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Health And Wellness In The 21st Century

Health And Wellness In The 21st Century

Surefire Ways To Build Up Your Health And Wellness In The Realm Of The Baby Boomer. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Getting Serious Results In Getting Health Secrets. For a lot of us Baby Boomers, the last 10 years has been fraught with caring for or watching our aging loved ones deal with such events as Alzheimers, Osteoporosis, heart conditions and Cancer.

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The Ayurveda Experience

The Ayurveda Experience is a three-step process to becoming more calm, healthy, and happy with a carefully researched 3-step process described in this eBook guide. You will identify your unique personality type and all of the problems and struggles that your personality type faces, and way to live your life so that you will become more satisfied and happier. Most of your problems in life stem from the fact that people do not realize that you are different from them. Since everyone is unique, everyone needs special treatment for their individual problems. There is no such thing as a one size fits all treatment plan for depression or weight or anything else. The Ayurveda Experience takes ancient Indian religion and medicine into account, and your unique person to come up with the perfect plan for you to become as healthy as you could possibly be. Learn your personality and what makes you tick, and then follow the plan to become the best person that you can be, treated the way that you were intended to be treated!

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Regulatory Challenges of Asian Herbal Medicine

Overall the incidence of serious adverse reactions is significantly lower with most herbal medicines when compared with pharmaceutically derived drugs 8 . However, the need still exists to more closely monitor practitioners and formulators of any traditional medicine, including those of Indian origin, so that unethical practices are reduced. For most herbal products, verification is difficult if not impossible after processing has occurred. In traditional medicines that are prepared in Asian countries and exported, the task of ensuring safety is even more difficult since the incorporation of certain levels of potentially toxic herbs or heavy metals may not be considered harmful in the country of origin 69 . Some Chinese and Indian Ayurvedic medicines have been rejected by US, Canada and other countries on the grounds that they contain high levels of potentially toxic elements, including heavy metals. In the view of above problem, the authorized body for traditional medicine Ayush has...

Minimizing Contamination in Herbal Medicine

Herbal medicines in Asia and other countries consist of a mixture of crude or raw herbs collected from the wild, some from cultivated fields, as well as prepared herbal extracts provided by other agencies. Toxic chemicals and other contaminants, including microbes, may come from (1) environmental and agricultural conditions where the plants have been grown or collected. (2) transport and storage conditions, and (3) during manufacturing, processing, and packaging.

Regulatory Issues Affecting Herbal Medicines

Herbal products are regulated differently in other countries. In the United Kingdom, any product not granted a license as a medical product by the Control Agency is treated as a food and cannot carry any health claim or medical advice on the label. Similarly, herbal products are sold as dietary supplements in the Netherlands. In Germany, herbal monographs called the German Commission E monographs are prepared by an interdisciplinary committee using historic information, chemical, pharmacological, clinical and toxicological studies, case reports, epidemiological data and unpublished data from manufacturers. If an herb has an approved monograph, it can be marketed. Australia created a Complementary Medicine Evaluation Committee in 1997 to address regulatory issues regarding herbal remedies, and Canada has created a Natural Health Products Directorate after restructuring Therapeutic Products and Foods Branch in 2000 (8,9).

Herbal Medicines Potential Therapeutic Agents with Minimal Side Effects

Although some herbal medicines are effective in the treatment of diseases against which modern medicines are inefficient, very often these drugs are unscientifically exploited and improperly used. Numerous plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of liver diseases. However, in most of the severe cases, the treatments are not satisfactory. Experimental evaluation in most cases has been incomplete and insufficient and the therapeutic values have been tested against chemically induced subclinical levels of damage in rodents. Even common dietary antioxidant and micronutrients such as tocopherol 44 , ascorbic acid 45 , beta-carotene 45 , glutathione, uric acid, and bilirubin, and proteins such as ceru-loplasmin can provide protection from liver damage.

Improving the Quality Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicine

Herbal medicine products have been used for thousands of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in India, China, and other countries. Herbal medicine occupies an important position with regard to adverse reactions, having a lower percentage (7.6 ) of reported adverse effects than other CAM therapies, such as manipulation (15.8 ), acupuncture (12.5 ), and homeopathy (9.8 ) 6, 71, 72 . rance of herbal medicine. Major stages at which techniques such as GC, HPLC, high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), MS, X-ray diffraction, GC MS, and LC MS, etc. may be applied include Good Agricultural Practise (GAP), Good Sourcing Practise (GSP), Good Manufacturing Practise (GMP), and Good Clinical Trial Practise (GCTP) 6 . The problem still is not solved in cases where synergistic action provided by some chemically unknown or isolated ingredients in composite herbal medicine have proven effectiveness...

Ancient Systems of Medicine 231 Traditional Indian Medicine

The word Ayurveda is derived from 'Ayur', meaning life, and 'veda', meaning knowledge. Ayurveda means the science of life. It is an ancient system of health care and longevity. Ayurveda takes a holistic view of human beings, their health and illness. It aims at positive health, which has been defined as a well-balanced metabolism coupled with a healthy state of being. Disease, according to Ayurveda, can arise from the body and or mind due to external factors or intrinsic causes. Ayurvedic treatment is aimed at the patient as an organic whole and treatment consists of the salubrious use of drugs, diet and certain practices. This doctrine was conceived when science was not developed enough to understand even the human body, let alone drug molecules 6-11 . Ayurveda, perhaps the most ancient of all medicine traditions, is probably older than traditional Chinese medicine. The origin of Ayurveda is lost in prehistoric antiquity, but its characteristic concepts appear to have matured between...

Prospects for Herbal Medicine

Herbal medicine and other plant-derived therapeutic or prophylactic products in various forms have been available for many hundreds of years for the treatment of diseases in both Eastern and Western cultures. About one-quarter of marketed orthodox pharmaceutical medicines are either derived from plant sources or from derivatives of secondary plant metabolites. Some of the most economically important pharmaceuticals or their precursors derived from plants as listed by several workers are shown in Table 3.2 3 . seen in the herbal medicine market in recent years, as increasing numbers of consumers are persuaded by the benefits of plant extracts as an alternative to medicinal products with chemically derived APIs (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) 18 . In 1999 the global market for herbal supplements exceeded US 15 billion, with a US 7 billion market in Europe, US 2.4 billion in Japan, and US 2.7 billion in the rest of Asia, and US 3 billion in North America 19 . It has been estimated...

Siberian Ginseng Asian Ginseng and Ashwagandha

There is one case report of interference of Siberian ginseng in serum digoxin measurement. A 74-year-old man had a steady serum digoxin level of 0.9-2.2 ng mL for 10 years. His serum digoxin increased to 5.2 ng mL on one occasion after taking Siberian ginseng. Although the level was toxic, the patient did not experience any sign or symptoms of digoxin toxicity. The patient stopped taking Siberian ginseng, and his digoxin level returned to normal (106). However, in our experience, Siberian ginseng only has a very modest interference with the FPIA and most digoxin assays we tested had no effect at all (107). Therefore, in the case report, it is possible that the patient ingested some other herbal remedy mislabeled as Siberian ginseng. Mislabeling of Chinese herbs has been previously reported. Asian ginseng, which is prepared from a different herb than Siberian ginseng, also showed modest interference with the FPIA but other digoxin immunoassays were not affected at all (107). More...

Progress in the Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Herbal Medicine

In general, herbal medicine has relied on tradition that may or may not be supported by empirical data. The popularity and use of herbal medicine in recent years, especially in developed countries, has increased tremendously. Market-driven information about natural products is widespread and has further fostered their use in daily life. In most countries the evidence-based verification of the efficacy of herbal medicine is still lacking. However in recent years, data on the evaluation of the therapeutic and toxic activity of herbal medicinal products has become available. Establishing the pharmacological basis of the efficacy of herbal medicine is a constant challenge. Of particular interest is the question of bioavailability to assess to what degree and how fast compounds are absorbed after administration of a herbal medicine 13 . Research in this area is difficult due to the complex composition of herbal medicines and the ever-increasing list of their putative active constituents....

Herbal Medicines Prospects and Constraints

Herbs and herbal preparations have been used to treat ailments throughout the history of humanity. A World Health Organization (WHO) survey has reported that about 70-80 of the world's population rely chiefly on traditional medicines, mainly of herbal sources, in their primary health care. Towards the end of the twentieth century herbal medicine became more mainstream throughout the world, partly as a result of the recognition of the value of traditional medicinal systems, particularly of Asian origin. We have also seen an increase in the popularity and use of natural remedies in developed countries, including herbs, herbal medicines, over-the-counter health foods, neutraceuticals, harbal medicinal products. The use of herbal medicines is especially prevalent in primary health care and for many chronic diseases. Overall, the world market for herbal medicine and products is increasing rapidly, especially for Chinese, German, and Indian herbal medicines. Major problems associated with...

