Although Egyptian medicine dates from at least 3000 BCE, the last known and most important pharmaceutical record is the Papyrus Ebers (1500 BCE). Use of Ricinus communis seeds, Citrilus colocynthes, Senna alexandrina and Prunica granatum roots in large quantities is mentioned in the ancient Egyptian literature. These uses were later documented by the Greek physician Dioscorides (100 CE). Writings of the Greeks, such as Hippocrates (460-377 BCE) and Galen (130-200 CE), also used parts of the Papyrus Ebers. Therefore Greek, and ultimately modern, medicine has its origin in Egyptian or Nile Valley civilization .
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