The root of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is used as a hemostatic and tonic and for contusions. Rhodiola plants demonstrated antifatigue, antianoxia, and memory-enhancing effects. The major compositions of rhizomes of R. rosea are phenols such as salidroside and its aglycon tyrosol, and cinnamic glycosides such as rosin, rosavin, and rosarin. Other important constituents are flavonoids, tannins, gallic acid and its esters and essential oils. Administration of R. rosea extract for 10 d yielded protection against impairment in memory, as assessed by step-down passive avoidance, induced by electroshock in rats . Several constituents of R. sacra and R. sachalinensis showed protective effects against beta-amyloid toxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis . Phenolic compounds exhibited significant scavenging effects against DPPH free radicals . R. sachalinensis treatment reduced infarct volume and attenuated COX-2 induction and microglial activation after tMCAo in rats .
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