic fatigue, emphysema, fever, hypoglycemia, and inflammation of the bowels.

Organs and Systems

In a retrospective record review of 18 HIV-infected patients (30 eyes) who were being treated with intravenous cidofovir for complicated cytomegalovirus retinitis, eight patients developed anterior uveitis after a median of four (range 2-8) doses of cidofovir or a median of 55 (20-131) days after the start of therapy (10). While they were receiving treatment with cidofovir, none of the patients showed any evidence of progression of CMV retinitis. Five of the eight had symptoms of photophobia and blurred vision at the onset of uveitis, and the other three were asymptomatic. There was no difference in the use of HIV-1 protease inhibitors between the patients who did or did not develop anterior uveitis. Baseline intraocular pressure measurements were available for 11 18 patients. With the introduction of cidofovir there was a fall in mean intraocular pressure, and a trend for this fall to be more pronounced in those who developed anterior uveitis. Withdrawal of cidofovir was necessary in...

Viral infections

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis after myxedema coma has been described in an 81-year-old man treated with hydrocortisone (100 mg 8-hourly) and levothyroxine (282). In renal transplantation, two cases of death from Herpes simplex as a result of glucocorticoid treatment are on record (SED-8, 827) (SEDA-17, 449).

Protozoal infections

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia has been precipitated or aggravated by glucocorticoids (SEDA-20, 377) (SEDA-22, 450) (272,301,302). There is some concern about the use of glucocorticoids as adjunctive therapy in patients with AIDS who develop Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. The immunosuppressant properties of gluco-corticoids have been reported to enhance the risk of tuberculosis and other AIDS-related diseases (for example Kaposi's sarcoma or cytomegalovirus infection).

Vitamin Bl

Effects A strong antioxidant, vitamin B-l also helps in stabilizes the brain and nervous system's energy production from glucose, stabilizing the appetite, aids in the functioning of the nervous system, helps repair cell damage, helps relieve air and seasickness, and is used in the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles), alcoholism, cirrhosis, overactive thyroid, infection, absorption diseases, prolonged diarrhea, and burns. Precautions There is a wide variation in the amount individuals need some people seem to be able to manufacture it from their intestinal bacteria, though antibiotics may disturb the natural balance of these bacteria. High doses can result in deficiencies of other B vitamins, which can be prevented by increasing the intake of other B vitamins accordingly, such as with a B-complex supplement. Overdosages can also affect thyroid and insulin production, and symptoms though rare, and usually resulting from injections of B-l include allergic reactions, edema, faintness,...

Arginine

Precautions Supplements should not be taken by those with schizophrenia, though there is no evidence that it aggravates this condition. Those with any form of liver or kidney failure should take high doses for a prolonged period of time only while under the care of a physician. Supplementary forms should not be taken by children or teenagers, as there is the possibility it could cause bone and skin disorders. Too large a dose can result in diarrhea, nausea, a thickening or coarsening of the skin, and the possible promotion of the herpes virus (though Sheldon Saul Hendler, M.D., Ph.D., says this last has not been proven). In fact, those with herpes should avoid arginine supplements and argininerich foods, though sufficient amounts of lysine may help counteract this in such cases, ornithine may be used in place of arginine. Dosages over 20 to 30 grams a day could lead to enlarged joints and bone deformities.

In Vitro Infections

A variety of mammalian cellular systems have been used as experimental models for documenting the in vitro effects of cannabinoids on immune responsiveness to viruses, bacteria, and amoebae. Blevins and Dumic (1980) indicated that THC had a protective effect against HSV infection in vitro. It was found that both HSV-1 and HSV-2 failed to replicate and produce extensive cytopathic effect (c.p.e.) in human cell monolayer cultures exposed before infection, at infection, or post infection to various concentrations ofTHC. In contrast, other studies indicate that THC compromises resistance to virus infection. It has been reported that THC inhibits macrophage extrinsic anti-viral activity (Cabral and Vasquez 1991 Cabral and Vasquez 1992) whereby macrophages normally suppress virus replication in cells to which they attach (Morahan et al. 1980 Stohlman et al. 1982). Noe et al. (1998) reported that a variety of cannabinoid receptor agonists enhanced syncytia formation in human T cell leukemia...

In Vivo Infections

Guinea pigs and mice have been used extensively as experimental in vivo models for documenting the effects of cannabinoids on host resistance. One of the earliest studies that indicated cannabinoids exacerbated host resistance to microbes was reported by Bradley et al. (1977), who demonstrated enhanced susceptibility of mice to combinations of THC and live or killed gram-negative bacteria. Mora-han et al. (1979) demonstrated that mice exposed to THC were compromised in their ability to resist infection to viral and bacterial agents. BALB c mice administered THC intraperitoneally exhibited decreased resistance to infection with either Listeria monocytogenes or HSV-2. Mishkin and Cabral (1985) and Cabral et al. (1986a,b) confirmed and extended these studies. THC was shown to increase in a dose-related fashion the susceptibility to HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs and mice. Animals treated with THC exhibited greater severity of herpes genitalis, higher mortalities, and higher mean...

