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Wirijuanp Hashish

Tradition in India maintains that the gods sent man the Hemp plant so that he might attain delight and courage, and have heightened sexual desires. "When nectar or Amrita dropped down from heaven, Cannabis sprouted from it. Another story tells how, when the gods, helped by demons, churned the milk ocean to obtain Amiita, one of the resulting nectars was Cannabis. It was consecrated to Shiva and was Indra's favorite drink. After the churning of the

"seeds," consumed by man for food; for its narcotic properties; and thera peuticallv to treat a wide spectrum of ills in folk medicine and m modern pharmacopoeias.

Mainly because of its various uses, Cannabis has been taken to many regions around the world. Unusual things happen to plants after long association «ith man and agriculture. They are grown m new and strange environments and often have opportunities to

Above left: WO I lcir| plants (Cannabis indica) with splendid white flowers in the Langtang re mfi of the Himalayas (Nepal).

Above right: M;iwuline plant of a Hemp cross-breed (Cannabis inOica x sativa)

ocean, demons attempted to gain control of Amrita, but the gods were able to prevent this seizure, giving Cannabis the name Vijaya ("victory") to commemorate their success. Ever since, this plant of the gods has been held in India to bestow supernatural powers on its users

The partnership of Cannabis and man has existed now probably for ten thousand years—since the discovery of agriculture in the Old World. One of our oldest cultivars, Cannabis has been a five-purpose plant: as a source of hempen fibers; fop ;ts oil; for its akenes or hybridize that are not offered in their native habitats. They escape from culti vation and frequently become aggressive weeds. They may be changed through human selection for characteristics associated with a specific use. Many cultivated plants are so changt-d from their ancestral types that it is not possible to unravel their evolutionary history. Such is not the case, however, with Cannabis. Yet despite its long history as a major crop plant, Cannabis is still characterized more by what is not known about its biology than by what is known.

Below left. The blue-skinned Hindu god Shiva takes great oleasure in Hemp. Because of this, it is a sacred plant of the gods and is used for rituals and Tantric practices.

Right: The long-haired Sadhus or "holy men" of India devote their lives to the god Shiva. They have no property and practice yoga ana meditation. In addition they often smoke a large amount of charas (handniade hash) and gania (Marijuana) sometimes mixed with Datura leaves and other psychoac tive plants (Sadhu at a Shiva temple, Pashupatinath, Kathmandu Valley Nepal)

Bottom right: Cannabis Is consumed in many countries, usually illegally. It is often smoked In hand-rolled cigarettes. There are countless products for the consumption of marijuana for everyone from beginners to the specialists—for instance, large-format rolling papers, preferably out of Hemp. Also shown here are a metal cigarette box and lighter

Right: The long-haired Sadhus or "holy men" of India devote their lives to the god Shiva. They have no property and practice yoga ana meditation. In addition they often smoke a large amount of charas (handniade hash) and gania (Marijuana) sometimes mixed with Datura leaves and other psychoac

Bottom right: Cannabis Is consumed in many countries, usually illegally. It is often smoked In hand-rolled cigarettes. There are countless products for the consumption of marijuana for everyone from beginners to the specialists—for instance, large-format rolling papers, preferably out of Hemp. Also shown here are a metal cigarette box and lighter

The botanical classification of Cannu ois has long been uncertain Botanists have not agreed on the family to which Cannabis belongs: early Investigators put it in the Nettle family (Urticaceae); later it was accommodated in the Fig fa mily (Moraceae); the general trend today is to assign it to a special family, Canna-baceae, in which only Cannabis and Hu mulus, the genus of Hops, are members. There has even been disagreement as to how many species of Cannabis exist:

whether the genus comprises one highly variable species or several distinct species. Evidence now strongly indicates that three species can be recognized: C. indica, C. ruderalis, and C. sativa. These species are distinguished by dif ferent growth habits, characters of the akenes, and especially by major differences in structure of the wood. Although all species possess cannabinols, therp may possibly be significant chemical differences, but the evidence is not yet available.

