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MAMMILlARIA Haw. (150-200)

Mammillaria spp: Pincushion Cactus

Cdctacefe (Cactus Family) Southwestern North 53 America, Central America

MANDRAGORA L. (6)

Mandragora officinarum L Mandrake Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Southern Europe, northern 54 Africa, western Asia to Himalayas

In northern Mexico, among the Tarahumara of Chihuahua, a species of Lycoperdon known as Kalamoto, is taken by sorcerers to enable them to ?.p oroach people without being deleted and to make people sick In southern Mexico the Mixtecs of Oaxaca employ two species to induce a condition of half-sleep, during which it is said that voices and echoes can be heard.

.ycoperdon mixtecorum, known only from Oaxaca, is small attaining a diameter of no more than 11/4 in. (3cm). It is subglobose, somewhat flattened, abruptly constricted into a peduncle scarcely Vs in. (3 mm) long. The exterior surface is densely cobbled-pustuli-form and light tan in color. The interior substance is straw colored.

The spherical spores, brownish tawny w'th a subtle tinge of violet, measure up to 10(i. This terrestrial species grows in light forest and in pastures.

Psychoactive constituents have not yet been isolated.

Among the most imoortant "false Peyotes" of the Tarahumara Indians are several species of Mammillaria, all of them round and stout-spined plants

/V-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-phe-nylethylamine has been isolated from M. heyderii, a species closely related to M. craigii. Horde-nine is present in many species.

Mammillaria craigii is globose but apically somewhat flattened with conical angled tubercles about VI in (1 cm) long and axils and areoles at first woolly; the central spines are about 1A in. (5 mm) long. The rose-colored flower attains a length of % in. (1,5cm). M. grahamiimay be globose or cylindric 2% in. (6cm) in diameter with small tubercles and naked axils; the central spines are % in. (2cm) or less in length. The flowers, which attain a length of 1 in. (2.5cm), have violet or purplish segments, sometimes with white margins

Probably no plant has had a more fantastic history than the Mandrake. As a magical plant and hallucinogen, its extraordinary place in European folklore can nowhere be equaled. Known for its toxic and real and presumed medicinal properties Mandrake commanded the fear and respect of Europeans throughout the Middle Ages and earlier. Its folk uses and attri butes were inextricably bound up with the Doctrine of Signatures, because of its anthropomorphic root

While there are six species ot Mandragora, it is M. officinarum of Europe and the Near East that has played the most important role as a hallucinogen in magic and witchcraft. It is a stemless perennial herb up to 1ft (30cm) high, with a thick, usually forking root and large, stalked, wrinkled, ovate leaves marginally entire or toothed and measuring up to 11 in. (28cm) in length. The whitish green, purplish, or bluish bell-shaped flowers 1V* in (3cm) in length, are borne in clusters among the tufted leaves. The globose or ovoid succulent yellow berry has a delightful fragrance.

The total content of tropane alkaloids in the root is 0.4%. The principal alkaloids are hyoscyamine and scopolamine but atropine, cuscohygrine, or mandragorine is also present

MAQUIRA Aubl.

Maquira sclerophylla (Ducke) C. C. Berg

Fapé dos Indios Moraceae (Mulberry Family) Tropical zones of South

55 America

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