Hay Fever Home Remedies

Hay Fever and Allergies

This eBook addressed the real causes of seasonal allergies like hay fever and other irritating health problems, and provides more informed solutions based on recent research into how to stop allergies at the system level. It doesn't take much now to be able to get rid of allergies, without having to see a doctor, pay huge medical and pharmaceutical bills, or fill your body with chemicals that do more harm than good to your system. However, if you are a doctor or run a clinic of any kind, you can learn things that you can apply to your own clinic to provide maximum benefit to you and your patients. Keep yourself informed with real research! When you find the underlying causes of allergic rhinitis (the medical term for hay fever) you will be far more informed on how to fight this in your own body. Take the natural way to heal yourself!

Hay Fever and Allergies Summary

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Author: Case Adams
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Second Generation Effects Teratogenicity

A meta-analysis of 24 controlled studies of the association between antihistamines and major congenital malformations (more than 200 000 participating women) did not show an increased risk of malformations (103). Experience with the first-generation antihistamines is more comprehensive than with the second-generation compounds, and in a recent review it was concluded that some of the first-generation drugs can be used for allergic rhinitis in pregnancy (104). Some authors advise avoiding brompheniramine because of a supposed association with birth defects (SEDA-21, 172).

General Information

Azelastine is a second-generation antihistamine, a phthalazinone compound with antiallergic and bronch-odilator properties (SEDA-12, 375) (SEDA-15, 155) (SEDA-17, 199) (SEDA-18, 182, 184) (SEDA-19, 171-172) (SEDA-20, 162) (SEDA-21, 172) (SEDA-22, 178). It is available as a nasal spray and in oral form for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma as well as dermatoses. It reduces rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal congestion. Azelastine is effective against exercise-induced asthma and allergen challenge in patients with extrinsic asthma. It can inhibit histamine release

Comparative studies

There have been three double-blind, randomized, parallel-group comparisons of the effects of azelastine nasal spray (1.1 mg day) with combined treatment with oral loratadine (10 mg day) and budesonide nasal spray (336 mg day) in 1070 patients with allergic rhinitis unresponsive to monotherapy (2). The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients who needed additional therapy for rhinitis after 7 days of treatment, and this was 32-46 across the three studies, with no significant difference between the two treatment groups. The most common adverse event with azelastine was a transient after-taste (8 compared with 1 in the combined group) and the most common adverse event for combined treatment was headache (6 compared with 5 in the azelastine group). Rhinitis and somnolence were the other commonly reported adverse events, in 3 and 2 with azelastine, and 1 and 1 in the combined group. The authors concluded that monotherapy with azelastine is as effective and as well tolerated...

Pregnancy Category C

The drug was first isolated from coca plants in the mid-1800s. Cocaine apparently functions as an insecticide in the plants, but the substance has had no commercial agricultural use for that purpose. Early medical applications included administration to treat addiction to alcohol and opiates, but persons addicted to those drugs did not better on cocaine. Like many stimulants, cocaine has anorectic (weight-reducing) properties that decline as usage stretches over time but the drug's main medical use has been as a local anesthetic, particularly in ear, nose, and mouth surgery. Experimental use as an antide-pressant has been unsuccessful. Cocaine has been used to treat tonsillitis, earache, toothache, burns, skin rash, hay fever, asthma, hemorrhoids, nerve pain, nausea, and vomiting. It makes the body's immune system more active. For medical purposes cocaine has been largely superseded by drugs having less potential for abuse, but it is still called an excellent anesthetic for nose...

Systemic availability of inhaled glucocorticoids

Since many patients with allergic asthma also have rhinitis, they may be taking both inhaled glucocorticoids for their asthma and intranasal formulations for their hay fever. The total systemic availability of glucocorti-coids has been studied after the addition of intranasal therapy in patients already taking inhaled glucocorti-coids (11) in 12 moderately severe asthmatic subjects (mean FEV1 84 predicted), who were randomized in a placebo-controlled, two-way, crossover comparison of inhaled fluticasone (880 micrograms bd) plus intranasal fluticasone (200 micrograms od), inhaled triamcinolone (800 micrograms bd) plus intranasal triamcinolone (220 micrograms od), and respective placebos. Both the inhaled glucocorticoids caused significant suppression of adrenocorticoid activity, although the addition of intranasal formulations did not produce further significant suppression. There were more individual subjects with abnormally low cortisol values when intranasal flutica-sone was added....