The Indian vedas sang of Cannabis as one of the divine nectars, able to give

Above: In Africa Hemp is smoked for medicinal and pleasurable purposes, as this wood carving shows.

Top: The characteristic Hemp leaf (Cannabis indica) was formerly a symbol of the subculture and rebellion. Today, it has become a symbol of ecological awareness man anything from good health and long life to visions of the gods. The Zend-Avesta of 600 b. c. mentions an intoxicating resin, and the Assyrians used Cannabis as an incense as early as the ninth century b. c.

Inscriptions from the Chou dynasty in China, dated 700-500 b.c., have a "negative" connotation that accompanies the ancient character for Cannabis, Ma, implying its stupefying properties. Since this idea obviously predated writing, the Pen Tsao Ching, written in a. d. 100 but going back to a legendary emperor, Shen-Nung, 2000 b. c., maybe ta ken as evidence that the Chinese knew and probably used the psychoactive properties at very early dates. It was said that Ma-fen ("Hemp fruit") "if ta ken to excess, will produce hallucinations [literally, "seeing devils"]. If taken over a long term, it makes one commu nicate with spirits and lightens one's body." A Taoist priest wrote in the fifth century b.c. that Cannabis was employed by "necromancers, in combination with Ginseng, to set forward time and reveal future events." In these early periods, use of Cannabis as a hallucinogen was undoubtedly associated with Chinese shaman- «m. but by the time of European contact 1,500 years later, shamanism had fallen into decline, and the use of the plant for inebriation seems to have ceased and been forgotten. Its value in China then was pri narily as a fiber source. There was, however, a continuous record of Hemp cultivation in China from Neolithic times, and it has been suggested that Cannab ia may have originated in China, not in central Asia.

About 500 b. c. the Greek wnter Herodotus described a marvelous steam bath of the Scythians, aggres: :ve horsemen who swept out of the Trans-caucasus eastward and westward. He

reported that "they make a booth by fixing in the ground three sticks inclined toward one another, and stretching around them woollen pelts which they arrange so as to fit as close as possible: inside the booth a dish is placed upon the ground into which they put a number of red hot stones and then add some Hemp seed . . . immediately it smokes and gives out such a vapor as no Grecian vapor bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy . . ." Only recently, archaeologists have excavated frozen Scythian tombs in central Asia, dated between 500 and 300 b.c., and have found tripods and pelts, braziers, and charcoal with remains of Cannabis leaves and fruit. It has generally been accepted that Cannabis originated in central Asia and that it was the Scythians who spread the plant westward to Europe

While the Greeks and Romans may not generally, have taken Cannabis for inebriation, they were aware of the psychoactive effects of the drug. Democri-tus reported that it was occasionally drunk with wine and myrrh to produce visionary states, and Galen, about a. d. 200, wrote that it was sometimes customary to give Hemp to guests to promote hilarity and enjoyment.

Cannabis arrived in Europe from the north. The Roman writer Lucilius mentioned it in 120 b. c, Pl'ny the Elder out-1-ned the preparation and grades of hempen fibers in the first century a. d., and hempen rope was found in a Roman site in England dated a.d. 140-180. Whether or not the Vik.ngs used Hemp rope is not known, but palynological evidence indicates that Hemp cultivation had a tremendous increment in England from the early Anglo-Saxon period to late Saxon and Norman times—from 400 to 1100

Henry VIII fostered the cultivation of Hemp in England. The maritime supremacy of England during Elizabethan times greatly increased the demand. Hemp cultivation began in the British colonies in the New World: first in Canada in 1606, then in Virginia in 1611; the P;1grims took the crop to New Eng land in 1632. In pre-Revolutionary North Amenca, Hemp was employed even for making work clothes.

Hemp was introduced quite independently into Spanish colonies in South America: Chile, 1545; Peru, 1554

There is no doubt that hempen fiber production represents an early use of Cannabis, but perhaps consumption of its edible akenes as food predated the discovery of the useful fiber. These akenes are very nutritious, and it is dif ficult to imagine that early man, constantly searching for food, would have missed this opportunity. Archaeological finds of Hemp akenes in Germany, da ted at 500 b.c., indicate the nutritional use of these plant products. From early times to the present, Hemp akenes have been used as food in eastern Europe, and in the United States as a major ingredient of bird food.