Good Manufacturing Practice GMP for Herbal Medicine

In India there are about 10 000 licenced pharmacies of ISM and herbal medicines producing medicines 70 . With the increase in commercialization, some unscrupulous manufacturing practices have crept in to this profession, resulting in the use of shortcuts to replace certain tedious and necessary processes, poor and inaccurate labeling, and several other poor manufacturing practices. These have all necessitated the introduction of statutory Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) for all ISM drug-manufacturing industries. The Government of India came up with guidelines for the adoption of GMP standards by June 2002, and the details of the provision of GMP for Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani drugs are provided in the Drugs and Cosmetics Amendment Rules, 2000. GMPs are prescribed to ensure that (1) raw materials used in the manufacturer of drugs are authentic, of prescribed quality, and free from contamination (2) manufacturing processes are as has been prescribed to maintain the standards (3)...

Herbal Remedies

A quick trip down the supplements aisle of your local health food store or pharmacy will show you that there is no shortage of herbal remedies for almost any kind of ailment from insomnia to obesity to failing memory to persistent pain. For some people, these herbal medicines can work wonders. For others, they provide little relief and may even be harmful. The fact is that, to date, herbal remedies for pain have not been studied and investigated scientifically, although in recent years an increasing number of scientific articles have been published on herbal products. One factor that inhibits the scientific study of herbal pain remedies is that many herbs contain dozens, sometimes hundreds, of different ingredients, so it is difficult to determine precisely which molecule in the herb is working to relieve the pain or inflammation. Another factor that limits the usefulness of herbal pain remedies is that there is no government body in the United States that regulates the amount of...

Ashwagandha

Nome Withania somnifera - ashwagandha Famiglia Solanaceae Genere Withania Specie Withania somn fera (L.) Dunal Sinonimi ashwagandha, winter cherry, ginseng indiano Provenienza India, Sud Africa, Asia orientale, bacino del Mediterraneo. Sono state distinte ben 23 specie diverse di piante appartenenti al genere Withania, di cui pero solo la Withania somnifera sem-bra possedere propriet medicamentose. I principi attivi sono concentrati soprattutto nelle radici e nelle bacche della pianta, ma anche nelle foglie e nel fusto. Al momento, sono stati riconosciuti e separati 12 alcaloidi, 35 witanolidi e diversi sitoindosidi. La maggior parte delle propriet ascritte all'ashwagandha sono tuttavia attribuite, ad oggi, ai due witanolidi principali witaferina A e witanolide D(1). La concentrazione dei principi attivi nella pianta varia a seconda che essi vengano estratti dalle radici (0,066 witaferina A, 0,193 witanolide D), dal fusto (0,048 witaferina, 0,007 witanolide D) o dalle foglie (0,238...

Very Brief Retrospective

The Middle Ages (400-1500 A.D.) were a time of Arabic and Jewish contributions to the pharmacopeia. The alchemical advances of the Middle East were passed on during the Arabic invasions of Europe of that time. It should be kept in mind that the Far East also had its systems of medicine and pharmacy of which acupuncture and herbalism still remain and are still under investigation in terms of their efficacy and underlying scientific truths.

Herbal Therapy And Nutritional Supplements

Botanical medicine or herbal therapy is a type of complementary alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders. Individuals worldwide use both herbal therapy and nutritional supplements extensively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80 of the world's population relies on herbs for a substantial part of their health care. Herbs have been used by virtually every culture in the world throughout history, from the beginning of time until now. For example, Hippocrates prescribed St. Johns Wort, currently a popular herbal remedy for depression. Native Americans used plants such as coneflower, ginseng, and ginger for therapeutic purposes. Herbal therapy is part of a group of nontraditional therapies commonly known as complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, CAM therapies are not widely taught in medical schools. A 1998 survey revealed that 75 of 117 US medical schools offered elective courses in CAM or included CAM topics in required...

Dietary Supplement Health and Education

Because herbs cannot be sold and promoted in the United States as drugs, they are regulated as nutritional or dietary substances. Nutritional or dietary substances are terms used by the federal government to identify substances not regulated as drugs by the FDA but that are purported to be effective for use to promote health. Herbs, as well as vitamins and minerals, are classified as dietary or nutritional supplements. Because natural products cannot be patented in the United States, it is not profitable for drug manufacturers to spend the millions of dollars and the 8 to 12 years to study and develop these products as drugs. In 1994, the US government passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). This act defines substances such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other natural substances as dietary supplements. The act permits general health claims such as improves memory or promotes regularity as long as the label also has a disclaimer stating that the...

Center for Complementary and Alternative Health

One is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of widely used natural products, such as herbal remedies and nutritional and food supplements. Although the scientific study of CAM is relatively new, the Center is dedicated to developing programs and encouraging scientists to investigate CAM treatments that show promise. The NCCAM budget has steadily grown from 2 million in 1993 to more than 68.7 million in 2000. This funding increase reflects the public's interest and need for CAM information that is based on rigorous scientific research.

Traditional Use of Medicinal Plants

Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures used in the maintenance of health, prevention of diseases and improvement of physical and mental illness. In practice, traditional medicine refers to the following components acupuncture (China), Ayurveda (India), Unani (Arabic countries), traditional birth attendant's medicine, mental healer's medicine, herbal medicine, and various forms of indigenous medicine. Complementary or alternative medicine refers to a broad set of healthcare practices that are not part of a country's own tradition and are not integrated into the dominant healthcare system. Traditional medicine has maintained its popularity in all regions of the developing world, and its use is rapidly spreading in industrialized countries 1 . Knowledge of plants and of healing have been

Echoes Of A Shamanic Beat

The effects of consuming this mushroom included convulsions, delirium, visual hallucinations, perceptual distortions of size, feelings of superhuman strength, and a perceived contact with a numinous dimension, this last effect being the most important for the practising shaman whose predominant function is to access the spiritual realm in order to attain supra-mundane knowledge for the good health of his or her tribe.

Novel Bioactive Phytocompounds Against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria Fungi The Management of Infectious and Chronic

Ahmad and Beg 41 tested alcoholic extracts of 45 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants against drug-resistant bacteria and fungi (C. albicans) both related to the critical prognosis and treatment of infectious diseases in immunocompromised, AIDS and cancer patients. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed in 12 plants (L. inermis, Eucalyptus sp., H. antidysentrica, H. indicus, C. equi-stifolia. T. belerica, T. chebula, E. officinalis, C. sinensis, S. aromaticum and P. grana-tum). Several other studies have also demonstrated the importance of new bioac-tive phytocompounds against multidrug-resistant bacteria fungi.

General Theoretical Assumptions

The BMDC model is based on the principle that substance use disorders result from learned behavior patterns rather than basic character defects. The counselor presents this framework to the client as a way of both understanding how the client's problems developed and thinking about how to ameliorate the situation. For example, marijuana dependence can result from repeated use to relieve painful emotions or to self-medicate. Therefore, recovery from marijuana dependence requires making new choices involving healthier lifestyle patterns.

Determination of Heavy Metals

Contamination by toxic metals can either be accidental or intentional. Contamination by heavy metals such as mercury, lead, copper, cadmium, and arsenic in herbal remedies can be attributed to many causes, including environmental pollution, and can pose clinically relevant dangers for the health of the user and should therefore be limited 42, 60-62 . The potential intake of the toxic metal can be estimated on the basis of the level of its presence in the product and the recommended or estimated dosage of the product. This potential exposure can then be put into a toxi-cological perspective by comparison with the so-called Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake values (PTWI) for toxic metals, which have been established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization (FAO-WHO) 14, 15, 48 .

Determination of Radioactive Contamination

There are many sources of ionization radiation, including radionuclides, occurring in the environment. Hence a certain degree of exposure is inevitable. Dangerous contamination, however, may be the consequence of a nuclear accident. The WHO, in close cooperation with several other international organizations, has developed guidelines in the event of a widespread contamination by radionuclides resulting from major nuclear accidents. These publications emphasize that the health risk, in general, due to radioactive contamination from naturally occurring radio nuclides is not a real concern, but those arising from major nuclear accidents such as the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, may be serious and depend on the specific radionuclide, the level of contamination, and the quantity of the contaminant consumed. Taking into account the quantity of herbal medicine normally consumed by an individual, they are unlikely to be a health risk. Therefore, at present, no limits are proposed for...

Contamination of Herbal Drugs and Herb Drug Interactions

Phenylbutazone, in fact examples of almost every therapeutic drug class have been found in certain herbal remedies as contaminants. A recent study by Ramsay et al. found that potent corticosteroids had been deliberately added to herbal creams in order increase their efficacy 89 . This problem is widespread, and occurs in both Oriental and European countries 90-94 . These adulterated herbal medicines sometimes result in serious ailments such as acute renal failure 10, 95-99 . Many people, especially those living with HIV AIDS, use both herbal medicines and prescription drugs. A number of clinically significant interactions between prescribed and herbal medicines have been identified. When these medications are used together, they can interact in the body, causing changes in the way the herbs and or the drug works. Such changes are called herb-drug interactions. Concurrent use of herbal or homeopathic remedies alongside prescribed or over-the-counter medicines are frequent, and may...

