Method Of Isolation Of Cytisine Alkaloid In Sophora Secundiflora

Over two centuries ago, Dutch explorers reported that the Hoi ientots of South Africa chewed the root of a plant known as Kanna or Channa as a vision-inducing hallucinogen. This common name is today applied to several species of Sceletium that have alkaloids—mesembr ine and mesembrenine—with sedative, cocainelike activities capable of inducing torpor.

Sceletium expansum is a shrub up to 12 in. (30cm) tall with fleshy, smooth stems and prostrate, spreading branches. The lanceolate-oblong entire, smooth, unequal leaves, mea suring 1in. (4cm) long, Van (1 cm) wide, are of a fresh green color and very glossy. Borne on solitary branches in groups of one to five, the white or dull yei low flowers are 1V2-2 in (45 cm) across. The fruit is angular.

Both S. expansum and S. toi -tucsum were formerly Mesem-bryanthemum.

One of the most powerful herbs of the Tarahumara of Mexico is apparently a species of Scirpus. Tarahumara Indians fear to cultivate Bakana lest they become insane. Some medicine men carry Bakana to relieve pain. The tuberous underground part ¡s believed to cure insanity, and the whole plant is a protector of those suffering from mental ills. The intoxication that it induces enables Indians to travel far and wide, talk with dead ancestors, and see brilliantly colored visions

Alkaloids have been reported i from Scirpus as well as from the related genus Cyperus.

The species of Scirpus may be annuals or perennials and are usually grasslike herbs with few- to many-flowered spikelets that are solitary or in terminal clusters. The fruit is a three-angled akene with or without a beak. They grow in many habitats hut seem to prefer wet soil or bogs.

Rhynchobia phaseoloides DC. Piule

1 eguminosae (Pea Family)

Tropical and warm zones ot 81 both hemispheres

The beautiful red and black beans of several species of Rhynchosia may have been employed in ancient Mexico as a hallucinogenic. Paintings of these seeds on frescoes dated a. d 300-400 at Tepantitla suggest former use as a sacred plant.

These two species are simi lar—scandent vines with flowers in long racemes. The flowers of R longeracemosa are yellow; the seeds are mottled light and dark brown. R. pyramidalis has greenish flowers and handsome half-red, half-black seeds.

Chemical studies of Rhynch osia are stil! preliminary and indecisive. An alkaloid with curare-like activity has been reported from one species. Early pharmacological experiments with an extract of R. pha seoloides produceu a kind of semi-narcosis in frogs.

In Oaxaca, Mexico, the Mazatec Indians cultivate Salvia divinorum for the leaves, which are crushed on a metate, diluted in water, and drunk or chewed fresh for their hallucinogenic properties in divinatory rituals. The plant, known as Hierba de la Pastora ("herb of the shepherdess") or Hierba de la Virgen ("herb of the Virgin"), is cultivated in plots hidden away in forests far from homes and roads

Salvia divinorum is a perennial herb 3ft (1 m) tall or more, with ovate leaves up to 6 in. (15 cm) and finely dentate along the margin. The bluish flowers borne in panicles up to 16 in. (41 cm) in length are approximately % in. (15 mm) long.

!t nas been suggested that the narcotic Pipiltzintzintli of the ancient Aztecs was Salvia divinorum, but at present the plant seems to be usea only by the Mazatecs. The plant contains the potent compound salvinorin A

SCOPOLIA (3-5)

Jaoq. Corr. Link

Scopolia carniolica Jacques

Scopolia

Solanaceae

(Nightshade Family)

Alps, Carpathian Mountains 85 Caucasus Mountains Lithuania, Latvia, and Ukraine

Sida acuta Burm. Axocatzin

Malvaceae (Mallow Family)

Warm zones of both hemi-86 spheres

SOLANDRA Sw. (10-12)

Solandra grandiflora Sw. Chalice Vine Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Tropical zones of South , ,7 America, México

Sopt ora secundiflora (Ort.) Lag. ex DC

Mescal Bean

Leguminosae (Pea Pamily) Southwestern North America, Mexico

Malvaceae (Mallow Family)

Warm zones of both hemi-86 spheres

Leguminosae (Pea Pamily) Southwestern North America, Mexico

These two species are herbs or shrubs often up to 9ft (2.7 m) in height, found in hot lowlands. The stiff branches are employed in making rough brooms. The leaves, lanceolate to obovoid and measuring about 1 in. (2.5 cm) wide and up to 4 ir. (10 cm) long, are beaten in water to produce a soothing lather for making skin tender. The flowers vary from yellow to white

Sida acuta and S. rhombifona are said to be smoked as a Mi mulant and substitute for Marijuana along the Gulf coastal re gions of Mexico. Ephedrine is found in the roots of these species of Sida. The dried herb smells distinctly like coumarine.

A luxuriant climbing bush with showy flowers resembling those of Brugmansia Solandra is va lued for its hallucii .ogenic pur poses in Mexico. A tea made from the juice of the branches of S. brevicalyx and of S guerrer ensis is known to have strong intoxicant properties. Mentioned by Hernández as Tecomaxochitl or Hueipatl of the Aztecs S. guerrerensis is used as an intoxicant In Guerrero.

These two species of Solandra are showy, erect or rather scandent shrubs with thick elliptic leaves up to about 7in. (18cm) in length and with large, cream-colored or yellow, fragrant, funnel-form flowers, up to 10 in (25 cm) in length and opening wide at maturity.

The genus Solandra, as would be expected In view of its close relationship to Datura, contains iropane alkaloids: hyoscyamine, scopolamine, nortropine, tropine, cuscohy-grine, and other bases have been reported.

The beautiful red beans of this shrub were once used as a hallucinogen in North America.

Sophora secundiflora seeds contain the highly toxic alkaloid cytisine, belonging pharmacolo gically to the same group as nicotine. It causes nausea, convulsions, and eventually, in high doses, death through respira torv failure. Truly hallucinogenic activity is unknown for cytisine, but it is probable that the power ful intoxication causes, through a kind of delirium, conditions that can induce a visionary trance.

Sophora secundiflora is a shrub or small tree up to 35ft (10.5 m) In height. The evergreen leaves have 7 to 11 glossy leaflets. The fragrant, violet-Dlue flowers, borne in drooping ra cemes about 4 in. (10 cm) long, measure up to 11/4 in. (3cm) in length. The hard, woody pod, constricted between each seeo, bears two to eight bright red beans.

This herbaceous annual often grows 1-3 ft (30-80 cm). The dull green leaves are longish, pointed, and slightly pileous. The fleshy root is tapered. The small, bell-shaped flowers are violet to light yellow and hang down individually from the ra cnis anc look similar to the flow ers of henbane (Hyoscyamus albus). It flowers April to June. The fruit develops a capsule with doubled dividing wall ana many small seeds

In Slovenia. Scopolia was possibly used for the prepara tion of witches' salves. In East Prussia, the root was used as a native narcotic teer additive and aphrodisiac. Women allegedly used it to seduce young men into being willing lovers.

The whole plant contains coumarins (scopoline, scopoie-tine) as well as hallucinogenic alkaloids (hyoscyamine scopolamine) and chlorogenic acid. Today the plant is grown for the industrial harvest of L-hyoscyamine and atropine.

Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family) Tropical zones of western

90 Alrica

Compositae (Sunflower Family)

Warm zones of the Americas 9 ,1 mostly Mexico

Hyoscyamine Mexico

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