Scutellaria baicalensis

The roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Labiatae) have been used in TEM to treat inflammatory and cardiovascular disease. S. baicalensis contains three major polyphenolic components, namely wogonin, baicalin, and baicalein (Fig. 16.1) These three polyphenols are as free-radical scavengers of hydroxyl, DPPH, and alkyl radicals [58]. Baicalein is the most effective compound of the three polyphenols tested in preventing glutamate toxicity [59] and is also known as a selective inhibitor of 12-lipoxygenase [60]. Baicalin also acts as a neuroprotectant during cerebral ischemia [61].

S. baicalensis and baicalein reduce ischemia-reperfusion brain injury and neu-trophil infiltration in MCAo rats [62, 63]. S. baicalensis also protects CA1 neurons against transient 4-VO in rats and inhibits microglial TNF-a and NO production in vitro [64]. Wogonin, 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone, inhibits ischemic brain injury and improves behavioral dysfunction caused by permanent MCAo [65]. Wogo-nin has anti-inflammatory activities in various cell types and inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS induction and NF-kB activation in microglia [66].

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