In the 20th century hawthorn preparations were used as a kind of heart tonic in European herbal medicine - especially in German-speaking countries. Over the last two decades quite a number of clinical trials on hawthorn extracts have become available in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Due to scientific and economic interests the focus in clinical research has shifted mainly towards the examination of extracts from the flowers and leaves of hawthorn (Table 8.1) for the indication of chronic or so-called congestive heart failure (CHF).
Due to the differing quality of clinical trials according to changing scientific and regulatory standards in recent decades, it is worth pointing out that when we do not mention if an analysis has been performed based on the intention to treat (ITT) or per protocol (PP), then this information was lacking in the publication.
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