Contraindications

A decongestant is a drug that reduces swelling of the nasal passages, which, in turn, opens clogged nasal passages and enhances drainage of the sinuses. These drugs are used for the temporary relief of nasal congestion caused by the common cold, hay fever, sinusitis, and other respiratory allergies.

Organs and Systems Cardiovascular

In a large, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy and tolerability of desloratadine in 346 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis, the symptoms improved significantly and there was no significant effect on the QTc interval (7).

Antihistamines H1 receptor antagonists

Histamine release from mast cells and basophils makes a major contribution to the allergic response, and antihistamines are widely used in the treatment of certain symptoms of allergic disease. However, histamine also functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, being particularly important in maintaining a state of arousal or awareness (1R). First-generation H1 receptor antagonists easily cross the blood-brain barrier, and their consequent well-documented sedative and an-ticholinergic effects, together with short half-lives, greatly limit their use in the treatment of allergic symptoms. However, despite these deficiencies it must be remembered that firstgeneration drugs are still widely used, mainly as over-the-counter products, often in combination with other drugs. Second-generation H1 receptor antagonists have major advantages over the earlier drugs most notably they lack significant CNS and anticholinergic adverse effects. They have proved to be important...

Drug administration route

A nasal spray (isotonic aqueous ipratropium pump) has been used in allergic and non-allergic rhinitis as well as the common cold. The spray caused no systemic adverse effects and only minor infrequent episodes of nasal dry-ness and epistaxis, which did not interfere with treatment (15,16).

Organs and Systems Nervous system

Ketotifen produced seizures in a 5-year-old epileptic boy with allergic rhinitis. This was not specific to ketotifen but the result of H1 receptor blockade. Administration of d-chlorphenamine increased the number of epileptic discharges seen on the electroencephalograph. It is recommended that centrally acting H1 receptor antagonists should be avoided in epileptic patients, especially children (9).

Organs and Systems Respiratory

Churg-Strauss syndrome is a rare form of allergic granu-lomatous vasculitis, first described in 1951, characterized by the histological findings of eosinophilic tissue infiltration, extravascular eosinophil granulomas, and necrotiz-ing vasculitis. It develops in patients with a history of upper airway disease (especially allergic rhinitis and sinusitis) and asthma. There are different definitions of the syndrome, and it is important to know which definition is being used when the results of different incidence studies are being compared. Clinically the syndrome has been defined (3) as a combination of asthma, peripheral eosi-nophilia (over 1.5 x 109 l), and a systemic vasculitis involving two or more extrapulmonary organs. Recognized clinical risk factors include moderate to severe asthma, chronic sinusitis, and a recent reduction in systemic corti-costeroid therapy (4). An important feature is the phasic developmental pattern of the disease, and corticosteroid therapy suppresses some...

See also Monoclonal antibodies General Information

In a placebo-controlled study of subcutaneous omalizu-mab (50,150, and 300 mg before the ragweed season and every 3 or 4 weeks during the pollen season) in 536 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis, injection site reactions were mild and infrequent, there were no clinically significant alterations in laboratory values, and anti-idiotypic antibodies to omalizumab were not detected there was no evidence of immune complex-related adverse events (5-7).

Organs and Systems Skin

Years with moderate to severe allergic asthma requiring inhaled glucocorticoids in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (11). There were no serious treatment-related adverse events, and the frequencies of most adverse events were similar with omalizumab and placebo. However, urticaria was more frequent with omalizumab (4 versus 0.9 ). It usually resolved spontaneously or with antihistamine therapy and did not recur with subsequent treatment. Urticaria was also reported in a small number of adults (0.5 ) given omalizumab for allergic rhinitis (12).

Organs and Systems Immunologic

Total serum IgE has been measured in 36 patients with allergic rhinitis and 11 healthy subjects given a submaximal dose of oxitropium bromide 600 micrograms by inhalation (2). FEV1 was greater than 80 of predicted in all subjects. Baseline FEV1 correlated negatively with serum IgE concentration. Oxitropium bromide inhalation produced an increase in FEV1 (mean 155 ml) that was significantly greater in allergic patients with high serum IgE than in healthy subjects (64 ml) or in those with allergic rhinitis and low serum IgE (82 ml). The effect of an inhaled beta2-adrenoceptor agonist (orciprenaline) was similar in all three groups. These findings may explain some of the variation in response to inhaled antimuscarinic drugs in patients with asthma. The data also suggested that IgE may itself modify airway tone by an increase in cholinergic responsiveness.

