Carthamus tinctorius, the flower of the safflower plant, has been used extensively in TEM for its purported ability to improve cerebral blood flow. C. tinctorius protected against excitotoxicity of glutamate, NMDA, kainate, quisqualate and against neuronal degeneration caused by simulated ischemia . C. tinctorius exerted significant neuroprotective effects on rats with focal cerebral ischemic injury . C. tinctorius reduced cell damage and the formation of peroxidation products after bilateral ligation of the common carotid arteries in rats .
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