The folk-medicinal value of Hemp— frequently indistinguishable from its psychoactive properties—may even be its earliest role as an economic plant. The earliest record of the medicinal use of the plant is that of the Chinese emperor-herbalist Shen-Nung who, five thousand years ago, recommended Cannabis for malaria, beri-beri, consti pation, rheumatic pairs, absent-mind edness, and female disorders. Hoa-Glio, another ancient Chinese herbalist, recommended a mixture of Hemp resin and wine as an analgesic during surgery

It was in ancient India that this "gift of the gods" found excessive use in folk medicine. It was believed to quicken the mind, prolong life, improve judgment, lower fevers, induce sleep, cure dysentery. Because of its psychoactive properties it was more highly valued than medicines with only physical ac tivity. Several systems of Indian medi cine esteemed Cannabis. The medical work Sushrata states that it cured le prosy The Bha.rapra.ka.sha, of about a.d. 1600, described it as antiphleg-matic, digestive, bile affecting, pungent, and astringent, prescribing ;t to stimulate the appetite, improve digestion, and better the voire. The spectrum of medicinal uses in India covered control of

Top: Feminine flower of industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa).

Above: The Chinese emperor Shen-Nung is said to have discovered the medicinal properties of many plants. His pharmacopoeia, believed to have been first compiled in 2737 b. c., notes that Cannabis sativa has both male and fe male plants.

Right: There are countless strains of Hemp that contain barely any THC, the intoxicating and euphoric constituent. These species are used in the production of fiber, but are not suited for personal consumption, as the warning sign in the botanical gardens in Bern, Switzerland, states: "This indust.ial Hemp is useless for the production of drugs because of its lack of active properties."

Bottom: Feminine plants of flowering industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa)

Right: There are countless strains of Hemp that contain barely any THC, the intoxicating and euphoric constituent. These species are used in the production of fiber, but are not suited for personal consumption, as the warning sign in the botanical gardens in Bern, Switzerland, states: "This indust.ial Hemp is useless for the production of drugs because of its lack of active properties."

Bottom: Feminine plants of flowering industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa)

dandruff and relief of headache, mania, insomnia, venereal disease, whooping cough, earache, and tuberculosis!

The fame of Cannabis as a met icine spread with the plant. In parts of Africa, it was valued in treating dysentery malaria, anthrax, and fevers. Even today the Hottentots and Mfengu claim its e ficacy in treating snakebites, and Sotho women induce partial stupefaction by smoking Hemp before childbirth.

Cannabis was highly valued in medicine, and its therapeutic uses can be traced back to early classical physicians Dioscorides and Galen, Medieval herb alists distinguished "manured hempe" (cultivated) from "bastard hempe" (weedy), recommending the latter "against nodes and wennes and other hard tumors," the former for a host of uses from curing cough to jaundice. Thty cautioned, however, that in excess it might cause sterility, that "it drieth up .. . the seeds of generation" in men "and the milke of women's breasts." An interesting use in the sixteenth century— source of the name Angler's Weed in England—was locally important: "poured into the holes of earthwormes [it] will draw them forth and . . , fishermen and anglers have used this feate to baite their hooks."

The value of Cannabis in folk medicine has clearly been closely tied with its euphoric and psychoactive proper ties; knowledge of these effects may be as old as its use as a source of fiber Primitive man, trying all sorts of plant

Top lei;: n northern India the Hemp leaves are soaked In water, shredded and then rolled into balls """hese are sold m "Bhang" on the market (display in the Governmental Ganja Shop Om Varnasl, Benares).

Top right: The Bhang balls are either sucked on or mixed into a drink with milk, yogurt, and water

Top lei;: n northern India the Hemp leaves are soaked In water, shredded and then rolled into balls """hese are sold m "Bhang" on the market (display in the Governmental Ganja Shop Om Varnasl, Benares).

mate-rials as food, must have known the ecstatic euphoria-inducing effects of Hemp, an intoxication introducing him to an otherworldly plane leading to religious beliefs. Thus the plant early was viewed as a special gift of the gods, a sacred medium for communion with the spirit world.