Cromoglycate nedocromil and lodoxamide

Sodium cromoglycate is widely used in the prophylactic treatment of allergic diseases, especially bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. It inhibits histamine release from mast cells by a stabilizing effect on the cell membrane. It is usually given by inhalation or intranasally. The bioavailability following inhalation is low (

Enuresil Amfetamine sulfate Enuretine Phenobarbital Environmental Tobacco Smoke

Ephcodral Phenobarbital. Ephed-organidin Phenobarbital. Ephedhal Phenobarbital. Ephedra-phen Phenobarbital. Ephedral Phenobarbital. Ephedrine Mild, slow-acting drug used to treat moderate attacks of bronchial asthma and to relieve nasal congestion from hay fever or infection of the upper respiratory tract. Non-addictive, ephedrine may cause insomnia and restlessness. Ephedrine is obtainable from plants of the genus Ephedra, particularly the Chinese species Ephedra sinica, and it has been used in China for more than 5,000 years to treat asthma and hay fever. It is effective

The cardiotoxic effects of antihistamines

In a large multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy and tolerability of desloratadine in 346 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis, the symptoms improved significantly and there was no significant effect on the QTc interval (9C). Fexofenadine Fexofenadine is the active metabolite of terfenadine and is effective in seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria (19r). The effect of co-administration of azithromycin on plasma concentrations of fexofenadine 60 mg bd has been examined in a randomized third-party-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 98 healthy volunteers (11C). An initial loading dose of azithromycin (500 mg) was given on day 3, followed by 250 mg od for 4 days. Concomitant azithromycin caused substantial increases in the Cmax and AUC of fexofenadine (69 and 67 respectively). However, there were no statistically significant increases in the PR, QT, QTc interval, QRS complex duration, or ventricular...

CNS effects of secondgeneration antihistamines

Desloratadine Desloratadine appears to be minimally sedative, given that several studies (so far published only as abstracts) have shown no impairment in terms of wakefulness or psychomotor performance (31c-33c). Moreover, in a study in which desloratadine was effective and well tolerated in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis there were no clinically significant sedative effects (34C). Similarly, in a multicenter, randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled study desloratadine was effective in the treatment of moderate to severe chronic idiopathic urticaria, and there were no significant adverse effects (10C). Sensory systems There have been several reports of a bitter taste associated with azelastine nasal spray for the treatment of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis compared with placebo in Acute generalized urticaria occurred in a 42-year-old woman taking cetirizine for seasonal allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, which had previously been treated with loratadine (45A). 9....

Pregnancy Category None

Medicinal usage of European mandrake may date back as far as ancient Egypt, but in twenty-first-century Western medicine, only practitioners of homeopathy use the substance for healing. (Homeopathy uses extremely weak preparations of medicines.) Folk practitioners have given European mandrake to fight depression, asthma, hay fever, whooping cough, colic, and stomach ulcers. The plant has also been administered as a folk treatment to promote fertility, perhaps inspired by the story in Genesis 30 14-17. Such usage is referred to by the line Get with child a mandrake root from John Donne's sonnet Song Go and Catch a Falling Star. The plant is linked with romance (Song of Solomon 7 13) and is a traditional aphrodisiac, although such a characteristic has not received scientific confirmation. Sedative and pain relief actions made the plant one of the first surgical anesthetics, and an image of it appears on the coat of arms of the British Association of Anaesthetists. European mandrake...

Adicto a drogas narcoticas Addicted to narcotics

The purified, active compounds are used clinically and are obtained from the adrenal glands of domesticated animals or prepared synthetically. The administration of adrenaline results in an increase in blood pressure by increasing the rate and force of contraction of the heart and by constricting the peripheral blood vessels. It also dilates the bronchioles and in this way is an aid to respiration. Adrenaline exerts a metabolic effect manifested by a rise in blood glucose. Noradrenaline elicits similar responses but its metabolic effects and actions on the heart are much less than those of adrenaline. The rise in blood pressure after the administration of noradrenaline is due to its powerful vasoconstrictor action. Adrenaline is used in combination with local anaesthetics because its vasco-constriction properties delay the absorption of the local anaesthetics, and in this way prolongs their activity and reduces their toxicity. It is useful in acute allergic disorders, such as drug...

