Justicia pectoraiis Jacq. var. stenophylia Leonard

The Waiká and other Indians of the uppermost Orinoco and the adjacent parts of northwestern Brazil cultivate Justicia.

The Huichol worship and fear Solandra as a god-narcotic, Kieli, a powerf jl aid in sorcery. Realizing the close relationship of Solandra, Datura, and Brugman sla, the Huichol sometimes combine their use: they distinguish between Datura inoxia or Kielitsa ("bad Kieli") and the real Kieli or Solandra.

S. guerrerensis is known to be employed as an intoxicant in the state of Guerrero.

Folk medicine. A tea is made of the leaves of this liana and those of an Reports from botanical collectors of the odor of T. noc-This species is said to be praised as an aphrodisiac unidentified plant as a remedy for diarrhea. turnum suggest that cyanogenesis occurs in this sp,e-by Indians of the Colombia" Choco _cies. Saponines and tannins havebeen isolated.

In Southeast Asia, the leaves are chewed or smoked Fresh leaves are chewed, dried, and smoked, or taken The entire plant contains alkaloids, of which Mitragy-for use as a stimulant or a narcotic. internally as a tea or extract. The leaves are sometimes nine is the main active ingredient. Mitragynine, v. lich is used together with Betel. chemically similar to yohimbine and psilocybine, is a very powerful psychoactive substancc

A tea made from the juice of the branches of both species is known to be employed as an intoxicant.

The genus Solandra, closely related to Datura, contains hyoscyamine, scopolamine, nortropine, tropinr scopine, cuscohygrine, and other tropane alkaloids with strong hallucinogenic effects.

Reportedly used as a hallucinogen and in folk medicine.

Religious importance assumed in tropical West Africa.

Latue is a virulent prison once Jsed to induce delirium, hallucinations, and even permanent insanity,

This mushroom has been used worldwide for its hallucinogenic and vision-inducing qualities.

The Hottentots and bush people smoke the plant as a narcotic or as a substitute for Cannabis.

The bulbs are cut in two and rubbed over incisions on the scalp. This custom most closely approaches the Western habit of injecting medicine

Dosages wore a secret closely guarded. The fresh fruit was preferentially employed.

Eaten fresh or dried. Thirty fresh mushrooms or roughly 3g of dried mushrooms is a sufficient psychedelic dose.

The dried buds and leaves are smoked either alone or mixed with tobacco.

Many of the 15 species contain very toxic alkaloids. The toxic state may be accompanied by hallucinogenic symptoms.

The leaves and fruit contain 0.15% hyoscyamine and 0.08 % of scopolamine, responsible for hallucinogenic activity.

Contains high concentrations of pcilocyDin, and some psilocine and baeocystine (the total alkaloid concentration is roughly 1 % of the dried mass). This is a potent hallucinogen.

There have been no chemical studies to date

Acacia resin is used in conjunction with Pituri by the Australian Aborigines. Today, various varieties of Acacia are used as DMT sources and also in the preparation of Ayahuasca analogs for hallucinogenic experiences.

Extracts from the husk and leaves of A. maidenll, the bark of A. simplicifolia, or the leaves of A. phlebophylla are combined with the seeds from Peganum harmala.

Many varieties of Acacia contain the psychedelic substance, DMT. The bark of A. maidenilcontains 0.36% DMT; the leaves of A. phlebophylla contain 0.3% DMT. The bark of A. simplicifolia can contain up to 3.6% alkaloids, ot which DMTaccounts for roughly one third.

Ephedrine, which induces a mild stimulating effect, has been reported from these species of Sida.

Employed as a stimulant and substitute for Marijuana, Smoking

Used as a panacea, Mandrake played an extraordinary role as a magic plant and hallucinogen in European folklore. An active hallucinogenic ingredient of the witches' brews, Mandrake was probably the most potent admixture.

Cannabis has a long history of use in folk medicine and as a psychoactive substance.

It is the source of fiber, an edible fruit, an industrial oil, a medicine, and an intoxicant.

Use of Cannabis has grown in popularity in the past 40 years as the plant has spread to nearly all parts of the globe. Increase in the plant's use as an ¡nebriantin Western countries, especially in urban centers, has led to major problems and dilemmas for European and American authorities. There is a sharp division of opinion as to whether the widespread use of Cannabis'^ a vice that must be stamped out or is an innoc uous habit that should be permitted legally. The subject is debated nOtly, usually with limited knowledge.

There existed various precautions in pulling the root from the earth because the plant's unearthly shrieks could drive collectors mad.

Methods of consuming Cannabis vary. In the New World, Marijuana (Maconha in Brazil) is smoked—the dried, crushed flowering tips or leaves are often mixed with tobacco or other herbs in cigarettes. Hashish, the resin from the female plant, is eaten or smoked, often in water pipes, by m.llions in Muslim countries of northern Africa and western Asia. In Afghanistan ana Pakistan, the resin is commonly smoked. East Indians regularly employ three preparations: Bhang consists of plants that are gathered green, dried and made into a drink with water or milk or into a candy (majun) with sugar and spices; Charas, normally smoked or eaten with spices, is pure resin; Ganja, usually smoked with tobacco, consists of resin-rich dried tops from the female plant.

Tropane alkaloids with hyoscyamine as the main constituent besides scopolamine, atropine, mandragorine, and others are the psychoactive constituents. The total content of tropane alkaloids in the root is 0.4%.

The psychoactive principles—cannabinotic compounds—are found in greatest concentration in a resin produced most abundantly in the region of the pistillate inflorescence. A fresh plant yields mainly cannabidiolic acids, precursors of the tetrahydrocannabinols and related constituents, such as cannabinol and cannabi-diol. The main effects are attributable to A1-3,4-trans-tetrahydrocannabinoi

The principal effect is euphoria. Everything from a mild sense of ease to hallucinations, from feelings of exaltation and inner joy to depression and anxiety have been reported. The drug's activities beyond the central nervous system seem to be secondarv They consist of a rise in pulse rate and blood pressure tremor, vertigo, difficulty in muscular coordination, increased tactile sensitivity, and dilation of the pupils.

The natives mix Justicia leaves with the snuff pre- The leaves are dried and pulverized Tryptamin*s have been suspected 'rom several pared from Virola (see Epena) to "make the snuff cies of Justicia.

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