Other Drugs Adefovir

The ganciclovir implant plus oral ganciclovir versus parenteral cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome The Ganciclovir Cidofovir Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Trial. Am J Ophthalmol 2001 131 457-67. 2. Ljungman P, Deliliers GL, Platzbecker U, Matthes-Martin S, Bacigalupo A, Einsele H, Ull-mann J, Musso M, Trenschel R, Ribaud P, Bornha M, Cesaro S, Crooks B, Dekker A, Gratecos N, Klingebiel T, Tagliaferri E, Ullmann AJ, Wacker P, Cordonnier C. Cidofovir for cytomegalovirus infection and disease in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Blood 2001 97 388-92. 6. Velez G, Roy CE, Whitcup SM, Chan CC, Robinson MR. High-dose intravitreal ganciclovir and foscarnet for cytomegalovirus retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2001 131 396-7. 14. Engst R, Schiewe U, Hobel W, Machka K, Meister W. Famciclovir in treatment of acute herpes zoster results of two post-marketing surveillance studies in Germany. Acta Dermatol Venereol...

Medicines

There are several publications on iron overdose during pregnancy (Tran 2000, 1998, McElhatton 1998, 1993, Lacoste 1992, Dugdalc 1964). In a case series, 85 pregnancies were evaluated 6 were exposed in the first trimester, 37 in the second, and 41 in the third. There were 73 live-born infants without congenital malformations. Five of these infants were delivered prematurely, one had genital herpes. and one had severe jaundice following exposure at week 36 37. Five infants, all exposed in the second and third Lrimesters, had malformations. Two fetal deaths, in weeks 22 and 29, were observed, one of them immediately after intoxication and another following abdominal trauma. Five pregnancies were terminated.

Chocolate

Precautions It is addictive, and has a high (40 to 60 percent) fat content. Chocolate and nuts should be avoided by those with herpes, as the high arginine content can aggravate the symptoms. It should not be taken by anyone with allergies, as it can worsen symptoms, or anyone with canker sores, as it can delay healing. Sensitivity to chocolate can trigger migraine headaches.

Rituximab

Infection risk Severe viral infections reactivation that have been reported have included fulminant hepatitis B, parvovirus-induced red cell aplasia, and fatal Varicella zoster infection (103a-105a). There was a high incidence of reactivation of cytomegalovirus and Varicella zoster virus when rituximab was combined with high-dose chemotherapy in high-risk patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (106c).

Antisense Strategy

An antisense oligonucleotide is a relatively short length of chemically modified single-stranded nucleic acid (e.g., 10 to 20 base pairs) with a sequence complementary to a region of target mRNA. Hybridization with the RNA then interferes with the process of translation for their particular protein. However, a similar set of problems to those described for antigene oligonucleotides exists, such as poor stability, pharmacokinetic, and cellular penetration characteristics. This is highlighted by the fact that the first antisense product to be given FDA approval for marketing in the late 1990s (i.e., Fomiversen ISIS-2922 to treat cytomegalovirus-induced retinitis) has to be administered locally by injection directly into the eye, thus avoiding the problems associated with systemic delivery. A further consideration is that the antisense strategy may not prove as efficient as the antigene approach, in which inhibition of just one copy of the gene should prevent numerous copies of mRNA from...

Future Prospects

Considerable evidence of the antiviral activity of plant medicines against herpes and retroviruses has been documented 15-17, 40 , but there are many parameters to be considered for the evaluation of antiviral activity, such as the methods of extraction, the plant parts to be used, season(s) for collection, and administration. The pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) of Phytolacca americana, which cause depu-rination of HIV genomic RNA, and ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) that inhibit viral protein synthesis, alter ribosomal function, depurinate rRNAs and nucleic acid 15, 16 should also be considered. Trichobitacin, an RIP isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii root reduced the p24 antigen expression in HIV-1. While PAP29 of Phytolacca americana, a single-chain RIP similar to MAP30 and GAP31, can be used as a prophylactic anti-HIV agent, as they inactivate viruses and virus-infected cells in semen 16 , but further investigation on these potential agents is essential.

Isoprinosine

Effects Assists the brain in certain key functions relating to memory formation and promotes RNA synthesis in brain cells. It promotes RNA synthesis in brain cells is an immune stimulator which may have antiviral properties and has been shown to increase the effectiveness of Interferon, render some herpes viruses inactive, and reduce the severity of some AIDS symptoms.

Animals

Alkaloids are also found in the animal kingdom, especially in millipedes, salamanders, toads, frogs, fish and mammals. They occur particularly in the genera Saxidomus, Salamandra, Phyllobates, Dendrobates, Castor and Moschus. Moreover, alkaloid molecules are found in such genera as Solenopsis, Odon-tomachus, Glomeris and Polyzonium. Many alkaloids have been recently isolated from marine environment, especially from the sponges197. The discovery of ptilomycalin A from the sponges Ptilocaulis spiculifer and Hemimycale spp. preceded the isolation of several analogues from other sponges such as Crambe crambe, Monanchora arbuscula, Monanchora ungiculata as well as from the some starfishes such as Fromia monilis and Celerina heffernani. From the Caribbean sponge Monanchora unguifera the guanidine alkaloids (batzelladine J, ptilomycalin A, ptilocaulin and isoptilocaulin) have been recently isolated197. Many of guanidine alkaloids display ichthyotoxicity, and antibacterial, antifun-gal and...