Although Cannabis today is the most widely employed psychoactive substance, its use purely as a narcotic, except in Asia, appears not to be ancient In classical times its euphoric properties were, however, recognized. In Thebes« Hemp was made into a drink said to have opium-like properties. Galen reported that cakes with Hemp, if eaten to excess, were intoxicating. The use as an inebriant seems to have been spread east and west by barbarian hordes of central Asia, especially the Scythians, who had a profound cultural influence on early Greece and eastern Europe. And knowledge of the psychoactive ef fects of Hemp g«es far back in Indian history, as indicated by the deep mythological and spiritual beliefs about the plant. One preparation, Bhang, was so sacred that it was thought to deter evil, bring luck, and cleanse man of sin. Thow treading upon the leaves of this holy plant would suffer harm or disaster, and sacred oaths were sealed over flemp. The favorite drink of Indra, god of the firmament, was made from Cannabis, and the Hindu god Shiva commanded that the word Gbangi be chanted repeatedly in hymns during sowing, weeding, and harvesting of the holy plant. Knowledge and use of the intoxicating properties eventually spread to Asia Minor. Hemp was employed as an incense in Assyria in the first millennium B.C., suggesting its use as an inebriant. While there is no direct mention of Hemp in the Bible, several obscure passages may refer tangentially to the effects of Cannabis resin or Hashish.

It is perhaps in the Himalayas of In dia and the Tibetan plateau that Canna bis preparations assumed their greatest importance in religious contexts. Bhang is a m:ld preparation: dried lpmv» or flowering shoots are pounded with Apices into a paste and consumed as candy—kno^n as maa-jun—or in tea form. Ganja is made from the resin-rich dried pistillate flowering tops of cultivated plants that are pressed into a compacted mass and kept under pressure for several days to induce chemical changes; most Ganja is smoked, often with Tobacco or Datura. Charad con sists of the resin itself, a brownish mase that is employed generally in smoking mixtures.

The Tibetans considered Cannabis sacred. A Mahayana Buddhist tradition maintains that during the six steps of asceticism leading to his enlightenment. Buddha lived on one Hemp seed a day. He lS^iften depicted with "Soma leaves" in his begging bowl and the mysterious god-narcotic Soma has occasionally been identified with Hemp. In Tantnc

Top right: The Bhang balls are either sucked on or mixed into a drink with milk, yogurt, and water

Page 97 above left: The Cora Indians of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico smoke Cannabis In the course of the.r sacred ceremonies. Rarely Is an introduced foreign plant adopted and used In inCigenous religious ceremonies, but it seems that the Cora of Mexico and the Cuna of Panama have taken up the ritual smoking of Cannabis, notwithstanding the fact that, In both areas, it was brought in by the early Europeans.

Page 97 above right: These three photographs show the germinating Hemp plant. The rounded leaves are c<piedons or seed-leaves. The first real leaves are always simple, not segmented as are the mature leaves.

Page 96 middle (4 Photos): The use of Cannabis by peoples of both the Old World and the New is widespread, in the Old World (left to right) Cannabis is being smoked by a Kung woman from South Afrfca, a Pygmy from the Congo, a traveler In Kashmir, and North African Hashish smokers.

The Chemistry of Marijuana

Whereas the psychoactive principles of most hallucinogenic plants are alkaloids, the active constituents of Cannabis are non-nitrogenous and occur in a resinous oil. The psychoactive properties are due to cannabinoids, of which the most effective is tetrahydrocannabinol or THC—chemically: (-)A1-3,4-transtetrahydrocannabinol. The highest concentration is found in the resin of the unfertilized pistillate inflorescence. Even though less potent, the dried leaves are also employed for their psychoactive effects

Following the elucidation of the chemical structure (see molecular model on page 184) it has recently been possible io synthesize THC.

