The seeds of Turbina corymbosa, better known as Rivea corymbosa, are valued as one of the major sacred hallucinogens of numerous Indian groups in southern Mexico. T^eir use goes back to early periods Known as Ololiuqui, they were important in Aztec ceremonies as an intoxicant with reputedly analgesic properties

Turbina corymbosa is a large woocy vine w;th heart-shaped leaves 2-31/2 in. (6-9 cm) long and 1-1% in (2.5-4.5 cm) wide. The cymes are many-flowereci The bell-shaped corollas %-11/2 in (2-4 cm) long, are white with greenish stripes. The fruit is dry indehiscent, ellipsoidal with persistent, enlarged sepals, and bears a single hard, roundish, brown, minutely hairy seed about Ve in. (3mm) in diameter The seeds contain ยกysergic acid amide, analogous to LSD.

Classification oi genera in the Morning Glory family or Convolvulaceae has always been difficult. This species hai at one time or another been assigned to the genera Convolvulus, Ipomoea, Legendrea, Rive?, and Turbina. Most chemical and ethnobotanical studies have been reported under the name Rivea corymbosa, but recent critical evaluation indicates that the most appropriate binomial is Turbina corymbosa.

Most, if not all, species of Virola have a copious red "resin" in the inner bark. The resin from a number of species is prepared as a hallucinogenic snuff or small pellets

Probably the most important species is Virola theiodora, a slender tree 25-75 ft (7.5-23 m) in height, native to the foiests of the western Amazon basin. The cylindrical trunk, 11/2 ft (46 cm) in diameter, has a characteristic smooth bark that is brown mottled with gray patches. The leaves (with a tea-like fragrance when dried) are oblong or broadly ovate, 3VM3in. (933 cm) long 1 !/2-41/2 in. (411 cm) wide. The male inflores cenoesare many-flowered, usually brown- or gold-hairy shorter than the leaves; the very smad flowers, borne singly or in clusters of 2 to 10, are strongly pungent. The fruit is subglobose %-% in. (1-2cm) by 1/4-5/e in. (.51.5 cm); the seed is covered for half its length by a membranaceous orange-red aril.

The resin of the Virola con tains DMT and 5-MeO-DMT.

The Voacanga genus has received littl= research. The species are similar to one another. They afe multiple-branched, evergreen shrubs or small trees. The flowers are mostly yellow or white with five united petals. There are two symmetrical fruits. Latex runs in the bark.

The bark and seeds of the African Voacanga africana Stapf. contain up to 10% indole alkaloids of the iboga type (voa-camine is the primary alkaloid, :bogaine) and should oe simu lating and hallucinogenic. In West Africa the bark is used as a hunting poison stimulant, and potent aphrodisiac. Supposedly the seeds are used by African magicians in order to produce visions.

The seeds of the Voacanga grandiflora (Miq.) Rolfe are used by magicians in West Africa for visionary purposes Unfortunately the details are not yet uncovered, as the knowledge oi the magicians is a closely guarded secret.

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