Warm zones of both 63 hemispheres
A plant of many uses among the Indians, this tall treelike columnar cactus, arising from a 6ft (1.8 m) trunk, attains a height of 35ft (10.5m). The short spines are characteristically gray with black tips. The 2-3 in. (5-8 cm) flowers are publish in the outermost petals, white in the inner parts. The fruit, globose and measuring ?1/2-3in. (6-8cm) in diameter, is densely covered with yellow wool and long yellow bristles
The Tarahumara, who know the plant as Cawe and Wicho-waka, take a drink made from the juice of the young branches as a narcotic. It causes dizzi ness and visual hallucinations. The term Wichowaka also means "insanity" in the Tarahumara language. There are a numberof purely medicinal uses of this cactus. Recent studies have isolated 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethylamine and 4-tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids from this plant.
Panaeolus cyanescens is a small, fleshy or nearly membranaceous campanulate mushroom. The slender stipe is fragile and the lamellae are variegated, with metuloid colored, pointed cystidia on the sides. The spores are black. The fruiting bodies take on bluish flecks with age or after bruising.
The islanders of Ba i pick Panaeolus cyanescens from cow and water buffalo dung and ingest them for celebrations and artistic inspiration. The mushroom is also sold as a hallucirto gen to strangers as they pass through on their travels.
Although this mushroom is primarily tropical the discovery that it contains psilocybine was made with material collected in a garden in France Up to 1.2% of psilocine and 0.6% of psilocybine has been found in this species.
One of the sacred hallucinogenic mushrooms employed in divination and other magic ceremonies in northeastern Oaxaca, Mexico, among the Mazatec and Chi-nantec Indians is this membe-rof the small genus Panaeolus. It is known in Mazatec asT-ha-na-sa, She-to, and To-shka. She-to means pasture mushroom" and To-shka, "intoxicating mushroom.'' While not so important as the several species of Psilocybe and Stropharia, P. sphinctrinus is on occasion used by certain shamans. This and other species of Panaeolus have been reported to contain the hallucinogenic alkaloid psilocybine
Growing on cow dung in forests, open fields, and along roads, P. sphinctrinus is a delicate yellowish brown mushroom upto4in. (10cm) in height. It has an ovoid-campanulate, obtusely pointed tan-gray cap up io V/a in. (3cm) in diameter. The siipe is dark grayish. The dark brownish black gills bear black, lemon-shaped spores that vary in size; they can measure 12 to 15 by 7.5 to 8.3 p..
The flesh is thin, in color similar to the surface with scarcely any Odor. Several investigators have at times argued that P. sphinctrinus is not among the hallucinogenic mushrooms used by shamans in Indian communities of Oaxaca, but this view is contradicted by ample evidence. Its use by Oaxacan Indians along with so many other mushroom species de monstrates the tendency among shamans to use a surprisingly wide range of different mushrooms, depending on season, weather variation, and specific usage. Investigators now believe that there may be more species and genera of mushrooms in use among Mexican Indian populations than those now known.
In European Panaeolus sphinctrinus no psilocybine has been detected. Neither have psychoactive effects been determined in human pharmacological experiments. It is possible that chemically different types exist
Paraeolus subbalteatus Berk, et Broome
Dark-rimmed Mottlegill Coprinaceae
Eurasia, North and Central 65 America
PANCRATIUM L. (15)
Pancratium trianthum Herbert Kwashi
Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllis Family)
Tropical and warm zones of 26 Africa and Asia
randanussp Screw Pine Pandanaceae (Screwpine Family)
Tropical and warm zones of 67 Europe. Africa. Asia
Peganum harmala L Syrian Rue Zygophyllaceae (Caltrop Family)
Western Asia to northern In-5.8 dia; Mongolia, Manchuria
Many of the 15 species of this plant are potent cardiac poisons; others are emetics; one is said to cause death by paralysis of the central nervous system. P. trianthum is reputedly one of the most toxic species.
Little is known of the use of Pancratium trianthum. In Dobe, Botswana, the Bushmen reportedly value the plant as a hallucinogen, rubbing the sliced bulb over cuts maae in the scalp. In tropical west Africa R trianthum seems to be religiously important.
The species of Pancratium have tunicated bulbs and linear leaves mostly appearing w!th the flowers. The white or greenish white flowers, borne in an umbel terminating in an erect, solid, stout scape, have a funnel-shaped perianth with a long tube and narrow segments. The stamens ocated at the throat of the perianth, are joined together at the base into a kind of cup. The seeds are angled and black.
In the bulb of P. trianthum the alkaloids lycorine and hordenine have been detected
Natives of New Guinea employ the fruit of a species of Panda-nusfor hallucinogenic purposes, but little is known of this use.
Dimethyltryptamine has been isolated and identified in Panda-nus nuts. Pandanus is a very large genus of the Old World tropics It is dioecious, treelike sometimes climbing, with prominent flying buttress- or stiltlike roots. The leaves of some species attain a length of 15 ft (4.5 m) and are used for matting: they are commonly long, stiff, swordlike, armed with prickles, hooked forward and backward The naked flowers occur in 'arge heads enclosed in spathes. The aggregate fruit or syncarpium, is a large, heavy hard, composite ball-like orconelike mass comprising the union of the angled, easily detachable carpels. Most species of Pandanus occur along the seacoast or in salt marshes. The fruits of some species are used as food in Southeast Asia
The Syrian Rue is an herb native to desert areas. It is a bushy shrub attaining a height of 3ft (1 m). The leaves are cut into narrowly linear segments, and the small white flowers occur in the axils of branches. The globose, deeply lobed fruit contains many flat, angled seeds of a brown color, bitter taste and narcotic odor. The plant pos sesses psychoactive principles p-carboline alkaloids—harmine harmaline, tetrahydroharmine— and related bases known to oc cur in at least eight families of higher plants. These constituents are found in Peganum harmala in the seeds.
The high esteem that P. har mala enjoys in folk medicine wherever the plant occurs may indicate a former semisacred use as a hallucinogen in native religion and magic. It has recently been postulated that P. harmala may have been the source of Soma or Huoma of the ancient peoples of Persia and India.
The Dark-rimmed Mottiegill is widelv distributed throughout Europe. It grows in dung ferti lized, grassy earth in particular in horse pastures and in conjunction with horse manure. The cap is 3/4-2% in. (2-6cm) wide and somewhat smooth. This mushroom spreads rapidly. It is at first damp brown and grows drier toward the middle, so that the edge often appears markedly darker. The red-brown lamellae are curved and eventually be come black due to the spores
There Is no information passed on about a traditional use of this mushroom It is pos siDle that It was an ingredient in the mead or beer of the Germans. Nevertheless, this mush room has a symbiotic relationship with the horse, the sacred animal of the German god of ecstasy, Wodar
Thef ruiting body contains 0.7 % psilc cybine as well as 0.46 % baeocystine, a fair amount of ser-otonine and also 5-hydroxy-tryp-tophane, but no psilocine Activity is experienced with 1.5 g dried mushroom; 2.7 g are visionary.
PELECYPHORA Ehrenb. (2)
Pelecypt.ora aselliformis Ehrenb. Pey tillo
Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Mexico
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