The Common Reed, the largest grass in Central Europe, often grows in harbors. It has a thick, many-brancned rhizome. The stalks are 3-9 ft (1-3 m) high' the leaves have rough edges and grow up to 16-20 In. (40-50 cm) long and Va-% in. (1-2 cm) wide. The very long panicle, 6-16 in (15-40 cm) long has many dark purple flowers. It flowers trom July to September. Seeds mature In winter, at which pointthe leaves drop and the panicle turns white.
The Common Reed had many uses in ancient Egypt, particularly as fibrous material. Traditional use for psychoactive purposes has been documented only as a fermented ingredient in a beerlike drink.
The rootstalk contains DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, bufotenine, and gramine. Reports concerning psychoactive properties are primarily from experiences with an Ayahuasca analog made from an extract of the roots, lemon juice, and the seeds of Peganum har-mala. Unpleasant side effects such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea have been described
Phytolacca acinosa is a glab rous perennial with robust, branching green stems up to 3ft (91 cm) in length. The elliptic leaves average about 4%in. (12 cm) long The white flowers, about % in. (1 cm) in diameter are borne on densely flowered racemes 4in. (10cm) in length. The purple-black, berrylike fruit bears small black kidney-shaped seeds Vs in. (3 mm) long.
A weil-known Phytolacca in China. Shang-lu exists in two forms: one with white flowers and a white root and one with red flowers and a purplish root The latter type is considered to be highly toxic, although the former is cultivated as a food. The flowers—Ch'ang-hau'—are esteemed for treating apoplexy The root is so poisonous that it is normally uced only externally
Phytolacca acinosa is high in saponines and the sap of tne fresh leaves has been reported to have antiviral properties
This mushroom, known in Oax-aca as Hongo de San Isidro, is an important hallucinogen although it should be noted that not all shamans will use it. The Mazatec name is Di-shi-tjo-le rra-ja ("divine mushroom of manure").
The mushroom may attain a height of 13/4-3in. (4-8cm), very rarely up to 5% in. (15 cm). The cap, usually %-2in. (2-5cm) in diameter (rarely larger), is conic-campanulate, at first especially papillose, then becoming convex to plane. It is golden yellow pale tan to whitish near the margin; in age or upon injury, it may become cyanaceous. The stipe is hollow, usually thickened at the base, white but yellowing or becoming ashy red, and strongly lined. The gills vary from whitish to deep gray-violet or purple-brown. The ellipsoid spores are purple-brown.
The active principle in Psilocybe cubensis is psilocybine.
PSILOCYBE (Fr.) Quélet (180) PSILOCYBE (Fr.) Quélet (180) PSILOCYBE (Fr.) Quélet (180) PSYCHOTRIA L. (1200-1400)
Psilocybe cyanescens Wakefield .mend. Kriegeisteiner Wavy Cap Strophariaceae
North America, 77 Central Europe
Psilocybe me;icaria Heim Teonanácatl
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