See also Antihistamines General Information

Seasonal allergic rhinitis affects about 10 of schoolage children, and there is evidence of a significant impact of the disease on health-related quality of life. The effect on health-related quality of life of once-daily of cetirizine syrup 10 mg day for 4 weeks has been studied in 544 children with seasonal allergic rhinitis in a multicenter, open, non-comparative study (2). In addition to improvements in symptom scores the authors also reported significant improvements in health-related quality of life, with good tolerability of the drug. Treatment-related adverse effects were reported in 22 subjects, of which somnolence was the most frequent problem, reported by six of the subjects. Only 12 of subjects discontinued treatment owing to an adverse effect. Health-related quality of life and clinical outcomes in 865 adult patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis treated with cetirizine or placebo for 2 weeks have been evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study (3)....

Illegal Recreational Drugs

In the United States, the origins of modern drug criminalization stretch back over a century and a half, to a point when many currently banned substances were legal and widely available. Opium, one of the first popular narcotics, was commonly used in eighteenth-century America for a variety of medicinal purposes, from dysentery and rheumatism to cholera and lockjaw. The drug was liberally recommended by doctors, who described opium as God's Own Medicine, something that the Creator himself seems to prescribe. 4 Morphine, first derived from opium in 1803 and named after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams, also was freely used as a stronger palliative with fewer direct side effects. Another opium derivative, first synthesized in 1874, was dubbed heroin because it heightened the sense of self-worth and gave the user a sense of heroism, a euphoric feeling. Heroin was used in relieving any number of illnesses, particularly those related to the upper respiratory system coughs, congestion,...

Factors Affecting Nasal Absorption

Drug absorption can be affected by the condition of nasal mucosa. Disease states such as allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, the common cold or nasal infection can result in increased nasal secretions. Such conditions may also result in increased or decreased viscosity of the mucus layer, and the resultant outcome for any of the above occurrences will be reduced absorption, either due to rapid clearance from the nasal cavity or the increased physical barrier between drug and mucosa. Physical abnormalities such as a deviated septum or nasal polyps may also affect the dynamics of mucociliary clearance and therefore drug absorption.

Selective adrenergic agonists

Intranasal corticosteroids are effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. They are safe, and there is no evidence of systemic effects. Bioavailability is higher than after inhalation, but the recommended dose for allergic rhinitis is lower than the dose given by inhalation. For this indication, beclomethasone has also been shown to be safe during pregnancy (Gilbert 2005). Data on pregnancy outcome after maternal exposure to intranasal budesonide are limited, but as pharmacological studies did show a much lower systcmic exposure after intranasal administration, their safety is comparable to orally inhaled budesonide (Gluck 2005). Recommendation. Inhaled corticosteroids are the first drugs of choice for the treatment of asthma in pregnant women. The use of beclomethasone or budesonide is preferred, because these have been widely used in pregnancy and have a good safety record. Systemic use of the corticosteroids, prednisone, and its metabolite, prednisolone, is indicated in case...

Secondgeneration antihistamines

Second-generation antihistamines have proved to be important therapeutic tools in the treatment of atopic disease, including both seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, urticaria, and atopic dermatitis (20). Several studies have shown that the use of second-generation anti-histamines as adjunctive therapy can benefit patients whose allergic asthma co-exists with allergic rhinitis (21).

Echinacea species

Between July 1996 and November 1998, the Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee received 37 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions in association with Echinacea (22). Over half of these (n 21) described allergic-like effects, including bronchospasm (n 9), dyspnea (n 8), urticaria (n 5), chest pain (n 4), and angioedema (n 3). The 21 patients were aged 3-58 (median 31) years and 12 had a history of asthma (n 7) and or allergic rhinitis conjuctivitis hayf-ever (n 5). Echinacea was the only suspected cause in 19 of the 21 cases. The symptoms began at variable times, within 10 minutes of the first dose to a few months, and all but two cases occurred within 3 days of starting treatment. At the time of reporting 17 of the patients had recovered, 2 had not yet recovered, and the outcome was unknown in the other two cases.

Tyrosine

Effects Boosts the brain neurotransmitters epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine, though the mental stimulation only occurs if the brain has used up these neurotransmitters. Elevates mood and energy (it has been effective in treating patients with depression), improves reaction time, alertness, attention, and motivation. It may help protect the liver from damage due to carbon tetrachloride, and has been used to treat stress, PMS, cocaine abuse, hay fever, grass allergies, Parkinson's disease, and cases of unipolar depression (i.e., unaccompanied by a manic phase) that do not respond to tryptophan.

