Right: Shamans remain the guardians of wisdom concerning the magical effects of the psychoactive plants This photograph was taken at the holy mountain Kalinchok (4,000 rn) in the Himalayas of Nepal.

family. The Indians of northern Argentina take a snuff—Cebil or Villca—prepared from seeds of a species closely related to Yopo. Perhaps the most important lowland hallucinogen in South America is Ayahuasca, Caapi, Natema, Pindé, or Yajé. Employed ceremonially frl the western Amazon and in several localities on the Pacific coastal areas of Colombia and Ecuador, it is made basically from several species of lianas of the Malpighia family. Brunfelsia, a member of the Nightshade family, known widely in the westernmost Amazon as Chiricaspi, is taken for hallucinatory purposes.

There are more plants utilized as hallucinogens in the New World than in the Old. Nearly 130 species are known to be used in the Western Hemisphere, whereas in the Eastern Hemisphere the number reaches roughly 50. Botanists have no reason to presume that the flora of the New World is richer or poorer than that of the Old in plants with hallucinogenic properties

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