Tanaecium Sw

Tanaecium nocturnum (Barb.-Rodr.)

Koribo

Bignoniaceae (Bignonia Family) Tropical zones of Central 92 Ame-ica and South America. West Indies

TETRAPTERIS Ca

Tetrapterís methystica R. E. Schult. Caapi-pinima

Malpighiaceae (Malpighia Family)

Tropical zones of South 93 America, Mexico, West Indies

TRICHOCEREUS (A. Berger) Riccob.

Trichocereus pachanoi Britt. et Rose San Pedro Cactus Cactaceae (Cactus Family)

Temperate and warm zones 94 South America

The nomadic Makú Indians of the RioTikié in the northwestern most Amazonas of Brazil pre pare a hallucinogenic drink, a sort of Ayahuasca or Caapi from the bark of Tetrapterís methystica. Reports of the effects of the drug would suggest that (3-carboline alkaloids are present.

Tetrapterís methystica (T. mucronata) is a scandent bush with black bark. The leaves are char-aceous, ovate, 2V4-3% in. (68 5cm) long, 1-2in (2.5-5cm) wide, bright green above, ashy green beneath. The inflorescence is few-flowered, shorter than the leaves. The sepals are thick, hairy without, ovate-Ian ceolate with eight black ova! shaped glands; the petals spreading, membranaceous, yellow w;th red or brown in the center, elongatc-orbicular, Ttin. (1 cm) long. !% in (2mm) wide. The fruit, or samara, is ovoid, Vk by VI by Vie in. (4 by 4 by 2 mm), with brownish wings about V2 by Vie in. (10 by 2mm).

This cactus is a branched, often spineless, columnar plant 920ft (2.75-6m) in height. The branches, which have 6 to 8 ribs are glaucous when young, dark green in age. The pointed buds open at night to produce very large, 71/2-91/4 in (19-24cm) funnel-shaped, fragrant flowers with the inner segments white the outer segments brownish red, and long, greenish stamen filaments. The fruit, as well as the scales on the floral tube have long black hairs

Trichocereus pachanoi is rich in mescaline: 2% of the dried material or 0."2% of the fresh material. Other alkaloids have been reported from the plant 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethyla-mine 3-methoxy-tyramine, ana traces of other bases.

Trichocereus pachanoi (Echi-nopsis pachanoi) occurs in the central Andes between 6,0G0 and 9,000ft (1,830-2,750m), particularly in Ecuador and northern Peru.

Bignoniaceae (Bignonia Family) Tropical zones of Central 92 Ame-ica and South America. West Indies

Saponines and tannins have been found in Tanaecium. The leaves contain prussic acid and cyanoglycosides, which disintegrate when roasted.

It is uncertain as to whether the toxin's waste products contribute to the psychoactive effect of T. nocturnum. It is not yet known if there are other active compounds in the leaves or other parts of the plant. It is possible that this plant contains substances of unknown chemi cal structure and pnarmacologi cal effect.

Tanaecium nocturnum is a much-branched climber with broadly elliptic leaves 51/3 in. (13.5cm) long, 4in. (10cm) wide. The white flowers, 6V2 in. (16.5cm) long, are tutular, oorne in five to eight-flowered racemes 3in (8cm) long aris ing from the stem. The stem when cut, emits an odor of almond oil.

The Paumari, who live on the Rio Purus, create a ritual snuff that they call koribo-nafuni out of the leaves. Tne shamans sniff it when they are dealing with difficult cases—for example, in order to extract a magical object out of the body of the sick person. They also sniff it during a ritual for protection of children during which they fall into a trance. The snuff is used only by the men. This species is said to be prized as an aphrodisiac by Indians of the Colombian Choco

TURBINA Paf.

Turbina corymbosa (L.) Raf Olnliuqui

VIROLA Aubl

Virola theiodora (Spr.) Warb Curtíala Tree

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