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CLAVICEPS Tuiasne (6)

Claviceps purpurea (Fr.)

Tuiasne

Ergot

Clavlcipitaceae

Temperate zones of Europe, 20 northern Africa, Asia, North America

COLEUSLour. (150)

Coleus blumei Berth. Painted Nettle

Labiatae (Mint Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 21 Europe, Africa, Asia

Clavlcipitaceae

Temperate zones of Europe, 20 northern Africa, Asia, North America

Tropical and warm zones of 21 Europe, Africa, Asia

This largest of the columnar cactus plants, Saguaro reaching a height of some 40ft (12 m), is a candelabra-branched "tree." The many-ribbed stems and branches attain a diameter of 121/2 ft (30-75cm). The spines near the top of the plant are yellow-brown. Measuring 4-5 in. (10-13cm) in length, the white funnel-shaped flowers open during the day. The fruit, red or purple is an ovoid or ellipsoid berry splitting down the side into two or three sections and mea-suiing 2V2—3V2 in. (6-9cm) long. The numerous small seeds are black and shining

Although there are no reports of the Saguaro as a hallucinogen, the plant does contain pharmacologically active alkaloids capable of psychoactive Carnegine. 5-hydroxycarne-gine, and norcarnegine, plus trace amounts of 3-methoxytyr-amine ana arizonine (atetrahy droquinoline base); have been isolated from Saguaro.

The native people make a wine from the pressed fruit.

Oestrum parqui has been used medicinally and riiually for sha-manic healing since pre-Columbian times by the Mapuche in southern Chile. The plant has the power to withstand attacks of sorcery or black magic. The dried leaves of Oestrum parqui are smoked

The shrub grows to 5ft (1.5m) and has small, lanceolate matte green leaves. The bell-shaped yellow flowers have five pointy petals. They hang from the stem in clusters. The flowers bloom in Chile between October and November and release a powerful heady aroma. The plant has small oval berries that are a shiny black color.

Oestrum parqui contains so-lasonlne, a glycoside steroid-alkaloid, as well as solasonldine and a bitter alkaloid (Parquin's formula C21H3gN08), which has a similar action to strychnine or atropine

Eigot is a fungal disease of certain grasses and sedges, primarily of rye. Meaning "spur," Ergot refers to the sclerotium or fruiting body of an ascomycete or sac fungus. The spur is a purplish or black, curved, club-shaped growth In. (1-6cm) long, which parasitically replaces the endosperm of the kernel. The fungus produces psychoactive and toxic alkaloids.

There are two distinct periods in the life cycle of this fungus, an active and a dormant stage. The Ergot or spur represents the dormant stage. When the spur falls to the ground, the Ergot sprouts globular heads called ascocarps from which grow asci, each with threadlike as oospores that are disseminated when the asci rupture.

In the Middle Bes and earlier in Europe, especially where rye was used in bread-making whole areas frequently were poisoned, suffering plagues of ergotism, when fungus-infected rye kernels were milled into flour.

Two species of Coleus have significance in Mexico. Related to Salvia divmorum is La Hembra ("the woman"); C. pumilus is Ei Macho ("the man"); and two forms of C. blumei ate El Nene ("the child") and El Ahijado ("the godson"). C. blumei attains a height of 3ft (1 m) and has ovate, marginally toothed leaves up to Bin. (15cm) in length; the bottom surface is finely hairy, the upper surface usually with large dark red blotches. The more or less bell-shaped blue or purplish flowers, measuring about Wh. (1 cm) long, are borne In long lax, whorled racemes up to T2in. (30cm) in length.

Recently, salvinorine-like substances (diterpene) were discovered. The chemical structure has not yet been determined. It is possible that by drying or burning the diterpene its chemical structure is modified into potent material. The chemistry and pharmacology must be re-searcned further.