Marijuana

Records indicate that marijuana was used medically in Africa long before it became popular as an intoxicant. Texts from Egypt dating to the 1900s B.c. show that it was used to treat sore eyes. Marijuana was used in other parts of Africa as an antiseptic and to restore appetite and relieve hemorrhoidal pain. Other medical uses for marijuana included the treatment of tetanus, rabies, convulsion in infants, nervous disorders, cholera, rheumatism, hay fever, asthma, skin diseases, and difficult labor during childbirth.

Histamine

The belief that histamine (HT) has a central effect stems from the knowledge that all the classical antihistamines (H1 receptor antagonists) used to treat allergic reaction, such as hay fever, caused marked sedation if, like mepyramine and promethazine, they can cross the blood-brain barrier, but fail to do so if, like terfenedine and cetirizine, they do not.

The Mucus Layer

The nose is an important site of particle deposition although the efficacy of the nasal filter depends on the diameter of the inhaled particles. Almost all particles larger than 10 m (e.g. pollen grains) are retained in the nose during breathing at rest, while most particles smaller than 2 m (e.g. mould spores) pass through the nose (27,28). The rate of mucocilliary clearance varies between individuals and can be altered by factors such as cigarette smoking, medicinal products and disease states such as allergic rhinitis, nasal polyps, cystic fibrosis or the common cold (9,12). The mucus layer and any foreign particles are swept towards the back of the nasal cavity where they can be swallowed and subsequently destroyed in the gastro-intestinal tract. This forms part of the body's defence system, preventing substances such as bacteria or allergens from reaching the lungs (12). It is therefore important that any nasal drug formulations do not have an irreversible effect on this process....

To Be Psychoactive

Throughout junior high school and high school I suffered from bad hay fever. My family doctor prescribed antihistamines for me. They definitely worked, but they made me feel so bad. Finally, I came to prefer the hay fever. I was happier sneezing than being so depressed and logy. Once, while in college, I took a twenty-five-milligram tablet of Thorazine and I was amazed at how similar the effect was to the antihistamines. I hate that feeling. I managed to get rid of most of my allergies by changing my diet and lifestyle. I haven't taken an antihistamine in years. thirty-eight-year-old man, musician

Omalizumab

In a placebo-controlled study of subcutaneous omalizumab (50, 150, and 300 mg before the ragweed season and every 3 or 4 weeks during the pollen season) in 536 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis, injection site reactions Skin The safety of subcutaneous omalizumab has been assessed in 334 boys and premenar-chal girls aged 6-12 years with moderate to severe allergic asthma requiring inhaled corti-costeroids in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (96C). There were no serious treatment-related adverse events, and the frequencies of most adverse events were similar with omalizumab and placebo. However, urticaria was more frequent with omalizumab (4 vs. 0.9 ). It usually resolved spontaneously or with antihistamine therapy and did not recur with subsequent treatment. Urticaria was also reported in a small number of adults (0.5 ) given omalizumab for allergic rhinitis (97R).

Specific allergens

The incidence of adverse systemic reactions during immunotherapy for perennial allergic rhinitis using standardized extracts of Dermatophagoides farinae has been estimated in 386 patients who received 22 722 injections. The incidence of systemic reactions was 6.22 per patient and 0.12 per injection. Systemic reactions began 3-30 minutes after an injection (average 11 minutes). Asthma, atopic dermatitis, and a high concentration of IgE (but not specific IgE) in serum were identified as important risk factors for severe systemic reactions. Systemic reactions occurred in 12 of 18 patients who had an IgE concentration over 100 U ml and asthma and or atopic dermatitis. In patients who had none of these risk factors the incidence of systemic reaction was 1.64 per patient. The authors estimated that the rate of systemic reactions could be reduced by 75 if patients with identified risk factors were strictly excluded from immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis (11).

Selegiline

PRECAUTIONS Warnings At doses over 10 mg day, selegiline can cause a hypertensive crisis in which your blood pressure rises dangerously high, putting you at risk for a brain stroke, brain damage, and death. This reaction is unlikely to occur on its own but is possible if used in combination with foods or medicines which contain tyramine or substances similar to epinephrine. In theory, at doses below 10 mg day, selegiline can be safely used without the dietary precautions necessary listed below. However, hypertensive crises have occurred even at this low dose. The following medications must be avoided while you are on selegiline and for two weeks following its cessation in order to avoid a hypertensive crisis Prescription medications Antiasthmatics that contain epi-nephrine or epinephrine-like compounds, most antidepressants, antihyperten-sives, antiparkinsonian agents, barbiturates, buspirone (Buspar), carbamazepine (Tegretol), disulfiram diuretics, narcotics, stimulants...