Labeling of Herbal Products

The quality of consumer information about the product is as important as the finished herbal product. Warnings on the packet or label will help to reduce the risk of inappropriate uses and adverse reactions 70 . The primary source of information on herbal products is the product label. Currently, there is no organization or government body that certifies an herb or a supplement as being labeled correctly. It has been found that herbal remedy labels often cannot be trusted to reveal what is in the container. Studies of herbal products have shown that consumers have less than a 50 chance of actually getting what is listed on the label, and published analyses of herbal supplements have found significant differences between what is listed on the label and what is in the bottle. The word standardized on a product label is no guarantee of higher product quality, since there is no legal definition of the word standardized. Consumers are often left on their own to decide what is safe and...

Policies and Regulations

It is a widely held myth that modern drugs are dangerous foreign chemicals with side effects, while herbals are natural, gentle and safe. The truth is that some herbs can be dangerous and can bring about serious diseases and even lead to death. Unlike conventional drugs, herbal products are not regulated for purity and potency and this could cause adverse effects and can even lead to drug interactions 138, 139 . There are fewer studies on herbal medicines than on conventional drugs, mainly because, unlike synthetic chemicals, herbs cannot be patented, so there is little money to be made by funding such research. It is clear that the herbal industry needs to follow strict guidelines and that regulations are needed. The food and drug administrations that regulate prescription drugs only review a herbal product if the item is suspected of being harmful or if the label contains a medical claim. Although research is being done, it is very limited and only a few herbal drugs have been...

Asian Medicinal System

The most established herbal therapeutic systems are Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha of Indian origin, WU-Hsing (China) and kampo (Japan). Most of the herbal remedies are mixtures of plants, sometimes also containing animal parts and minerals. The basis of preparation is synergistic or additive therapeutic value of the preparation. Under ideal conditions, care is taken by traditionally trained practitioners to identify the ingredients carefully, to harvest the plants at very specific times to ensure appropriate levels of bioactivity, to prepare the remedies under strict rules, and to prescribe them to achieve an appropriate clinical response 8 .

Reproducibility of Biological Activity of Herbal Extracts

One of the major constraints in using plants in pharmaceutical discovery is the lack of reproducibility of activity for over 40 of plant extracts 46 . Reproducibility is the major problem, as the activities detected in screens often do not repeat when plants are re-sampled and re-extracted. This problem is largely due to differences in the biochemical profiles of plants harvested at different times and locations, differences in variety, and variation in the methods used for extraction and biological activity determination. Furthermore, the activity and efficacy of plant extracts medicines often results from additive or synergistic interaction effects of the components. Therefore, a strategy should be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative variations in the content of bioactive phytochemicals of plant material. It is important to identify the different agroclimatic or stress locations, climate, microenvironment, physical and chemical stimuli often called elicitors, which...

Toxicity and Adverse Effects

Toxicity in herbal medicine may be due to (1) accidents due to a mistake in botanical identification, (2) accidental ingestion of cardiotonic plants, (3) inappropriate combinations, including the use of potentially toxic plants, (4) or plants that interfere with conventional pharmacological therapy, such as plants containing coumarinic derivatives, a high content of tyramine, estrogenic compounds, plants causing irritation and allergic problems, plant containing photosensitive compounds etc. 47-51 . Recent scientific research has demonstrated that many traditionally used herbal medicines are potentially toxic and some are even mutagenic and carcinogenic 52-54 . The toxicity benchmarks for herbal drugs therefore depend on purity, herbs containing toxic substances, bioavailability, and reported adverse effects.

General Information

And from herbal medicine to homeopathy. The techniques covered in this monograph are Complementary medicine continues to be a growth area (1). A survey conducted in South Australia showed that almost half of the 3004 respondents had used at least one type of complementary remedy in the previous 12 months and that one-fifth had consulted a practitioner of complementary medicine (2). In European countries for which estimates on the annual utilization of complementary medicine are available, estimates range from 20 to 50 of the population (3). In the UK, retail sales of complementary medicines (licensed herbal medicines, homoeopathic remedies, essential oils used in aromatherapy) were estimated to be 72 million in 1996, an increase of 36 in real terms since 1991 (4). This, however, is likely to be a gross underestimate as popular products sold as food supplements, including Ginkgo biloba and garlic, were not included. According to a detailed analysis of the herbal medicines market in...

Weight Loss the Natural

Herbal remedies are not necessarily bad. Research indicates that many are effective health aids. The problem with over-the-counter remedies, however, is that they are not thoroughly tested. The manufacturers rely on word-of-mouth and infomercials on television to sell their products, and they don't wish to pay the large amounts of money to conduct the research and testing required to pass the rigorous FDA-testing procedures. Although this keeps prices down for consumers, it also allows manufactures to get rich quick, without complying with FDA regulations. Lacking FDA approval allows the manufacturers to market their products as nondrugs, which largely frees them of the burden of having to provide information to the public about the real effectiveness or dangers of the product. In Brazil, native people have long known that the seeds of a certain plant have a stimulating effect when eaten or ground up and mixed with water or tea. Today, guarana is common in herbal remedy sections, as...

The Psychology of Ayahuasca

The field of ayahuasca studies poses a challenge to mainstream psychiatry and psychology. Long neglected by Euro-American science, this Amazonian plant hallucinogen concoction known in native Quechua as the vine of the dead, or vine of the soul, has recently begun to attract increasing degrees of interest. Over the last several years investigations into the basic psychopharmacology and physiology of this powerful herbal medicine have been initiated. Questions are beginning to be posed examining the potential of ayahuasca to facilitate states of healing. Cross-cultural anthropological perspectives on the import of indigenous belief systems to ayahuasca's mechanism of action are being validated as essential to fully understanding its unique range of effects. Rational science will now need to confront the dilemma of how to comprehend and make sense of an experience that moves beyond the realm of rational, linear thought.

Chemical Constituents of Hp Extracts

The HPLC-SPE-NMR methodology was described by Clarkson and colleagues 10 to be a paradigm shift in the analysis of biologically derived extracts in the sense that it allows novel natural products to be identified with improved rapidity and sensitivity. For example, using this methodology, the researchers identified novel chemical entities in the aqueous ethanol Hp extract. These novel natural products were chicane-type tricyclic diterpenes and are of interest in drug discovery as novel chemical entities. However, for specialists in herbal medicine who are interested in the pharmacological mode of action of the herbal drugs such as Hp, they are of no interest given their presence in the extract in such small quantities.

Calcineurin inhibitors

Numerous drugs influence the absorption and metabolism of CsA. Any drug that inhibits the cytochrome P-450 system or the P-glycoprotein efflux pump increases blood CsA concentrations because of increased absorption and decreased metabolism. Drugs having the opposite effect (P-450 and or P-glycoprotein inducers) produce decreased CsA concentrations. Drugs causing increased CsA blood concentrations include calcium channel blockers, several antifungal agents, and the antibiotic erythromycin. Several anticonvulsants and antibiotics, including antituberculosis agents, reduce blood CsA concentrations. In addition, there are many other drugs that synergize with CsA and potentiate nephrotoxicity. There are several excellent reviews that discuss specific drug interactions with CsA (53,54). Not all of the interactions are caused by pharmaceuticals as various foods and herbal remedies can influence CsA concentrations. For instance, grapefruit juice increases CsA blood concentrations by...

Herbal Alert Warfarin Interaction

Warfarin, a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, has the potential to interact with many herbal remedies. For example, warfarin should not be combined with any of the following herbs because they may have additive or synergistic activity and increase the risk for bleeding celery, chamomile, clove, dong quai, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, green tea, onion, passion flower, red clover, St. John's wort, and tumeric. Any herbal remedy should be used with caution in patients taking warfarin.

An affront to amateurism doping in the Olympics

This is the epitome of the sporting idealism model. Oza does not just put athletes on a pedestal, he practically has them as demi-gods. Not for him, the more cynical view of George Orwell that sport is war minus the bullets nor Bertold Brecht's opinion that 'Great sport begins where good health ends' (cited in Hoberman 1992 1). But Oza was so in keeping with the IOC's idealism that two years later he was allowed the opportunity to continue his anti-doping, pro-sport fanaticism in the Olympic Review. In this second piece he wrote

Determining the in vivo Efficacy of Extracts and Isolated Compounds

To date one of these extracts has found some application in the herbal medicine market. The issue of in vivo toxicity is also important, as cell-based assays detecting cytotoxic effects are not sufficient to indicate toxic effects of ingested or topically applied medications. The avenue of investigating in vivo efficacy of plant extract preparations and isolated active compounds is a major area of future exploration for the Phytomedicine Programme.

