The cortex of Magnolia officinalis Rehder et Wilson (Magnoliaceae) has been used for the treatment of acute pain, diarrhea, coughs, and urinary problems in TEM. Honokiol (Fig. 16.1) and magnolol (Fig. 16.1) are the main constituents of the bark of this herb and have a variety of pharmacological activities. Honokiol has been demonstrated to be an effective antioxidant . It can protect animal tissues against lipid peroxidation [89, 90] serve as an antiplatelet drug , and it displays an anti-inflammatory effect in activated macrophages [92, 93]. Honokiol is a potent neuroprotective agent against focal cerebral ischemic injury by its antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation effects [94, 96].
Magnolol (5,5'-diallyl-2,2'-dihydroxydiphenyl) inhibits intracellular calcium mobilization in platelets , relaxes vascular smooth muscle cells , and has an-tihemostatic, antithrombotic , anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects . A number of other effects of magnolol have also been found, including inhibition of prostaglandin D2 formation , suppression of nonselective vascular hyporeac-tivity to mediators , reduction of the formation of eicosanoid mediators , inhibition of neutrophil adherence , prevention of ischemic-reperfusion injury , and, most importantly, strong antioxidant activity . Magnolol treatment appears to have a marked effect against heatstroke-induced cerebral ischemic insults .
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