Polygonum barbatum L

Antiviral and antibacterial properties An aqueous extract of Polygonum punctatum hampers the proliferation of Herpes Simplex Virus type-1 cultured in vitro (Kott V et al., 1999). It would be interesting to find out the principles involved here. An aqueous extract of Polygonum capitatum decreases the death rate of mice

Viratop Zovirax

- Antiviral active against herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus - Treatment of recurrent or extensive oral herpes in immunocompromised patients - Treatment of genital herpes - Secondary prophylaxis of herpes in patients with frequent and or severe recurrences - Treatment of recurrent or extensive oral herpes in immunocompromised patients Child under 2 years 200 mg 5 times per day for 7 days - Treatment of genital herpes - Secondary prophylaxis of herpes in patients with frequent and or severe recurrences Child under 2 years 200 mg 2 times per day - For the treatment of herpes simplex, aciclovir should be started within 24-48 hours after the appearance of lesions to reduce severity and duration of infection. - For the treatment of herpes zoster, aciclovir should be started as soon as possible, preferably within 72 hours after the appearance of lesions. Aciclovir administration does not reduce the likelihood of developing zoster-associated pain but reduces the overall...

Prunella vulgaris L

Antiviral properties An extract of the spike of Prunella vulgaris L. displays anti-HIV activity at the adsorption and reverse transcription stages (Kaguyama S et al., 2000) on probable account of an anionic polysaccharide, which is active against another retrovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2).This saccharide is inactive against Cytomegalovirus, the Human Influenza Virus types A and B, the Poliovirus type 1 or the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in vitro. The 50 plaque reduction dose of the polysaccharide for Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 is 10 g mL. This polysaccharide also inhibits clinical isolates and known acyclovir-resistant (TK-deficient or polymerase-defective) strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2 (Xu HX etal., 1999). A polysaccharide fraction abrogates the expression of Herpes Simplex Virus antigen in Vero cells

Cardamine hirsuta L

Antiviral activity against the Herpes Virus type 1 (McCutcheon AR et al., 1995). Cardamine opizii has been used to treat diabetes (Kvetensky J, 1967). It will be interesting to learn whether further studies on Cardamine hirsuta L. will disclose any principles of pharmaceutical value.

Cleome gynandra L

Uses Cleome gynandra L. is a counter-irritant remedy. In China, the seeds are used to stop flatulence and a decoction of the plant is applied externally to treat piles and rheumatism. In Indonesia, the crushed leaves are applied externally to treat herpes, and the plant is used internally to promote expectoration and to stop flatulence. In Malaysia, the crushed leaves are applied externally to treat fever and rheumatism. A decoction of about 30 g of this plant is used to treat malaria, hepatitis, and leucorrhea. The seeds are eaten to prevent a malarial attack. In the Philippines, the leaves are eaten to treat bilious disorders. In Taiwan, a decoction of Cleome gynandra L. is drunk to treat gonorrhea and to stop dysentery. In Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, the roots are invigorating and antiscorbutic. The leaves are applied to the lumbar region to assuage pain in the loins. In India, half a teacup full of seeds given twice daily in a decoction, is eaten to treat convulsive infection,...

Ljp 394

In a phase 2, partially randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study of three different doses of LJP394 in 58 patients, seven did not receive all doses of LJP394 because of adverse events (151c). Five withdrew because of adverse events related to their lupus erythematosus non-renal exacerbations in two, hematuria and hypertension in one, worsening rash in one, and nephritis in one. One patient withdrew because of cellulitis and another because of a localized Herpes zoster infection. None of the reported adverse events was considered to be definitely related to the drug. 138. Neyts J, Andrei G, De Clercq E. The novel immunosuppressive agent mycophenolate mofetil markedly potentiates the antiherpesvirus activities of acyclovir, ganciclovir, and penciclovir in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1998 42 216-22.

Cassia tora L

Senna Leaf

Uses In China, the seeds of Cassia tora L. are used to treat herpes infection, diseased eyes, and to heal infected sores. In Malaysia, the seeds are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and lower blood pressure. A decoction of about 10 g of seeds is used to treat acute conjunctivis. In Vietnam and in the Philippines, the plant is used to expel intestinal worms. In Vietnam, 10 g to 15 g of raw seeds are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness, and the roasted seeds are ingested to assuage headache, relieve the bowels of costiveness, control excessive urination, treat cough, insomnia, ophthalmia and ocular congestion, and to lower blood pressure. An alcoholic or vinegar maceration of the seeds is applied externally to treat eczema and mycosis. In India, a decoction of the leaves is drunk to relieve the bowels of costiveness. The seeds and leaves are used to treat ringworm infection and irritated skin. The gum (panwar gum) expressed from the seeds of Cassia tora L. has been tried...