Curcumin may operate through suppression of various transcription factors, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), early growth response protein 1, activator protein 1 (AP-1), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-y), and P-catenin [13, 14, 19]. These transcription factors play essential roles in various diseases. The constitutively active form of NF-kB has been reported in a wide variety of cancers. NF-kB is required for the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, cell invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Bharti et al. demonstrated that curcumin inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and consequent STAT3 nuclear translocation . Activation of PPAR-y inhibits the proliferation of nonadipocytes. Xu et al. demonstrated that curcumin dramatically induced expression of the PPAR-y gene and activated PPAR-y . AP-1, another transcription factor that has been closely linked with proliferation and transformation of tumor cells, has been shown to be suppressed by curcumin. Studies also suggest that curcumin has a potential therapeutic effect on prostate cancer cells through down-regulation of AR and AR-related cofactors .
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