The fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Rubiaceae) has been used in TEM for the treatment of inflammation, jaundice, headache, edema, fever, hepatic disorders, and hypertension. Its pharmacological actions, such as protective activity against ox-idative damage, cytotoxic effects, anti-inflammatory effect and fibrolytic activities, have already been demonstrated [161, 162]. Crocetin, a major component of gardenia fruits, was found to be a potent inhibitor of tumor promotion via antioxidant activity . Another active component, crocin, exhibited a variety of pharmacological effects in mice, including inhibition of skin tumor growth, improvement of learning behavior previously impaired by ethanol , and prevention of long-term potentiation caused by ethanol in rats . It could be useful as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders accompanied by memory impairment. Crocin also combats the serum/glucose deprivation-induced ceramide formation in PC12 cells caused by increasing GSH levels and prevents the activation of the JNK pathway, which is reported to have a role in the signaling cascade downstream of ceramide for neuronal cell death .
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