Tagetes L

Tabemaemontana spp. Sanango

Tabernanthe ¡boga Baill. Iboga

Tagetes lucida Cav Yauhtli

Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family)

Tropical zones of both 89 hemispheres

Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family) Tropical zones of western

90 Alrica

Compositae (Sunflower Family)

Warm zones of the Americas 9 ,1 mostly Mexico

Most species of Tabemaemon tana are bushy shrubs, climbers, or small trees. The leaves are evergreen 'anceolate, often with a leathery top side. The flowers consist of five pointed petals that mostly grow in clusters out of the calyx The two symmetrical fruits are divided and marked with fairly visible veins. Because of this, they are easily confused with the testes of a mammal

In the Amazon, the Sanango ('Tabemaemontana sananho R. et P.) is considered a panacea. The leaves, roots, and the latex-rich bark are used in folk medicine. The tree grows as tall as 15 ft (5 m). The leaves are used as a psychoactive additive to Ayahuasca. It is used In combination with Virola in the production of an ora.ly effective hallucinogen. In the Amazon, Sanango is also considered a "memory plant." Ayahuasca is enhanced with It in order that the visions can be better recalled.

Phytochemlcal research has recently been done on the genus. Indole alkaloids are the primary constituent, in some even Ibogaine and voacangine have been ascertained. For this reason, this species is of particular interest for the discovery of new psychoactive plants. A few of the species (Tabemaemontana coffeoides Bojer ex DC., Tabemaemontana crassa Benth.) have already revealed psychoactive properties and uses

Tabernanthe ibcga Is a shrub 341/2 ft (1-1,5 m) tall found in the undergrowth of tropical forests but often cultivated in native dooryards. The shrub has copious white, vile-smelling latex. The ovate leaves, usually 31/24 in. (9-10 cm) long, about 1\k In. (3 cm) wide (but occasionally up to 8V2 by 2% in. or 22 by 7 cm), are yellowish green beneath. The tiny yellowish, pinkish, or white- and pinkspotted flowers, which grow in groups of 5 to 12 have a era teriform corol.a (a long slender tube abruptly flaring at the mouth) with twisted lobes 1A in. (1 cm) long. The ovoid, pointed yellow-orange fruits occur in pairs and become as large as olives

Chemical studies on Tabernanthe iboga have shown at least a dozen indole alkaloids, the most active being ibogaine the effects of which, in toxic doses, lead to extraordinary visions; an overdose to paralysis and death.

The Huichol of Mexico induce visions by smoking a mixture of Nicotiana rustica and Tagetes lucida. They frequently drink a fermented beer from maize along with the smoking in order "to produce clearer visions." Tagetes lucida is occasionally smoked alone.

Tagetes lucida is a strongly scented perennial herb up to 11/2 ft (46cm) tall. The opposite, leaves are ovate-lanceolate, toothed, and punctated with oil glands. The flowering heads are produced in dense terminal clusters M» in. (1 cm) in diameter, usually yellow to yellow-orange. This species is native to Mexico where it is very abundant in the states of Nayarit and Jalisco. No alkaloids have been isolated from Tagetes, but the genus is rich in essential oils and thio phene derivatives; /-inositol, saponines, tannins, coumarine derivatives, and cyanogenic glv cosides have been reported.

Malpighiaceae (Malpighia Family)

Tropical zones of South 93 America, Mexico, West Indies

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