Biological and Toxicological Properties of Moroccan Plant Extracts Advances in Research

In Morocco, the use of traditional remedies is common practise and a large number of plants are used. Some reports of ethnobotanical surveys of Moroccan herbal remedies have been published in different areas of the country. In addition, several studies on the pharmacological properties have also been undertaken in recent years and have tested various biological activities, including antimicrobial, antidia-betic, and molluscicidal.

Diet Pills and Teenage Girls

Historically, beauty standards have often been set by the upper classes in a society. In many cultures, physical attributes that are associated with wealth also become associated with beauty. For example, in societies that are experiencing famine or lack of food, a plump body (a sign of wealth and strength in an otherwise bleak picture of wasting and emaciation) is often seen as beautiful. In a society that has plenty of food (like North America), thinness becomes associated with wealth because wealthy people have the time and the money to dedicate to things like fitness and special diets. In such a well-fed society, being thin or skinny becomes beautiful. In situations like these, people do not necessarily consciously associate the physical attributes of wealth with beauty, but wealth is desirable, and therefore the physical attributes of wealthy people become desirable. Similarly, in societies where large families consisting of many children are desirable, physical attributes that...

Drugherb Interactions

An herbal remedy may have a synergistic effect of increasing pharmacological activity of a Western drug or may decrease therapeutic efficacy of a drug. 3. An herbal remedy may displace a Western drug from serum protein increasing free drug concentration, the pharmacologically active component of a drug. Common drug-herb interaction are summarized in Table 2.

Incidence of adverse effects

Most of the data on adverse effects associated with herbal medicines is anecdotal, and assessment and classification of causality is often not possible. Likewise, there have been few attempts to determine systematically the incidence of adverse effects of non-orthodox therapies. Of 1701 patients admitted to two general wards of a Hong Kong hospital, 3 (0.2 ) had adverse reactions to Chinese herbal drugs two of the three were serious (24). In a retrospective study of all 2695 patients admitted to a Taiwan department of medicine during 10 months 4 were admitted because of drug-related problems, and herbal remedies ranked third amongst the categories of medicines responsible (25). In an active surveillance adverse drug reaction reporting program conducted in a family medicine ward of the National Taiwan University Hospital, Chinese crude drugs were responsible for five In a 5-year toxicological study of traditional remedies and food supplements carried out by the Medical Toxicology Unit...

Disparaging disparities

These are pretty impressive facts, which raise the obvious questions are blacks genetically weaker than whites Are they more susceptible to disease because they did not evolve the capacity to fend off infection as well as whites Preposterous - but you'd be surprised what people glean from statistics. The fact is, when immunization programs targeted inner cities in the 1970s to lower the rate of measles, the rates lowered for African Americans. More recently, when breast cancer and heart disease awareness programs were enacted in the US, rates lowered as well, though there are still significant disparities between whites and blacks. The point is that a higher percentage of African Americans reside in poor neighborhoods where access to health education, healthcare and healthy lifestyle choices is far more limited than in the burbs, where more whites tend to live. This is a direct result of segregation policies and racism through the last century that are reverberating in society today....

Pharmaceutical interest

Uses In the Philippines, a decoction of the leaves of Gymnosporia spinosa (Blco.) Merr. & Rolfe is drunk to assuage headache. In India, the fruits are used to promote digestion, expel impurities, heal ulcers and piles, soothe inflammation and treat corneal opacities (Ayurveda), fever and biliousness.

Interaction Of Warfarin With Herbal Supplements

Warfarin acts by antagonizing the cofactor function of vitamin K. Variability in the anticoagulant response to warfarin is an ongoing clinical dilemma. Although clinical efficacy of warfarin varies with intake of vitamin K, genetic polymorphisms that modulate expression of CYP2C9, the isoform mediating clearance of S-warfarin, may have significant effect on warfarin therapy. Moreover, several herbal remedies also interact with warfarin. St. John's wort may have the potential to diminish warfarin's anticoagulation effect by increasing clearance through inducing CYP2C9 (66). Another report indicates that St. John's wort increases clearance of both R- and S-warfarin but ginseng has no effect (67). Anticoagulant effect of warfarin increases if combined with coumarin-containing herbal remedies such as bilba, fenugreek and dong quai or with antiplatelet herbs such

The Root of the Problem Inconsistent Foregrounding and Sidelining

Return for a moment to the full spectrum of drugs across the board prescription pharmaceuticals, OTC medications, herbal medicines and dietary supplements, common-use drugs like alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine, religious-use drugs, sports-enhancement drugs, and illegal drugs. Under the account of weighing harms and benefits explored just now which is assumed to be central, at least in theory, to the federal framework and Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Sidelining of Harms Foregrounding of Benefits and Choice What about herbal remedies and dietary supplements They add yet another layer of complexity. The public perception is that these drugs do not pose significant risks of harm because they are natural. Indeed, they are widely perceived to promise health benefits even if health claims are not permitted to be stated explicitly on the package. Yet use of these drugs may risk harms. Many of these drugs are chemically identical to their counterparts produced in the lab, which...

Other Alternatives in Liver Therapy

Apart from the use of herbal medicines and trace metal elements to treat liver disorders there are other alternative approaches currently in use. Some of these therapies are effective in treating liver diseases, as has been shown from a few cases reported in reviews. For example thymosin therapy involves using hormones normally secreted by the thymus gland, such as thymosin, thymopoietin, and serum thymic factor. These hormones appear to stimulate the body's production of interferon. People with low levels of these hormones are susceptible to infections of the liver. Replenishment of hormone level according to biological demand might explain the disease alleviation that has been noted in these types of cases 95 . Metabolic therapies involve the use of very high doses of vitamins and restricted diets, the latter to relieve the liver from extra toiling. Megadose vitamin therapy is based on the theory that the higher the dose of vitamins, the faster the cure. However, a consistent low...

Herbal Alert Larginine

L-arginine is commonly sold in health food specialty shops as a supplement capable of improving vascular health and sexual function in men. The herb may be beneficial in improving health in individuals with congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease, angina, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The herb appears to increase nitric oxide concentrations. Abnormalities of the vascular endothelial cells may cause vasoconstriction, inflammation, and thrombolytic activity. These abnormalities are partially attributable to degradation of nitric oxide. L-arginine's ability to increase nitric oxide is the basis for its effectiveness in improving some vascular disease states. Oral doses of 9 to 30 g per day are well tolerated. No adverse reactions were reported in those taking 9 g d. Higher doses may cause nausea and mild diarrhea. L-arginine may exacerbate sickle cell crisis and should be used with caution in those with sickle cell anemia.

Quality Efficacy and Safety Considerations

Issues about the quality, efficacy, and safety of medicinal plants and herbals are of concern to all forms of these medicines, not only those used to treat diarrhea. This has been highlighted by recent examples of herbal medicines that have been linked to serious adverse effects 52, 53 , including herbal preparations derived from com-frey which have been used to treat diarrhea 54 . The use of comfrey leaves has been identified as a health hazard, leading to hepatic toxicity (veno-occlusive disease) in humans. This toxicity appears to result from the conversion of pyrrolizi-dine alkaloids into reactive pyrroles or alkaloid-N-oxides by hepatic enzymes. The toxicity leads to necrosis of hepatocytes and mesenchymal cells and eventually results in liver damage in the form of portal hypertension. herbal remedies 52, 55 . Since plant and herbal medicines can be classified as drugs or foods, the stringency of regulations governing the latter means that herbal medicines can avoid the need to...

Herbal Therapy Alert

Various herbs and supplements, such as hawthorn extracts, garlic, onion, ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and aspirin, may be used by herbalists for hypertension. Although these substances may lower blood pressure in some individuals, their use is not recommended because the effect is slight and usually too gentle to affect moderate to severe hypertension. However, several studies have demonstrated that hypertensive patients may benefit from daily doses of calcium (800 mg) or magnesium (300 mg). Patients should consult the primary health care provider before taking any herbal remedy.

Potential of Plant Derived Products in the Treatment of Mycobacterial Infections

India has a rich heritage of using medicinal plants in traditional medicines such as the Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani systems, besides folklore practises. Many plants have been successfully used in the treatment of various diseases. There is a need to develop second-line therapeutic agents, both natural and synthetic, in view of the twin problems of resistance and persistence. Such chemotherapeutic agents may have antimycobacterial potential or may function as immunomodulators, thereby enhancing the immune status of the affected host, enabling it to combat the disease better. Chaulmoogra oil was used for the treatment of leprosy long before the introduction of modern chemotherapy. Levamisole has been used as an immunomodulator in leprosy. Allicin, tuberosin, tryptanthrisis, various crude plant extracts, etc. have shown antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

History Of Opiate

Opiates are among the most addictive drugs known to man yet their medical usefulness has nonetheless spanned the millennia from ancient remedy to modern pharmaceutical. In the early 1800s, significant advances in chemistry and technology allowed pharmacology and medicine to leave the Dark Ages, so to speak, and begin the development of the modern drugs and medical procedures we make use of today. Advances in chemistry led the way, allowing scientists to break down the crude drugs found in nature (e.g., opium) into their specific components. New understanding about normal physiology and disease then launched a two-part quest that has driven the development of modern medical science and therapeutic drugs.

