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Kanna

Mesembryanthemum expansum L.;

M. tortuosum L. - Sceletium tortuosum (L.)

Over two centuries ago, Dutch explorers reported that the Hottentots of South Africa employed the root of a plant known as Channa or Kanna.

Employed to cause dreams in order to foretell the future.

Folk medicine.

Shamanistic inebriation. Religious significance; healing ceremonies. Religious ceremonies.

Hallucinogenic intoxication (?), folk medicine, aphrodisiac

Ceremonial use in Native American tribes

Employed especially by the medicine men as a hallucinogen in magic ceremonies.

Used as auditory hallucinogen.

Taken by sorcerers to enable them to approach people without being detected and to make people sick.

Witches' brews; magic infusions. Induces a clairvoyant trance.

k Oaxaca, Mexico, the Mazatec Indians cultivate S. divinorum for its hallucinogenic properties in divi-natory rituals.

It is apparently used when Teonanacatl or Ololiuqui seeds are rare.

Medicine men take Hikuli Mulato to make their sight clearer and permit them to commune with sorcerers. It is taken by runners as a stimulant and "protector" and the Indians believe that it prolongs life.

iboga is known to be used as a hallucinogen in magico-religious context, especially the Bwiti cult, and serves to seek information from ancestors and the spirit world, hence "a coming to terms with death." Moreover, intoxication is practiced in the initiation ceremonies.

The drug also has the reputation of a powerful stimulant and aphrodisiac.

The hallucinogenic use of Mimosa hostilis in ceremonies seems to have nearly disappeared today. Employed in connection with warfare.

Probably once used as a vision-inducing hallucinogen.

Smoking of the flowers, either alone or with tobacco.

The root of Fang-K'uei is employed medicinally in Cnina.

One or several mushrooms are taken sun-dried or slowly toasted over a fire. They may also be drunk as an extract in water or reindeer milk or with the juice of Vaccinium oliginorum or Epilobium angustifolium. Ritualistic drinking of the urine of intoxicated individuals in Siberia also occurs.

The highly aromatic rhizome is valued locally as a condiment; a tea from the leavos is employed in folk medicine.

The seeds are valued by Yaqui medicine men.

The fungi are eaten.

The dried herb is smoked as a cigarette or smoked in a smokehouse. The seeds are mainly smoked. The seeds are used as a substitute for hops in making beer. Dosage varies from person to person.

The leaves are chewed fresh or crushed on a metate, then diluted with water and filtered for a drink.

Cactus flesh is eaten fresh or dried

Fresh or dried roots are eaten pure, or added to palm wine. Roughly 10 g of dried root powder induces a psychedelic effect.

The root of Mimosa hostilis was the source of a "miraculous drink," known locally as Ajuca or Vinho de Jure-ma.

In the hinterlands of South Africa, the roots and leaves are still smoked.

Apparently, the leaves are sometimes dried after fermentation and chewed as an inebriant.

It is not known to which compound the alleged hallucinogenic activity has to be attributed.

Alkaloidal constituents have been reported from Peu-cedanum, but whether or not theyare of hallucinogenic types is not known. Coumarins and furocoumarinsare widespread in the genus; both occur in P. japonicum

Ibotenic acid, Muscimole, Muscazone.

Euphoria, colored visions, macropsia; on occasion religious fervor and deep sleep may occur.

Beyond the high content of essential oil (to which hallucinogenic activity might be due) in the rhizome of this relative of Ginger, little is known of the chemistry.

Cytisus is rich in the lupine alkaloid cytisine.

Hallucinogenic activity has not been reported from cytisine, but it is known to be toxic.

There is as yet no phytochemical basis to explain the psychotropic effects.

The active principles in this solanaceous genus are tropane alkaloids, especially hyoscyamine and scopolamine, the latter being mainly responsible for the hallucinogenic effects

The main active ingredient, salvinorin A, can bring about extreme hallucinations when inhaled in amounts of 250 to 500 meg.

Alkaloids and triterpenes have been repo'ted.

This cactus is reportedly able to drive evil people to insanity and throw them from cliffs.

Several phenylethylamine alkaloids have been isolated.

Iboga contains at least a dozen indole alkaloids, ibo-gaine being the most important. Ibogaine is a strong psychic stimulant that in high doses produces also hallucinogenic effects.

One active alkaloid identical with the hallucinogenic N, N-dimethyl-tryptamine has been isolated.

The common name is todayapplieci to several spccies of Sceletium and Mesembryanthemum that have alkaloids - mesembrine and mesembrenine - with sedative activities capable of inducing torpor.

Kanna produces a strong intoxication _

Valuing it in witchcraft the Tarahumara believe that Consumed either fresh or crushed in water, thieves are powerless to steal when this cactus calls its soldiers to its aid.

The Huichol consider Ariocarpus to be evil, insisting that it may cause permanent insanity.

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