CüNOCYBE

Conocybe siligineoides Heim Conocybp

Agaricaceae (Bolbitiaceae) (Agaric Family)

Cosmopolitan

Coriara thymifolia HBKex Willd Shansh:

Coriariaceae (Corlaria Family)

Southern Europe, northern 23.; Africa, Asia; New Zealand; Mexico to Chile

CORYPHANTHA (Engelm.) Lern Coryphantha compacta (tngelm.) Britt. et Rose pincushion Cactus Cfctaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North 24 America, Mexico, Cuba

(64) CYMBOPOGON Sprengel (60)

Cymbopogon < 'ensiflorus Stapf Lemongrass

Gramineae (Grass Family)

Warm zones of Africa and

25 Asia

Coriariaceae (Corlaria Family)

Southern Europe, northern 23.; Africa, Asia; New Zealand; Mexico to Chile

Conocybe siligineoides has been reporter1 as one of the sacred intoxicating mushrooms cf Mexico. Psiiocybine has not as yet been isolated from this species but Conocybe cyanopus of the United States has been shown to contain this psychoactive alkaloid

This beautiful mushroom, up to about 3in (8cm) tail, living on rotting wood has a cap up to 1 in (2.5cm) in diameter that is fawn-orange-red, with a deeper orange at the center. The gills are saffron-colored or brownish orange with chrome yellow spores.

Many species of the genus Conocybe contain psiiocybine are psychoactive, and are used ritually. Recently a rudimentary cult around Tamu (a Conocybe species, "Mushroom of Awareness") has been discovered.

Conocybe siiigeneoides is an ooscure mushroom which has not been found or analyzed again since its first description.

In the highest Andes from Colombia to Chile, Coriaria thymifolia adorns the highways with its frondlike leaves. It has been feared in the Andean countries as a plant toxic to browsing animals. Human deaths have supposedly followed ingestion of the fruit. Reports from Ecuador, nevertheless, suggest that the fruit (shanshi) may be eaten to induce an intoxication characterized by sensations of soaring through the air.

Coriaria thymifolia is a shrub usually up to 6ft (1.8m) tall. The leaves are oblong-ovate, V2-% in. (1-2cm) in length, borne on slender, arching lateral branches. The small, dark purple flowers occur densely on long drooping racemes The round purplish black fruit is composed of five to eight compressed fleshy parts, or carpels The whole shrub has a fernlike appearance

No psychoactive properties have been isolated yet.

A small solitary, globular but somewhat flattened, spiny cactus up to K in. (8cm) in diameter Coryphantha compacta grows in dry hilly and mountai nous regions. It is hardly visible in the sandy soil where it occurs The radial spines are whitisn H in. (1-2cm) in length; the central spines are usually absent. The crowded tubercles are arranged in 13 rows. Arising from the center of the crown either singly or in pairs, the yel low flowers measure up to 1 in. (2.5cm) in length. The Tarahu-mara of northern Mexico consider Coryphantha compacta a kind of Peyote. The plant called Bakana, is taken by shamans and is respected and feared. It is used as a substitute for Poyote.

Coryphantha palmerii has likewise been reported as a hallucinogen in Mexico. Various al ■ kaloids, including the psychoactive phenylethylamines, have been isolated from several species of Coryphantha: horde-nine, calipamine, and macro-merine.

Native medicine men in Tanzania smoke the flowers of Cymbopogon densiflorus alone or with tobacco to cause dreams that they believe foretell the future. The leaves and rhizomes, pleasantly aromatic of citron, are locally used as a tonic and styptic

This perennial grass has stout, erect culms with linear to linear-lanceolate leaves, basally wide and rounded and tapering to a fine point, 1 ft. (30 cm) in length and 1/2-1 in. (1-2,5cm) in wdth. The flowering spikes are slender, olive green to brownish. This species grows in Gabon the Congo, and Malawi

Little is known about the psychoactive properties of the grass. The genus Cymbopogon is ricn in essential oils, and steroidal substances have been found in some species.

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