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RRUGMANSIA Pers. Brugmansia sangumea (Ruiz et Pavon) D. Don Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

South America "j 2 Colombia to Chile

(9-1Q) BRUNFELSIA L.

Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don Brunfelsia Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Tropical zones of northern 1 3 SoLJth America, West Indies

Closely related to Datura, the species of Brugmansia are arborescent, and it is suspected that they are all cultigens unknown in the wild. Biologically very complex, all species appear to have been used as nal-lucinogens for millennia. Brugmansia suaveolens and B insignis occur in warmer parts of South America especially in the western Amazonia, where they are employed alone or mixed with other plants, usually under the name Toé Most of the species, however, prefer the cool, wet highlands above 6,000 ft. (1,830m). The most widespread species in the Andes is Brugmansia aurea with both yellow and, more commonly, white flower forms. In the horticultural literature it has frequently been misidentified as Brugmansia (or Datura) arbórea which is in reality a much less common plant. Brugmansia aurea is a shrub or small tree up to 30ft (9 m) tall with oblong-elliptic, often minutely hairy leaves the olade measuring 4-16in. (10-40cm) long 2-6M>in.

(5-16cm) wide, borne on a pe tiole up to 5in (13cm) long. The flowers are nodding, not wholly pendulous, usually 7—9in. (18-23cm) long and very fragrant, especially in the evening. The trumpet-shaped corolla flaring broadly at the mouth is white or golden yellow, its slender basal part completely enclosed by the calyx its teeth Vh~?}k in. (4-6cm) long, recurving The elon gate-ovoid, smooth, green fruit, which is variable in size, remains fleshy, never becoming hard or woolly The angular, blackish or brownish seeds are relatively large, measuring about 1/2 by % in. (12 by 9 mm) !n addition to their use as hallucinogens, all species have played major roles as medicines for a large spectrum of ills especially in the treatment of rheumatic pains. They contain potent hallucinogenic tropane alkaloids

This perennial Brugmansia is heavily branched and reaches 616ft (2—5 m), developing a very woody trunk. The gray-green leaves are furry and roughly serrated at the edge. The Blood-Red Angel's Trumpet does not emit scents in the night. Usually the flowers are green at the base yellow in the middle, and have a red edge around the top. There are also green-red, pure yellow, yellow-red, and almost completely red varieties. The smooth oval fruits are bulbous in the center and pointed at the ends and are usually partially protected by the dried calyx. In Colombia this powerful shaman plant was ri-tually used in the cult of the sun of pre Columbian times. The plant is still used as a hallucinogen by the shamans and Curanderos of Ecuador and Peru.

The entire piant contains tropane alkaloids. The flowers contain essentially atropine and only traces of scopolamine (hyoscine). In the seeds approximately 0.17% total alkaloids are present; of those 78% are scopolamine

Several species of Brunfelsia have medicinal and psychoactive roles in the Colombian, Ecuadorean, and Peruvian Amazon as well as in Guyana. Scopoletine has been found in Brunfelsia, but this compound is not known to be psychoactive.

B. chiricaspi and B granai-flora are shrubs or small trees reaching a height of about 10ft (3m). The oblong or lanceolate leaves measuring 21/2-12 in. long (6-30cm), are scattered along the branchlets. The flowers have a tubular corolla, longer than the bell-shaped calyx and measuring about 4-i3A in. (10-12cm) across, blue to violet, fading with age to white. B. chir icaspidiffers from B. grandifiora in having much larger leaves, longer leaf stalks, a few-flowered inflorescence, and de-flexed corolla lobes. B. chiricaspi occurs in the west Amazonia of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. B. grandifiora is wideranging in western South America from Venezuela to Bolivia. 3runfeisias serve as Ayahuasca additives

Cacalia cordifolia L. fil. Matwu

Compcsitae (Sunflower Family) East Asia, North America, 14 Mexico

CAESALPINIA L. (100)

Caesalpinia sepiaria Roxb. Yun-Shih

Leguminosae (Pea Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 5 both hemispheres

Galea zacatechichi Schlecht. Dog Grass

Compositae (Sunflower Family) Tropical zones of northern 5 South America, Mexico

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