Mixtures and Other Compounds

Ayurvedic medicine, Chinese traditional medicine, and many other ethnomedicinal systems rely on both pure single-plant preparations and mixed formulations with many plants. Propolis, a crude extract of the balsam of various trees, contains terpenoids, flavonoids, benzoic acids and esters, phenolic acids and esters, and was found to inhibit hemagglutination activity of influenza virus, acyclovir-resistant HSV-1, adenovirus 2, VSV, and poliovirus, because the compounds in the mixture act synergistically, while flavone and flavonol were active in isolation against HSV-1 119 . On the other hand, the kaempferol crassirhizomoside and sutchuenoside of Dryopteris crassirhizoma inhibited reverse transcriptase-associated DNA polyme-

General Properties and Classification of Phytocompounds

Plants have become increasingly important as a source of biologically active natural products. It is estimated that 25 of all medicines contain plant derivatives, and plant components have been used as the starting material for many semi-synthetic drugs 8, 9 . Herbs are often considered to be safer, gentler, and of lower cost than conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Plants are efficient chemical factories that produce a wide variety of chemical compounds called phytochemi-cals. Phytopharmaceuticals are complex products, and their inherent biological variation is due to different growth, harvest, drying, and storage conditions 7 . There was a big upsurge in the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States in the 1990s. A survey showed that use of herbal medicines increased from 2.5 in 1990 to 12.1 in 1997. The usage of CAM is generally more frequent among women and people in the 35-49 age groups 5, 10 . In the western United States research...

Side and Adverse Effects of Some Phytocompounds

Although herbal remedies are often perceived as being natural and consequently safe, many have toxic and detrimental side-effects. The most common problems Substitution or adulterations with more toxic herbs or synthetic drugs may result in mistaken cases of clinical complications, and adverse effects resulting from the synthetic drugs in herbal medicines have been reported 83, 86, 87 . Many people who use herbal remedies do not discuss this with their physicians or pharmacists and do not know about the potential adverse effects of drug-herb interactions. They may put themselves at increased risk of adverse drug-herb interactions and make it extremely difficult for health care professionals to monitor them for such interactions 5, 10, 12-14, 94 .

Pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders a consensus statement

Patients maintained on long-term medication will often request (especially after a period of good health) to discontinue treatment If the patient presses to discontinue prophylactic medication after appearing well for 2 years or more, it is reasonable to undertake a trial discontinuation of treatment. In these cases the patient should still be followed up as before, i.e., at 2-month intervals, and warned of the danger of future episodes and the need to return immediately for treatment if the symptoms return.

Evaluating Alternative Remedies

There are two problems with determining dosages for herbal remedies. First, the dosage that is most likely to help you has not been The second problem with many alternative remedies is that preparations by different companies do not always contain the same amount. Dried herbs probably vary the most, but even pills are not uniform. This is less of a problem with vitamins and mineral supplements, which are easily measured, than with the dried leaves, flowers, or roots of herbal remedies.

Epidemiological Data

From a population-based telephone survey, 5 of the respondents reported giving their children herbal medicines in the past year 61 . In a national online survey, 41 of 520 adolescents reported to have used herbal remedies in the previous 6 months, mainly ginseng, ginger, Ginkgo biloba, valerian and St. John's wort 62 . The results of another study conducted in four primary paediatric care practices in Washington showed that 8 of children had been treated with herbal therapies in the prior year 58 . Other authors 63 verified herbal use among 2562 families in Kansas and Wisconsin through questionnaires child herbal use was indicated in 35.8 of the surveys. The herbs most commonly taken by children were chamomile, Aloe vera, peppermint, garlic and lavender. Some authors 64 explored the use of herbs in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder or depression the prevalence of herbal therapy among 117 patients was 20 and, interestingly, the children's psychiatrists and...

Terminology and standards

The WHO Drug Dictionary (WHO-DD) is unique in its coverage of drugs marketed throughout the world. It is available in hard copy or as computer files. The Uppsala Centre is developing it further, to incorporate more detailed information and to make it compatible with the prestandard proposed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). In response to the challenge to safety monitoring offered by traditional herbal remedies, the WHO centre has taken initiatives to improve the classification systems for such medicines. In a joint project (15-18) with institutions such as the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, in the UK, others in South Africa and the Netherlands, and including the phytotherapy industry, a system compatible with the ATC system used for modern synthetic medicines has been developed. This is now being implemented in the WHO-DD. Input from experts from all parts of the world, representing different therapeutic traditions, will be indispensable for the further development...

Convolvulus pleuricaulis

Convolvulus pleuricaulis is used in traditional systems of medicine in the treatment of anxiety, neurosis, insanity, and epilepsy, and also as a brain tonic. The whole plant is one of the most important medhya rasayana drugs in Ayurveda. It improves balance and vitiation in kapha-vata-pitta doshas (physiological functions), and the herb is astringent and bitter. C. pleuricaulis is used traditionally to treat nervous debility, insomnia, fatigue, low energy levels, and as a brain tonic, alterative, and febrifuge. The whole herb is used medicinally in the form of a decoction along with cumin and milk in fever, nervous debility, and memory loss. The plant is reported to be a prominent memory improving drug, psychostimulant, and tranquilizer, and it reduces mental tension. The methanolic extract of C. microphyllus Sieb. Ex Spreng (C. pleuricaulis Choisy) showed enhanced release of nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF prevents experimentally induced or age related degeneration of basal fore-brain...

Determination of Foreign Matter

Herbal drugs should be made from the stated part of the plant and be devoid of other parts of the same plant or other plants. They should be entirely free from moulds or insects, including excreta and visible contaminant such as sand and stones, poisonous and harmful foreign matter and chemical residues. Animal matter such as insects and invisible microbial contaminants, which can produce toxins, are also among the potential contaminants of herbal medicines 54-56 . Macroscopic examination can easily be employed to determine the presence of foreign matter, although microscopy is indispensable in certain special cases (for example,

Trends and Developments

Herbs are still marketed without sufficient research but evidence must always be shown to consumers to support claims of products 24, 36, 54, 137, 143, 144 . More clinical studies are needed and doctors, along with other professionals, should work towards on untangling this herbal maze. Standards should be developed for each natural health product and the same regulatory standards that apply to manufactured pharmaceuticals should apply equally to herbal products as well. Unlike conventional drugs, herbal products are not regulated for purity and potency and this could cause adverse effects and drug interactions 108 . Herbal manufacturing processes should be refined in order to improve the purity, safety and quality of products and the herbal industry needs to follow strict guidelines, for herbal products are now classified as medicines. Manufacturers and producers tend to resist these laws because such laws will increase cost, which will have to be passed on to consumers, and thus the...

General adverse effects

Several reviews have focused on herbal medicines and have covered the safety of herbal medicines in vulnerable populations elderly patients (55), pregnant women (56), and surgical patients (57,58) the adverse effects of Ayurvedic medicines (63) pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines (76). Direct effects associated with herbal medicines can occur in several ways The attitude of consumers toward herbal medicines can also constitute a risk. When 515 users of herbal remedies were interviewed about their behavior vis a vis adverse effects of herbal versus synthetic over-the-counter drugs, a clear difference emerged. While 26 would consult their doctor for a serious adverse effect of a synthetic medication, only 0.8 would do the same in relation to herbal remedies (80). Asian herbalism Most reports of adverse effects associated with herbal remedies relate to Chinese herbal medicines (82). This is an issue of growing concern, particularly because in many Western countries the popularity of...

The Blast furnace of Disillusion

Terence and Dennis went to the Amazon to conduct experiments on themselves and test these theories using the state-of-the-art organic tryptamines of the Jivaro Indian medicine men. Dennis heard the most tones, so he became the main subject, while Terence observed and speculated. The two young men succeeded in putting Dennis into a completely psychotic state for several weeks. But as Dennis freaked out, Terence sat on the other side of their tent making notes and having insights. What he realized in a sudden flash was that the structure of DNA resembles that of the ancient Chinese 1 Ching sequence. Further, their functions are the same.

Primary Components of a Breeding Program

Marijuana Components

Breeders select plants for future breeding on the basis of their desirable characteristics. There is no right or correct ranking of priority for selecting one trait over another this is purely based on what traits are most important to the breeder. For indoor cultivation, these include short, squat, bushy growth large, densely formed buds discernible taste or particular flavors and aromas high THC content and quality of high (long-lasting, soaring, sedative) and resistance to specific insects or diseases. It's a good general rule to look for plants with overall vigor and good health.

