Molecular Targets of Curcumin

Various studies have shown that curcumin modulates multiple targets (Table 7.1). These include the growth factors, growth factor receptors, transcription factors, cy-tokines, enzymes, and genes regulating apoptosis.

Table 7.1

Molecular Targets of Curcumin Transcription factors

Activator protein-1 4 ß-Catenin 4

CREB-binding protein 4 Early growth response 1 4 Electrophile response element 1 Hypoxia inducible factor-1 4 Notch-1 4

Nuclear factor-kappa B 4 Nuclear factor erythyroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) Peroxisome preoliferator-activated receptor-Y 1 Signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 4 Signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 4 Signal transducers and activators of transcription-4 4 Signal transducers and activators of transcription-5 4 Wilms' tumour gene 1 4

Inflammatory cytokines

Interleukin-1 4 Interleukin-2 4 Interleukin-5 4 Interleukin-6 4 Interleukin-8 4 Interleukin-12 4 Interleukin-18 4

Monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 Migration inhibition protein 4 Macrophage inflammatory protein 4 Tumor necrosis factor a 4

Enzymes

Arylamine N-acetyltransferases-1 4

ATFase 4 ATPase 4

Cyclooxygenase-2 4 Desaturase 4 DNA polymerase 4 Farnesyl protein transferase 4 Gluthathione S-transferase 1

Table 7.1 (continued) Molecular Targets of Curcumin

Glutamyl cysteine ligase 1 Hemeoxygenase-1 1 Inducible nitric oxide synthase j. Lipoxygenase j. Matrix metalloproteinase j. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase j. Ornithine decarboxylase j. Phospholipase D j. Telomerase j.

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 j. Kinases

Autophosphorylation-activated protein kinase j.

Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase j.

EGF receptor-kinase j.

Extracellular receptor kinase j.

Focal adhesion kinase j.

IL-1 receptor-associated kinase j.

Janus kinase j.

c-jun N-terminal kinase 1

Mitogen-activated protein kinase j.

Phosphorylase kinase j.

Protamine kinase j.

Protein kinase A j.

Protein kinase B j.

Prorein kinase C j.

Protein tyrosine kinase j.

Growth factors

Connective tissue growth factor j. Epidermal growth factor j. Fibroblast growth factor j. Hepatocyte growth factor j. Nerve growth factor j. Platelet derived growth factor j. Transforming growth factor-ß1 j. Vascular endothelial growth factor j.

Receptors

Androgen receptor j. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor j. Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 j. Death receptor-5 1 EGF-receptor j.

Endothelial protein C-receptor 1

Estrogen receptor-alpha j.

Fas receptor 1

Histamine (2)- receptor j.

Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 j.

Interleukin 8-receptor j.

Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor j.

7 The Role of Curcumin in Modern Medicine Table 7.1 (continued)

Molecular Targets of Curcumin

Integrin receptor 4 Low-density lipoprotein-receptor 1

Adhesion molecules

Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 4 Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 4 Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 4

Antiapoptotic proteins

B-cell lymphoma protein 2 4 Bcl-xL 4

Inhibitory apoptosis protein-1 4

Others

Cyclin D1 4

DNA fragmentation factor 40-kd subunit 1 Heat-shock protein 70 1 Multi-drug resistance protein 4 Urokinase-type plasminogen activator 4 p53 1

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