Conclusion

A variety of herbs and prescriptions have been demonstrated to have neuroprotec-tive effects in vivo and in vitro that may be relevant to the treatment of stroke. The majority of in vivo studies have been performed in rodent ischemia models, MCAo as focal ischemia, and 4-VO and 2-VO as global ischemia. The mechanisms of neuroprotective herbs in TEM are suggested to be antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiglutamate effects; however, it is difficult to be precise about mechanisms as the herbs have so many active compounds with disparate mechanisms.

In conclusion, the pharmacological activities of herbs often appear to reflect their traditional uses. The approach for screening herbs to investigate for treatment of stroke is a relatively successful method for the identification of herbs and single compounds.

Acknowledgements I am grateful to my graduate students, Jihye Sagong and Dong-hun Lee, for their assistance and to Prof. Youngmin Bu and Dr. Eun Bang Lee in NeuMed for their advice. This work was supported by a grant (PF002102-00) from the Plant Diversity Research Center of the 21st Century Frontier Research Program funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Korean government.

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