Rauvolfia serpentina Benth

Uses The roots of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. have been used in Ayurvedic medicine since ancient times to expel intestinal worms, heal ulcers and to counteract snake-poisoning. A decoction of the roots is used to increase uterine contraction in childbirth. In Konkan, the roots mixed with Aristolochia indica L. are chewed to treat cholera. The roots mixed with 2 parts of root bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roxb.) Wall. and 3 parts of Jatropha curcas and milk is drunk to treat colic. A mixture consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees, ginger and black salt is used to combat fever. In Bombay, most of the laborers from the southern Konkan keep a small amount of roots of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. to assuage painful discomfort of the bowels, such as colic, biliousness, cholera, dysentery and intestinal worms. The plant has been used in Western medicine to combat fever, calm the mind and to aid abortion. Rauwolfia (British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1963) consists of the dried roots of...

Bioactive Phytocompounds and Future Perspectives

The integration of herbal medicine into modern medical practises, including treatments for infections and cancer, must take into account the interrelated issues of quality, safety, and efficacy 64 . Quality is the paramount issue because it can affect the efficacy and or safety of the herbal products being used. Current product quality ranges from very high to very low due to intrinsic, extrinsic, and regulatory factors. Intrinsically, species differences, organ specificity, diurnal and seasonal variations can affect the qualitative and quantitative accumulation of active chemical constituents in the source medicinal plants. Extrinsically, environmental factors, field collection methods such as cultivation, harvest, post-harvest transport, and storage, manufacturing practises, inadvertent contamination and substitution, and intentional adulteration are contributing factors to the quality of herbal medicinal products. Source plant materials that are contaminated with microbes,...

Quality Control of Herbal Drugs

Ly defined active substances or isolated constituents, and homeopathic preparations which frequently contain plants, are not regarded as herbal medicines. Their production is already based on adequate quality control of the respective starting materials. The following paragraphs will focus on quality control of herbal drugs in compliance with the above definition. Strict guidelines have to be followed for the successful production of a quality herbal drug. Among them are proper botanical identification, phytochemical screening, and standardization. Quality control and the standardization of herbal medicines involves several steps. The source and quality of raw materials, good agricultural practices and manufacturing processes are certainly essential steps for the quality control of herbal medicines and play a pivotal role in guaranteeing the quality and stability of herbal preparations 32, 35, 36, 47, 52-56 . The quality of a plant product is determined by the prevailing conditions...

OTC Classification in Japan

The other controversy is what benefits do lifestyle drugs offer the consumers because they are primarily treating non-life-threatening diseases. Diseases such as incontinence and impotency are not life-threatening, but they create undue psychological stress on the suffers. Furthermore, even for lifestyle drugs that have legitimate therapeutic uses, they can still be abused by healthy individuals for purely performance enhancement. For lifestyle drugs that are used to treat diseases arisen from unhealthy lifestyles, drug coverage is only a partial and least-preferred solution. The best solution is for patients to take control of their health by living a healthy lifestyle. All these controversies will continue to fuel the debate for coverage and benefits of lifestyle drugs.

Classical Mandrake Prescriptions

Recreational Drugs America

The Merck Manual* on the other hand, follows a pattern _ set by the Egyptian papyri of listing various diseases, with appropriate prescriptions for each. This is also the style of the Ayurvedic medical teachings of India, which are much broader in scope. Indian medicine began in Vedic religious and magical texts of the second millennium b.c. and advanced into encyclopedias attributed to doctors Charaka and Sushruta. Effervescent powders were administered in wine, and one of these-mo-fei-son, probably a cannabis concoction-was the earliest anesthetic of China. It was invetiled by ilie revered surgeon Hua Vo at the end of the Han dynasly for cases where acupuncture _ moxa or salves didn't work and surgery was required. Hua employed few drugs otherwise but was so knowledgeable about tliem that a ruler fearful of being poisoned ordered him put to death-ending Chinese surgery for hundreds of years. Before lie went, however, Hua had trained his students in exeicises (the frolics of five...

The Preparation Period

In working with LSD patients, whether during the preparation or later on, it is not necessary to avoid all value judgments and direct advice. The therapist should not try to give the patient specific guidance on concrete life situations, such as whether or not to get married, file for a divorce, have children, get an abortion, and leave or change a job. Here the psychoanalytic principles are certainly justified. The situations involved are usually too complex and contain many unpredictable factors the therapist cannot evaluate them objectively enough to suggest the optimal course from the point of view of the client's needs. Under these circumstances, it is very likely that the advice would reflect the therapist's unconscious fears, wishes and needs, instead of representing an objective professional judgment. However, a directive approach seems to be indicated and useful in regard to a general philosophy of existence and life strategy. Here the LSD therapist can base his or her...

Experimenting with cold temperatures

The plants were planted in a coco medium and each given a dash of water with root stimulator added. Prior to that they had been dunked in Nova-Star-T, a beneficial mould that comes in powder form from Bio Nova that you mix with water. Better a good mould in your medium introduced by yourself than wait until a bad mould decides for itself to pay an unwelcome visit to your grow space. I mention this because it is still a big problem that many growers pay so little attention to prevention. Critters can always rear their ugly heads, and even an over-confident grower who has never had any trouble with them will one day find unwelcome visitors to his patch. You never check your plants for visitors, and when they do eventually show up you're already a good way into your bloom and there are shimmering buds on your plants. In the worst case scenario you begin straight away spraying all kinds of noxious products that do not exactly promote good health.

Murphy J M 1999 Am Organizing Regarding Nurses J 173-183

Research Guidelines for Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicines. Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, 1993 21 Anonymous. The Ayurvedic Formulary of India (Pt. 1). Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 1978. 68 Schulz, V., Hansel, R., Tyler, V.E. Rational Phytotherapy. A Physicians Guide to Herbal Medicine, 4th edn. Springer, Berlin, 2000. 79 Chopra, R.N., Nayer, S.L., Chopra, I.C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, 3rd Edn. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, 7-246, 1992.

Pharmacological Inhibition Of Jaks

Autoimmune Jak

Several new compounds with promising potential have been identified recently. JAK2 and Bcr-Abl were described to be the main targets of a new PTK inhibitor, CR4. This compound inhibited the growth and survival of both Philadelphia-positive and -negative ALL as well as AML cells. Alhough efficiently ablating leukemic cell growth, normal cell growth and differentiation remained unaffected (173). As a pan-JAK inhibitor, the compound pyridone 6 inhibits each member of the JAK kinase family in the nanomolar range with specificity over numerous other kinases (174). It also inhibits IL-2- and IL-4-driven proliferation of carmurine T-cell lymphoma cell line cells and phosphorylation of STAT5. Cucurbitacin I (JSI-124) is a natural plant product that has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for a long time. It was found recently to be highly selective in inhibiting JAK STAT3 activation without affecting signaling pathways mediated by Akt, Erk1 2, or c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase. However, the...

Traditional Medicinal Plants Used in the Treatment of Diarrhea that Display Antidiarrheal Activity

Black tea has antiviral activity (see above) but has also been shown to affect gastrointestinal function 38 . Hot water black tea extracts (BTE) increased upper gastrointestinal tract transit, but inhibited castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal fluid accumulation, and normal defecation in mice. The inhibitory effects could be prevented by naloxone, an opioid antagonist, suggesting a role of the opioid system in the antidiarrheal activity of BTE. The rhizomes of ginger, Zingiber officinale (Zin-giberaceae), are widely used for treating numerous diseases, including diarrhea. Borrelli et al. 39 investigated the effect of this herbal remedy on contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine on isolated rat ileum. Ginger produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both stimulants, starting at 1 g mL-1 for acetylcholine-induced contractions and 300 g mL-1 for EFS-in-duded contractions. These observations indicated an antispasmodic effect by reducing...

Determination of Microbial Contaminants and Aflatoxins

Materials of vegetable origin tend to show much higher levels of microbial contamination than synthetic products and the requirements for microbial contamination in the European Pharmacopoeia allow higher levels of microbial contamination in herbal remedies than in synthetic pharmaceuticals. The allowed contamination level may also depend on the method of processing of the drug. For example, higher contamination levels are permitted if the final herbal preparation involves boiling with water 66 . In addition to the risk of bacterial and viral contamination, herbal remedies may also be contaminated with microbial toxins, and as such, bacterial endotoxins and mycotoxins, at times may also be an issue 61, 69-72 . There is evidence that medicinal plants from some countries may be contaminated with toxigenic fungi (Aspergillus, Fusarium). Certain plant constituents are susceptible to chemical transformation by contaminating microorganisms.

