Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tulasne
It nas recently been convincingly argued that Ergot played a role in the Eleusinian mysteries of ancient Greece.
When accidentally ground up with rye flour during the Middle Ages, Ergot (which grows primarily as a funga, disease on rye) poisoned whole districts with ergotism. These mass poisonings became known as St. Anthony's fire.
in Amazonian folk medicine, Brunfeisia plays a major magico-religious role.
Used as an additive to the hallucinogenic drink Yaje (see Ayahuasca).
The Kofán of Colombia and Ecuador and the Jívaro of Ecuador add Brunfeisia to Yajé, prepared basically from Banisteriopsis (see Ayahuasca). It heightens the hallucinogenic effects.
Scopoletine has been found in Brunfeisia, but this compound is not known to be psychoactive.
A sensation of chills follows ingestion, an effect that has given rise to the name Chiricaspi ("cold tree")
The plant may once have been used by the Tarahu mara, who value 'he beans medicinally.
The red beans are often mixed with the similar ones of Sophora secundiflora.
Some species of Erythrina contain alkaloids of the er ythran type, producing effects similar to those of curare or cytisine
Used today as a DMT-delivering agent for Ayahuasca analogs.
Twenty to 50 g of roots are boiled with 3g of seeds from Peganum harmala ai id the preparation is consumed as a drink.
The roots contain the psychedelic or vision-inducing alkaloid N, N-DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, Bufotenin, and the toxin gramine.
Used in native festivals in Bali and reportedly sold to foreign visitors as a hallucinogen.
Up to 1.2% of psilocineand 0.6% of psilocyblne have been found in C. cyanescens, which is the highest content of these alkaloids found in hallucinogenic mushrooms.
Indian pecples may have utilized the psychoactive properties.
Mucuna is considered an aphrodisiac in India.
Powdered seeds. Source of DMT for Ayahuasca analogs.
Although Mucuna has not been reported as a hallucinogen, it is rich in psychoactive alkaloids (such as DMT) capable of inducing behavioral changes equita ble with hallucinogenic activity.
The Mapuche of southern Chile smoke Palqui.
The leaves are smoked as a substitute for Marijuana.
The unripened fruit, leaves, and flowers contain sapo-nines that are not known to be hallucinogenic.
Used as an aphrodisiac in the East Indies. Valuable drug.
Ceremonial intoxication and recreation.
Powdered seeds added to wine.
The seeds are added to alcoholic drinks, to Cannabis cigarettes or tobacco, and occasionally to the betel chew mixture.
Witches' brews; the sabbat.
Today, A. belladonna is an important source for medicinal drugs.
The entire plant contains psychoactive constituents.
The plant contains alkaloids, capable of inducing hallucinations. The main psychoactive constituent is hyoscyamine, but lesser amounts of scopolamine and trace amounts of minor tropane alkaloids are also present.
Having magico-religious significance, Coleus is used as a divlnatory plan*
The leaves are chewed fresh or the plants are ground, then diluted with water for drinking.
No hallucinogenic principle has yet been discovered in the 150 known Coleus species.
Eper.a or Nyakwana may be snuffed ceremonially by all adult males, occasionally even without any ritual connection. The medicine men use the drug in diagnosis and treatment of illnesses.
Some Indians scrape the inner layer of the bark and dry the shavings over a fire. When pulverized, powdered leaves of Justicia the ashes of Amasita, the bark of Elizabetha princeps may be added.
Other Indians fell the tree, collect the resin, boil It to a paste, sun-dry the paste, crush and sift it. Ashes of several barks and the leaf powder ot Justicia may be added.
A further method is to knead the inner shavings of 'reshly stripped bark and to squeeze out the resin and Doil it to a paste, which is sun-dried and prepared into snuff with ashes added.
A group of Maku Indians in the Colombian Vaupes Ingest the unprepared resin as it is collected from the bark.
Tryptamine and |3-carboline alkaloids, 5-methoxydi-methyltryptamine and dimethyltryptamine (DMT), being the main constituents, are responsible for the hallucinogenic activity. Effects of the intoxication vary They usually include initial excitability, setting in within several minutes from the first snuffing. Then follows numbness of the limbs, twitching of the facial muscles, inability to coordinate muscular activity, nausea, visual hallucinations, and finally, a deep, disturbed sleep.
Plants are useo in traditional medicine and.to create hallucinogenic dreams.
The leaves are eaten with the leaves and bark of Gal-bulimima belgraveana (see Agara).
Little is known still of the constituents of this genus. Violent derangement is followed by slumber with
It appears that Ergot has never been utilized purposefully as a hallucinogen in medieval Europe Employed extensively as a medicine by midwlves in cases of difficult childbirth during the Middle Ages, Ergot induced contractions of involuntary muscles and was a strong vasoconstrictor.
Used for psychoactive purposes. Taken as a cold-water infusion. Dosage is difficult to determine and can be dangerous!
Ergoline alkaloids, mainly derivatives of lysergic acid, are the pharmacologically active constituents of Ergot. Ergot alkaloids or derivatives of them are the basis of important medicines used today in obstetrics, internal medicine, and psychiatry. The most potent hallucinogen, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), is a synthetic derivative of Ergot.
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