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Calea zacatechichi Schlecht.

Seems to be used only by the Chontal Indians of Oaxaca, even though it ranges from Mexico to Co; ta Rica.

Little is known of the use.

Mythological and sacramental use.

Employed today In divination and healing ceremonies.

Contacts with Christianity or modern ideas do noi seem to have influenced the deep spirit of reverence characteristic of the mushroom ritual.

It has been suggested that Psilocybe species may be employed for hallucinogenic inebriation also by the Yurimagua Indians of Amazonian Peru.

A mildly poisonous intoxicant is prepared from the red "sap" of the bark.

No specific hallucinogenic constituents have been identified. Extracts from the inner bark of both species have pharmacologically been shown to elicit depressant effects similar to those produced by Marijuana

Personal preference, purpose of use, and seasonal availability determine the kinds of mushrooms used by different shamans. P. mexicana, one of the most widely used, may perhaps be considered the most typical sacred mushroom

Anywhere from 2 to 30 mushrooms (depending on the type used) are eaten during a typical ceremony. They may be consumed either fresh or ground and made into an infusion.

The indolic alkaloids psilocybine and psllocineare the main hallucinogenic principles of the sacred mushrooms. The content varies from species to species between 0.2 and 0.6% of psilocybine and small amounts of psllocine In dried mushroom material. The mushrooms cause both visual and auditory hallucinations, with the dreamlike state becoming reality.

Initiation rites. Ingredient cf the witches' brews.

The roots of the Thorn Appie may have been used in See Toloache. the hallucinogenic Algonquin drink wysoccan.

D. innoxia was employed medicinally and as a sacred hallucinogen by the Aztec and other Indians. TheZuni Indians value the plant as an analgesic and as a poultice to cure wounds and bruises. Toloache is said to be the exclusive property of the rain priests. Valued in initiation rituals

The Tarahumara add D. innoxia to their maize beer and use the roots, seeds, and leaves.

The Zuni chew the roots and put powder prepared from them into the eyes.

Among the Yokut Indians, the seeds are said to be taken only once during a man's lifetime

All species of the genus Datura are chemically similar with the active principles tropane alkaloids, especially hyoscyamine and scopolamine, the latter being the main component.

Hallucinogenic Intoxication; folk medicine.

Smoking of the leaves and taken internally.

Tupa leaves contain the piperidine alkaloid lobeline, a respiratory stimulant, as well as the diketo- and dihy-droxy-derivatives lobelamidineand nor-lobelamldine, which are not known t&be hallucinogenic.

Hallucinogenic intoxication.

The leaves are toasted to produce a tea. Drying and storage Increases the aromatic fragrance Stems, fruiting tops, and flowers may be added.

The presence of a crystalline compound called lago-chiline—a diterpene of the grindelian type -is known. This compound Is not known to be hallucinogenic.

The seeds of various Voacanga varieties are taken by African magic men to create visual hallucinations.

The seeds or the barK of various Voacanga varieties can be taken.

Many varieties of Voacanga contain psychoactive Indole alkaloids, especially voacangine and voccamlne, both of which are chemically related to ibogalne.

Used as a visual hallucinogen.

M. grahamii is taken by shamans in special ceremonies.

M. craigiiis split open, sometimes roasted, and the central tissue is used. The top of the plant, divested of its spines, Is the most powerful part; the fruit and upper part of M. grahamii are said to have similar effects.

N-methyl-3, 4-dl-methoxyphenylethylamine has been isolated from M. heyderii, a close relative to M. craigii.

Deep sleep, during which a person is said to trave. great distances, and brilliant colors characterize the intoxication.

In Ayurvedic medicine, Wood Rose is used as a tonic and as an aphrodisiac, and It Is also used to increase intelligence and to slow down the aging process. Today the seeds are of interest in Western society for thei- psychoactive properties

The seeds are ground and mixed with water. Four to 8 seeds (approximately 2 g) are sufficient for a medium psychoactive dose.

The seeds contain 0.3% ergot alkaloids (especially chanoclavin-l, also ergine (LSA), ergonovine, and iso-'ysergic acid amide.

Used to induce or enhance visions

T. luciaa is occasionally smoked alone but is sometimes mixed with tobacco (Nicotiana rustica).

No al kale ids have beer, isolated from Tayetes, but the genus is rich in essential oils and thiophene derivatives.

If consumed over a long period, the flowers are said to induce lévitation and "communication with the spirits." Folk medicine.

Roots, flowe-s, and seeds.

An unknown alkaloid nas been reported.

The earliest Chinese herbal stated: the "flowers enable one to see spirits and cause one to stagger madly"

Used in folk.medicine, especially as an apéritif, a febrifuge, and an astringent for treating diarrhea. The Chontal take Zacatechichi to clarify the senses.

Tea is made of the crushed dried leaves and used as a hallucinogen. After drinking Zacatechichi, the Indians recline quietly to smoke a cigarette of the dried leaves.

There is an as yet unidentified alkaloid. Also contains sesquiterpene-lactone.

Restful and drowsy condition during which the Indians say that one's own heart and pulse can be felt.

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