Oleander poisoning and Oleander Containing Herbs

The oleanders are evergreen ornamental shrubs with various colors of flowers that belong to the Dogbane family and grow in the Southern parts of the USA from Florida to California, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, China, and other parts of the world. All parts of the oleander plant are toxic. Human exposure to oleander includes accidental exposure, ingestion by children, administration in food or drink, medicinal preparations from oleander (herbal products), and criminal poisoning (90-93). Despite toxicity, oleander is used in folk medicines (94). The fatality rate from oleander toxicity is around 10 in Sri Lanka whereas approximately 40 of patients require specialized management in a tertiary care hospital. Deliberate ingestion of oleander seeds is also a popular method of suicide in Sri Lanka (95). The toxic effect of oleander can occur with exposure from a small amount of the plant. Boiling or drying the plant does not inactivate the toxins. Death from drinking a herbal tea containing...

Resources That Can Help

Your health care provider, school counselor, or phone book can provide you with a list of local organizations and programs designed to help people stop smoking or give up tobacco products. There are also a number of national organizations that can provide helpful resources or information on quitting smoking. Certain medications have also proved to be helpful to those trying to give up tobacco products. It is important to remember that anyone under the age of 18 should consult a health care provider a doctor or nurse before taking any of these medications. A health care provider is able to give you advice about what type of medication, if any, is appropriate for you and about treatments that might be hazardous to your health.

Adulteration and Contamination

Adulteration and contamination of herbal medicines appears to be common in countries that are lenient with regard to controls regulating their purity. Adulterations in herbal medicine are particularly disconcerting because they are unpredictable. Often they remain undetected unless they can be linked to an outbreak or epidemic. An example is veno-occlusive disease due to ingestion of plants containing pyrrolidizine alkaloids, which can be life threatening or fatal 55, 56 . In many cases contaminated or adulterated herbal medicines can cause significant medical problems, especially in children 57, 58 . In a recent review on heavy metal poisoning in children consuming herbal medicines, 13 reports were identified from Singapore, Hong Kong, the USA, the UK, and the UAE from 1975 to 2002. Ayurvedic medicines are sometimes prepared using inorganic active constituents. Combined with environmental contamination this may increase the heavy metal content above permissible limits in developed...

Witches brew Colloquial term for LSD and datura

Withania somnifera Winter Sherry, herb from Northern Africa, common in Iraq, India and Pakistan. The root and leaves are used in the Ayurvedic Medicine and as aphrodisiaca and stimulant in the tantra sexual magic. Withdrawal Symptoms which occur upon cessation of drug use. See Withdrawal syndrome.

Antimicrobial Bioactive Phytocompounds from Extraction to Identification Process Standardization

Medicinal Plant Work Flow Chart

Different approaches to drug discovery using higher plants can be distinguished random selection followed by chemical screening random selection followed by one or more biological assays biological activity reports and ethnomedical use of plants 14 . The latter approach includes plants used in traditional medical systems herbalism, folklore, and shamanism and the use of databases. The objective is the targeted isolation of new bioactive phytocompounds. When an active extract has been identified, the first task to be taken is the identification of the bioactive phytocompounds, and this can mean either a full identification of a bioactive phy-tocompound after purification or partial identification to the level of a family of known compounds 15 .

Mode of Action of Bioactive Phytocompounds and their Interactions with Macromolecules and Toxicity

In vitro screening programm, using the ethnobotanical approach, are important in validating the traditional use of herbal remedies and for providing leads in the search for new active principles. Whereas activity identified by an in vitro test does not necessarily confirm that a plant extract is an effective medicine, nor a suitable The use of traditional plant remedies has been implicated in 35 of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa 59-63 . Precise identities of the culprit substances are mainly unknown, as well as the toxicological characteristics and pathogenetic mechanisms involved. Most data published are case reports, with no clear identification of the herbal product involved in the renal toxic effect. Various renal syndromes have been reported after the use of medicinal plants. They include acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, Fanconi's syndrome, hypokalemia, hypertension, papillary necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, nephrolithiasis, urinary...

Problems Associated with the Efficacy Stability and Quality Control of Herbal Drugs Preparations

The number of reports of patients experiencing negative health consequences caused by the use of herbal medicines has increased in recent years 36 . Analysis and studies have revealed a variety of reasons for such problems. One of the major causes of reported adverse events is directly linked to the poor quality of herbal medicines, including raw medicinal plant materials. It has therefore been recognized that insufficient attention has been paid to the quality assurance and control of herbal medicines 37 . Some reported adverse events following the use of certain herbal medicines have been associated with a variety of possible explanations, including the inadvertent use of the wrong plant species, adulteration with undeclared other medicines and or potent substances, contamination with undeclared toxic and or hazardous substances, overdosage, inappropriate use by health care providers or consumers, and interactions with other medicines, resulting in adverse drug effects 39 . of the...

Complementary and Alternative Medicines Dietary Supplements

After the passage of the Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments in 1962, the Food and Drug Administration adopted an approach over the next two decades that any herbal product claiming a therapeutic outcome that its panels had not evaluated and approved would be considered mislabeled and subject to confiscation. Conversely, however, the FDA did not prevent the sale of herbal substances if they did not claim any value in the prevention or treatment of disease. This meant that manufacturers could simply remove the offending information from the label and market the product as a food, nutritional supplement, or food additive, which fall under very different regulatory guidelines from drugs, often leaving nothing on the label except the name of the herb. The compete lack of other information, official or otherwise, created a vacuum of knowledge for prospective consumers. For years, the FDA maintained several lists that were pertinent to herbs, including a register for those generally regarded as...

Bacopa monniera Wettst

Bacopa monniera Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae), known by the common name 'brahmi', has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for almost 3000 years as a nerve tonic and to improve intellect and memory 128 . Various investigations have attempted to substantiate and identify a scientific basis for the reputed effects. A number of in vivo studies have shown B. monniera extracts to improve cognitive function 128-130 . The mode of action to explain these effects has yet to be fully elucidated. Some studies suggest that the antioxidant effects of B. monniera may protect the CNS from oxidative damage. Extracts of B. monniera have been reported to induce a dose-related increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus 131 , to dose-dependently inhibit nitric oxide (NO)-related toxicity (DNA damage) in cultured rat astrocytes 132 and to inhibit aluminium-induced neurotoxicity in the rat brain 133 . The antioxidant effects...

What Counts as a Drug and Where Does a Drug Count A Policy View

In the United States today, as will be explored in greater detail in chapters 2 and 3, many legally manufactured and distributed drugs are tightly regulated, while other drugs, including dietary supplements and herbal remedies, are virtually exempt from regulation. Drugs may be regulated under the prescription legend, as controlled substances, as dietary supplements, under special laws for alcohol and tobacco, and within particular regulations for competitive sports. These regulatory schema are overlapping an individual drug may be included in more than one regulatory scheme. For example, dextroamphetamine is a prescription drug, a controlled substance, a banned substance in certain sports, and allowed in some herbal substances in its analogue form.

Methamphetamine Meth Mouth

As discussed, meth damages blood vessels and decreases blood flow to all parts of the body. This includes the blood supply needed by the gums and mouth to stay healthy. Meth use causes these oral tissues to decay. In addition, meth use dries out the mouth, a condition called xerostomia. Saliva protects the teeth from harsh acids in the mouth. Without enough saliva to neutralize these acids, the teeth and gums are eaten away, causing weak spots that are susceptible to cavities. The cavities are worsened by the lifestyle of meth users eating a lot of sugary foods and drinks, compulsively grinding their teeth, and neglecting to regularly brush and floss their teeth.7, 11

Andrographis paniculata Nees

Andrographis Paniculata Nees

Uses Andrographis paniculata Nees has been used from ancient times in Ayurvedic medicine to assuage liver discomfort and to treat dysentery. Externally, the plant is used to treat skin diseases, heal boils, counteract snake's poison and to soothe swollen parts. Andrographis paniculata Nees mixed with Orthosiphon stamineus Bth. is used to treat diabetes. A decoction of the aerial parts is drunk to treat dysentery, regulate menses, lower blood pressure and to assuage liver discomfort.

Quality Control Screening Toxicity and Regulation of Herbal Drugs

Medicinal plants constitute a source of raw materials for both traditional systems of medicine (e.g. Ayurvedic, Chinese, Unani, Homeopathy, and Siddha) and modern medicine. Nowadays, plant materials are employed throughout the industrialized and developing world as home remedies, over-the-counter drugs, and ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry. As such, they represent a substantial proportion of the global drug market. Most rural populations, especially in the developing world, depend on medicinal herbs as their main source of primary health care. Although most medicinal herbs are not, in their natural state, fit for administration, preparations suitable for administration are made according to pharmacopeia directions. The therapeutic potential of a herbal drugs depends on its form whether parts of a plant, or simple extracts, or isolated active constituents. Herbal remedies consist of portions of plants or unpurified plant extracts containing several constituents, which often...

