Biological Activity of Ginkgo

Jan Lehotsky, Peter Kaplan, Martina Pavlikova, Peter Urban and Beata Saniova

Abstract The extract of Ginkgo biloba (Egb) contains more than 60 active substances with a high bioavailability. EGb has extensive protective effects on the central nervous system and cerebrovascular system. As neuroprotective agent it eliminates free radicals, acts as an antioxidant and a free-radical scavenger, reduces lipid peroxidation, and is a membrane stabilizer and an inhibitor of platelet-activating factor via the terpene ginkgolide. The anti-ischemic neuropro-tective effects of Egb have been proved in cerebral and spinal cord ischemic models in animals, the action possibly being related to a functional state of mitochondria and apoptosis. However, high-quality and large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to test its efficacy for the treatment of human stroke.

Keywords Ginkgo biloba extract • EGb ■ Biological activity ■ Neuroprotection ■ Ischemia

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