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MITRAGYNA Korth. (20-30)

Mitragyna speciosa Korthals Kratom

Rubiaceae (Madder Family)

Southeast Asia jTMtand 57 northern Malay Peninsu'a to Borneo New Guinea)

In the Pariana region of the Brazilian Amazon, the Indians formerly prepared a potent hallucinogenic snuff that, although nc longer prepared and used, is known as Rapé dos Indios ("Indian snuff"). It is believed to have been made from the fruit of an enormous forest tree Maquira sclerophylla (known also as Olmedioperebea sclerophylla)

Maquira sclerophylla attains a height of 75-100ft (23-30 m). The latex is white. Very thick and heavy the ovate or oblong-ovate, marginally inrollec leaves are 8-12 in. (20-30 cm) long, 361/2 in (8-16 cm) wide. The male flowering heads are globose, up to about % in. (1 cm) in dia meter; the female inflorescences are borne in the leaf axils and have one or rarely two flowersi The drupe or fruit, cinnamon-colored and fragrant, is globose, %-1 in. (2-2.5cm) in diameter. The tree contains-cardiac glycosides

In the dry caatingas of eastern Brazil, this busy, sparsely spiny treelet flourishes abundantly The spines are basally swollen Vfein. (3mm) long. Its finely pinnate leaves are 11A-1 % in. (35 cm) long. The flowers, which occur in loosely cylindrical spikes, aie white and fragrant. The legume or pod, about 111/4 in. (2.5-3cm) long breaks into 4-6 sections. An alkaloid was isolated from the root of this treelet and callea nigerine It was later shown to be identical with the hallucinogenic N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

Several species of Mimosa are called Jurema in eastern Brazil. M. hostilis is often known as Jurema Prêta ("black jurema"). It is identical to the Mexi can Tepescohuite (M. tenuiflora). The related M. verrucosa from the bark of which a stupe facient is said to be derived, is frequently called Jurema Branca ("white jurema").

The tropical tree or shrub grows in marshy areas. Often it grows only to 6-9ft (3-4 m) high, occasionally to 36-42 ft (12-16 m). It has an erect stem with forked branches that grow obliquely upward. The green oval leaves (8-12 cm) are very broad and become narrower toward the tip, which is pointed. The flowers are deep yellow and hang in globular clusters. The seeds are winged.

The dried leaves are smoked, chewed, or worked into an ex tract called Kratom or Mambog.

The psychoactive properties of kratom are paradoxical. Personal research, the descriptions of it in the literature, as well as the pharmacological characteristics of the material have revealed kratom to be simultaneously stimulating like cocaine and soothing like morphine. The stimulating effects begin within 5 to 10 minutes of chewing the fresh leaves.

As early as the 19 th century the use of Kratom as an cpium substitute and a curative for opium addiction was reported. There are numerous indole alkaloids present in the plant. The primary constituent is mitragy nine, which is apparently easily tolerated and shows barely any toxicity even in high doses.

MUCUNA Adans (120)

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC Cowhage

Leguminosae (Pea Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 58 both hemispheres

MYRISTICA Gronov. (120)

Myristica fragrans Houtt Nutmeg

Myiisticaceae (Nutmeg Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 59 Europe, Africa, Asia

Ifymphaea ampla (Salisb.) DC Water Lily Nymphaeaceae (Water Lily Family)

Temperate and warm zones ■Q0 oi both hemispheres

ONCIDIUMSw. (350)

Oncidium cebolleta (Jacq.) Sw. Hikuri Orchid

Orchidaceae (Orchid Family)

C antral America South Oi Amcrica Florida

Leguminosae (Pea Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 58 both hemispheres

Myiisticaceae (Nutmeg Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 59 Europe, Africa, Asia

Orchidaceae (Orchid Family)

C antral America South Oi Amcrica Florida

Mucuna pruriens has not been reported as a hallucinogen, but the plant has been chemically shown to be rich in psychoactive constituents (DMT, 5- MeO-DMT)

This stout, scandent herb with acute angulate stems, has three-foliolate loaves. The leaflets oblong or ovate, are densely hairy on both surfaces. The dark purple or bluish flowers, 3A-VA in. (2- -3cm) long are borne in short hanging racemes The pods, with long, stiff, stinging hairs, measure about P/2—31/2 in. (4 -9 cm) long fcl in, (1 cm) thick.

The total indole alky'amine content was studied from the point of view of its hallucinc genie activity. It was found that marked behavioral changes occurred that could be equated with hallucinogenic activity. It is oossible that Indian peoples may have discovered and utilized some of these psychoactive properties of M pruriens The powdered seeds are considered aphrodisiac in India The seeds contain DMT and are used as an Ayahuasca analog today

Nutmeg and mace can, in large doses, induce an intoxication characterized by space and time distortion, a feeling of detachment from reality, and visual and auditory hallucinations. Frequently with unpleasant effects such as severe headache, dizziness, nausea, tachycardia, nut meg intoxication is variable

Myristica fragrans is a handsome tree, unknown in a truly wild state, but wiaely cultivated for nutmeg, from tne seed, and for mace, from the red aril surrounding the seed. The two spices have different tastes because of differing concentra tions of components of their essential oils. The aromatic Traction of oil of nutmeg is made up of nine components belonging to the groups terpenes and aromatic ethers. The major component—myristicine—is a terpene, but its biological activity is believed to be that of an irritant.

The psychotropic activity is thought to be due primarily to aromatic ethers (myristicine and others).

There is evidence that Nym phaea may have been employed as a hallucinogen in both the Old and New Worlds. The isolation of the psychoactive apomor-phine has offered chemical sup port to this speculation Nucifer-ine and nornuciferine are also isolated from N. ampla,

Nymphaea ampla has thickish dentate leaves, purple beneath, measuring 51^-11 in. (1428 cm) across. The beautiful showy white flowers, w'th 30190 yellow stamens become 3-5V* in. (7-13cm) across at maturity. The Egyptian native N. caerulea's oval, peltate leaves, irregularly dentate, measure 5- 6 in. (12—15 cm) In diameter and are green-purple blotched beneath. The light blue flowers dull white in the center, open three days In the mid morning; they measure 3-6 in. (7.5-15 cm) across the petals, acute-lanceolate, number 14 to 20, while the stamens number 50 or more.

Oncidium cebolleta is an epiphytic orchid that grows on steep, stone cliffs and trees in the Tarahumara Indian country of Mexico. It is employed as a temporary surrogate of Peyote or Hikuri (Lophophora william-sn). Little is known, however of its use.

The tropical orchid is widely distributed in the New World The pseudo-bulbs appear as lit tie more than a swelling at the base of the fleshy, erect, round leaves, grayish green, often spotted with purple. The flowering spike, often arching, has a green stalk with purplish or pur pie-brown spots. The flowers have brownish yellow sepals and petals spotted with dark brown blotches. The three-lobed Hp, % in. (2cm) long by 1 Vs in. (3cm) across the mid-lobe, is bright yellow with reddish brown marks.

An alkaloid has been reported from Oncidium cebolleta.

PACHYCEREUS (A. Berger) (5) Britt. et Rose

,Dachycereus pecten-aboriginum (Engelm.) Britt. et Rose Cawe

Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Mexico

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