Herb Drug Interactions

Herbal medicines can act through a variety of mechanism to alter the pharmacokinetic profile of concomitantly administered drugs 63 . St John's wort, for example, induces the cytochrome P450 isozyme CYP 3A4 and intestinal P-glycopro-teins, accelerating the metabolic degradation of many drugs including cyclosporin, antiretroviral agents, digoxin, and warfarin 64 . taken to understand the effects of foods or herbal medicines during anticoagulant therapy, in the treatment of diabetes, depression, pain, asthma, heart conditions, or blood pressure disorders, and during slimming 8 . The scientific data about the interactions of various herbal medicines with a drug and its pharmacokinetics and bioavailability should be evaluated to assess the potential toxicity as well as the pharmacological basis of efficacy 13 .

Educating the Client on the Use of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

The use of herbs and nutritional supplements to treat various disorders is common. Herbs are used for various effects, such as to boost the immune system, treat depression, and for relaxation. Individuals are becoming more aware of the benefits of herbal therapies and nutritional supplements. Advertisements, books, magazines, and Internet sites abound concerning these topics. People, eager to cure or control various disorders, take herbs, teas, megadoses of vitamins, and various other natural products. Although much information is available on nutritional supplements and herbal therapy, obtaining the correct information sometimes is difficult. Medicinal herbs and nutritional substances are available at supermarkets, pharmacies, health food stores, specialty herb stores, and through the Internet. The potential for misinformation abounds. Because these substances are natural products, many individuals may incorrectly assume that they are without adverse effects. When any herbal remedy...

Introduction to Ginseng

Ginseng most commonly refers to the plant Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Asian ginseng) or Panax quinquefolius L. (North American ginseng). Ginseng is widely used in Asian countries as a tonic to promote and maintain good health, and as a constituent in herbal medicines used to treat various diseases, including liver dysfunction, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis, cancer, postmenopausal symptoms, and impotence 1-8 . Elsewhere, ginseng supplements are marketed as a natural stimulant that will increase endurance and vitality and improve overall health. It is the root of the ginseng plant that is harvested for its reported medicinal effects. The root is typically dried (white ginseng) or steamed (red ginseng) and can also be extracted to concentrate its bioactive components, the ginsenosides. Ginsenosides are unique to ginseng and are saponin glycosides containing one or more sugar moieties that form side chains off the aglycone ginsenoside structure 9 . There are over 20...

Integration Of The Drug Experiences

Complete itself, the sitters should do intense activating work with the client, following the principles outlined earlier for the reentry period. An interesting alternative to the approach that encourages exteriorization and abreaction is the use of prolonged hyperventilation. This technique, based on the Indian science of breath, pranayama, was recently rediscovered by Leonard Orr (72) and adopted in his rebirthing programs. Intense breathing, continued for a period of about thirty to forty-five minutes, tends to collect the tensions in the body into a stereotyped pattern of armoring and eventually release tlieni. This is associated with activation of important material from various levels of the unconscious. The muscular tensions concentrate in the arms and legs (the so-called carpopedal spasms of medical terminology)-1 and in several circular constrictions of the head and body corresponding to the levels of the different chakras in the Indian system of Kundalini yoga. In this...

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been in practice for more than 200 years and includes acupuncture, massage (tuina), breathing exercise (qi gong) and dietary therapy. TCM has been an integral part of China's healthcare system along with conventional Western medicine. TCM products were safe and effective for the treatment of many human diseases before Western medicine was introduced in China. Famous texts in TCM include the Yellow Emperor's Inner Classic (Hung Di Nei Jing 200 BCE to 100 CE), Divine Husband-man's Classic of Materia Medica (Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing 25-220 AD) and cold-induced disorders (Shang han Lun 220 AD). The most complete reference to Chinese herbal prescriptions is Chinese Materia Medica, published in 1977. It lists nearly 6000 drugs, of which 480 are of plant origin. This ancient system of medicine, believed to be more than 5000 years old, is based on two separate theories about the natural laws that govern good health and longevity, namely 'Yin and Yang',...

Drug Administration Drug contamination

There have been reports of herbal remedies adulterated with fenfluramine. There was public health concern in the UK after the referral of a 44-year-old woman with new-onset hypertension, palpitation, anxiety, and a body mass index of 19 kg m2. It became apparent that an alarming number of the local population had been attending a particular Chinese herbalist for weight loss remedies. Most had been taking multiple formulations and described spectacular'' results. Several reported considerable cardiovascular symptoms, but they were reassured that Chinese medicines are natural and can cause no harm. Analysis by gas chromatography showed a high concentration of fenfluramine in two of the products (sold as Qian Er and Ma Zin Dol, presumably mimicking the brand name Mazindol). Fenfluramine was also found in the patients' urine. Subsequently, a student nurse was admitted with severe fenfluramine toxicity which developed 2 hours after her first dose of a herbal slimming remedy (97). Following...

Ginseng and Male Sexual Behavior

Abstract Ginseng is widely used in Asian countries as a tonic to promote and maintain good health and as a constituent in herbal medicines used to treat various diseases, including liver dysfunction, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, atherosclerosis, cancer, postmenopausal symptoms, and impotence. Very few controlled clinical studies have been performed to validate the medicinal use of ginseng or its constituents in humans. However, laboratory studies, primarily using rodents, have elucidated potential medical uses for ginseng and ginsenosides in the treatment of a number of human disorders, including impotence and loss of libido. Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius have both been shown to enhance male cop-ulatory behavior in laboratory studies. Human studies have suggested that ginseng ingestion may be a safe and effective alternative method for treatment of erectile dysfunction. Ginsenosides have been shown to interact with steroid receptors and, through nongenomic pathways,...

Toxicity of Herbal Drugs

For several reasons it is not possible to establish absolute safety standards for herbal preparations based solely on epidemiological studies. First, these types of studies would be costly. Second, there is little published data in countries where the major use of medicinal plants occurs and thus general standards based on a limited number of reports would have little meaning. Third, the exact identification of the products implicated in side effects claimed for medicinal plants is usually lacking. In spite of these inadequacies, there are a number of general comments that can be made with regard to avoiding potential serious side effects from herbal medicines. The definition of toxic is ultimately a matter of viewpoint. Traditionally, herbs and herbal products have been considered to be nontoxic and have been used by the general public and traditional medicinal doctors worldwide to treat a range of ailments. The fact that something is natural does not necessarily make it safe or...

Herbal Alert Goldenseal

There are many traditional uses of the herb, such as an antiseptic for the skin, mouthwash for canker sores, wash for inflamed or infected eyes, and the treatment of sinus infections and digestive problems, such as peptic ulcers and gastritis. Some evidence supports the use of goldenseal to treat diarrhea caused by bacteria or intestinal parasites, such as Giardia. The herb is contraindicated during pregnancy and in patients with hypertension. Adverse reactions are rare when the herb is used as directed. However, this herb should not be taken for more than a few days to a week. Because of widespread use, destruction of its natural habitats, and renewed interest in its use as an herbal remedy, goldenseal was classified as an endangeredplant in 1997 by the US government.

Family Euphorbiaceae A L de Jussieu 1789 nom conserv the Spurge Family

Euphorbiaceae contain proteins (phytoxins), which are among the most violent existing poisons. One such protein is curcin from Jatropha curcas, and ricin from Ricinus communis L. Being often toxic, Euphorbiaceae should be used with caution in herbal remedies. Minor drugs still used are Croton tiglium (croton oil), and Croton eleuteria Benn. (cascarilla bark). About 150 species of the plants classified within the family Euphorbiaceae are used for medicinal purposes in the Asia-Pacific. Most of these are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness, soothe inflammation, and promote urination and expectoration. It will be interesting to learn whether a more intensive study on Euphorbiaceae will disclose any molecules of therapeutic interest. Note that hydrolysable tannins and diterpenes are predominantly responsible for the medicinal properties of Euphorbiaceae.

Terminalia chebula Retz

Uses The dried immature fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Myrobalans, British Pharmaceutical Codex, 1934) are astringent and contain 20 to 40 of tannins. In Burma, the fruits are eaten to relieve the bowels of costiveness and to invigorate health. In China, the fruits are used to stop flatulence and promote expectoration. In India, the fruits are eaten to invigorate health, promote digestion and expectoration, soothe sore throat and inflamed areas, stop dysentery and vomiting, and to treat ascite (Ayurveda). In Indonesia, the fruits are astringent. In Malaysia, the fruits are used to check bleeding, assuage liver discomfort and stop dysentry. In Vietnam, the fruits are used to relieve the bowels of costiveness.

How smoking creates wrinkles

Skin is a dynamic and ever-changing organ that must be renewed continually by the body to stay healthy and youthful. Smoking interferes with the body's ability to break down old skin and replace it with new skin, which leads to the gray, wrinkled skin associated with smoker's face.