The rhizomes of Acorus gramineus Solander (Araceae) have been used for the improvement of learning and memory and is often included in the TEM prescriptions for stroke [138, 139]. Water extract or volatile oil from A. gramineus induced sedation, decreased spontaneous activity, potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, and antagonized pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion in mice [140, 141]. The interactions of A. gramineus with the central dopamine (D1 and D2) receptors and the GABA binding site of GABAa receptors were thought to mediate these central inhibitory actions. The methanol extract and the essential oil from A. gramineus inhibited excitotoxic neuronal cell death in primary cultured rat cortical cells [142, 143]. One active principle was identified as asarone (Fig. 16.1), a major essential-oil component in the rhizomes of A. gramineus .
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