Psychoactive Plants that are used as a Marijuana Substitute i

Botanical Name Common Name Part of Plant Used i

Botanical Name Common Name Part of Plant Used

A!chornea floribunda

Niando

Roots

Argemone mexicana

Prickly Poppy

Leaves

Artemisia mexicana

Mexican Mugwort

Herbage

Calea zar.atechichi

Dog Grass

Herbage

Canavalia marítima

Sea Bean

Leaves

Catharanthus roseus

Madagascar Periwinkle

Leaves

CecroDÍa mexicana

Chancarro

Leaves

Cestrum Isevigaium

Lady of the Night

Leaves

Cestrum parqui

Palqui

Leaves

Cymbopogon densiflcus

Lemongrass

Power extract

Helichrysum foetidwi

Everlasting

Herbage

Helichrysum stenopterum

Everlasting

Herbage

Hieracium p Hoce lia

Hawkweed

Herbage

Leonotis leonurus

Wild Dagga

Herbage

Leonurus sibiricus

Siberian Motherwort

Herbage

Nepeta calaría

Catnip

Herbage

Piper aurítum

Root Beer Plant

Leaves

Scelet'um tortuosum

Kougued

Herbage Roots

Sida acuta

Common Wireweed

Herbage

Sida rhombifolia

Escobilla

herbage

Jumera diffusa

Damiana

Herbage

Zornia diphyila

Maconha Brava

Leaves

Zornia latifolia

Maconha Brava

Dried leaves

Buddhism of the Himalayas of Tibet, Cannabis plays a very significant role in the meditative ritual used to facilitate deep meditation and heighten aware ness. Both medicinal and recreational secular use of Hemp is likewise so common now in this region that the plant is taken for granted as an every day necessity.

Folklore maintains that the use of Hemp was introduced to Persia by an Indian pilgrim during the reign of Khursu (a. d. 531-579), but it is known that the Assyrians used Hemp as an incense during the first millennium B.c Although at first prohibited among Islamic peoples, Hashish spread widely-west throughout Asia M: r or. In 1378, authorities tried to extirpate Hemp from Arabian territory by the imposition of harsh punishments.

Cannabis extended early and widely from Asia Minor into Africa, partly under the pressure of Islamic influence, but the use of Hemp transcends Islamic areas. It is widely believed that Hemp was introduced also with slaves from Malaya. Commonly known in Africa as Kil or Dagga, the plant has

"Hemp is the 'giver of joy,' 'heaven's pilot,' 'the heavenly guide,'

'the heaven of the poor man,' 'the soother of sorrows

No god, no man is as good as the religious hemp drinker.

—Hemp Drug Commissicn Report (1884)

Hemp Seed Scanning Electron Microscopy

Scanning Electron Microscopy entered into archaic native cultures in social and religious contexts. The Hottentots, Bushmen, and Kaffirs used Hemp for centuries as a medicine and as an intoxicant. In an ancient tribal ceremony in the Zambesi Valley, participants inhaled vapors from a pile o smoldering Hemp; later, reed tu es and pipes were employed, and the plant material was burned on an altar The Kasai tribes of the Congo have revived an old Riamba cult in which Hemp, replacing ancient fetishes and symbols, was elevated to a god—a protector against physical and spiritual harm Treaties are sealed with puffs of smoke from calabash pipes. Hemp-smoking and Hashish- snuf ing cults exist in many parts of east Africa, especially near Lake Victoria.

Hemp has spread to many areas of the New World, but with few exceptions the plant has not penetrated signifi cantly into many Native American religious beliefs and ceremonies. There are, however, exceptions, such as its use under the name Rosa Maria, by the Te-pecano Indians of northwest Mexico, who occasionally employ Hemp when

Peyote is not available. It has recently been learned that Indians in the Mexican states of Veracruz, Hidalgo, and Puebla pracrce a communal curing ceremony with a plant called Santa Rosa, identified as Cannabis sativa, which is considered both a plant and a sacred intercessor with the Virgin. Although the, ceremony is based mainly on Christian elements, the plant is worshiped as an Earth deity and is thought to be alive and to represent a part of the heart of God. The participants in this cult believe that the plant can be dangerous and that it can assume the form of a man's soul, make him 1, enrage him, and even cause death

Sixty years ago, when Mexican laborers introduced the smoking of Marijuana to the United States, it spread across the South, and by the 1920s its use was established in New Orleans, confined primarily among the poor and minority groups. The continued spread of the custom in the United States and Europe has resulted in a still unresolved controversy.

Cannabis sativa was officially in the U.S. Pharmacopoeia until 1937, recom-

Above left: In C. sativa, well-developed hairs of glandular and non-glandular kinds are shown in various stagas of development

Top right: Different types of glandular hairs of Cannabis. The capitate gland with a prominent pseudo-stalk on the surface of the anther wall that faces the center of the flower

Bottom right: Bulbous gland from adax-ial leaf surface. The stalk and head are made up of two cells each. The tip of the gland oossesses a small, disk-shaped rea'on below which resin accumulates in the extended membrane.

Page 98: Above, Cannabis sativa is be.ng harvested for Hemp at the turn of the century. This species attains a height of 18 feet (6m). Below, an extremely potent Hashish is produced from Cannabis indica, a low, pyramidal, densely branched species, as shown above growing wiid near Kandahar Afghanistan.

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Top: Drawing by W. Miller. Copyright 1978 The New Yorker Magazine. Inc. "Hey, whet is this stuff? It makes every thing I think seem profound."

Below: Gustave Doré's painting "Composition of the Death of Gérard de Nerval," for which he may have used Cannabis and Opium for inspiration. The contemporary American cartoon shows in a humorous way the resurrection of this belief.

Hallucinogen Cartoon

Above: In the nineteenth century, a select group of European artists and wri 1ers turned to psychoactive agents in an attempt to achieve what has come to be regarded as "mind-expansion" or "mind-alteration." Many people, such as the French poet Baudelaire (below), believed that creative ability could be greatly enhanced by the use of Cannabis. In fact, Baudelaire wrote vivid descriptions of his personal experiences under the influence of Cannabis.

Above: Marijuana is made from the dried and sligntly fermented blossoms of the feminine Hemp plant

Left: In Lewis Carroll's Alico in Wonder-.and, the encounter between Alice and the languorous caterpillar is as follows, "She stretched herself up on tiptoe, and peeped over the edge of the mushroom, and her eyes immediately mat those of a large blue caterpillar that was sitting on the top, with Its arms folded, quietly smoking a long hookah, and taking not the slightest notice of her or anything else."

mended for a wide variety of disorders, especially as a mild sedative. It is no longer an ofiicial drug, although research in the medical potential of some of the cannabinolic constituents or their semi-synthetic analogs is at present very active, particularly in relation to the side effects of cancer therapy.

The psychoactive effects of Cannabis preparations vary widely, depending on dosage, the preparation and the type of plant used, the method of administration, the personality of the user, and the social and cultural background. Perhaps the most frequent characteristic is a dreamy state. Long forgotten events are often recalled ¿nd thoughts occur in unrelated sequences. Perception of time, and occasionally of space, i : altered. Visual and auditory hallucinations sometimes follow the use of large doses. Euphoria, excitement, inner happ-ness—often with hilar ty and laughter—are typical. In some cases, a final mood of depression may be experienced.

"This marvelous experience often occurs as if it were the effect of a superior and invisible power acting on the person from without. . .

This delightful and singular state . . .

gives no advance warning

It is as unexpected as a ghost, an intermittent haunting from which we must draw, if we are wise, the certainly of a better existence.

This acuteness of thought, cbis enthusiasm of the senses and the spirit must have appeared to man through the ages as the first blessing."

—Charles Baudelaire Les Paradis Artificiels

Above: In the nineteenth century, a select group of European artists and wri 1ers turned to psychoactive agents in an attempt to achieve what has come to be regarded as "mind-expansion" or "mind-alteration." Many people, such as the French poet Baudelaire (below), believed that creative ability could be greatly enhanced by the use of Cannabis. In fact, Baudelaire wrote vivid descriptions of his personal experiences under the influence of Cannabis.

CLAVICEPS Ergot

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