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One of the least-known Andean plants, Desfontainia spinosa is sometimes assigned to a different family: Loganiaceae or Po-taliaceae. Botanists are not in agreement as to the number of species in the genus.

Desfontainia spinosa. a beautiful shrub 1-6 ft (30cm-1.Sm) in height, has glossy green leaves resembling those of Christmas holly, and tubular red flowers with a yellow tip. The betry is white or greenish yellow, globose, with many lustrous seeas. It has been reported as a hallucinogen from Chile and southern Colombia. In Chile it is known as Taique, in Colombia as Borrachero ("intoxicator").

Colombian shamans of the Kamsá tribe take a tea of the leaves to diagnose disease or "to dream." Some medicine men assert that they "go crazy" undor its influence. Nothing is as yet Known of the chemical constituents of Desfontainia.

In southern Chile Destentan nia is used for shamanic purposes similar to Latua pubifiora.

The branched evergreen shrub with woody stems grows to approximately 6-9 ft (2.5-3 m). Its wood has a yellow color and a distinct scent of vanilla. The green .eaves are lanceolate, with a continuous margin tapered at the petiole and are 4-5 in. long (12-15cm). The flowers are white, occasionally with rose speckles, and bell-shaped (to 7mm long) and hang in clusters off the tips of the branches. The fruit is a black berry with numerous tiny seeds

The psychoactive Pituri has been hedonisticallyand ritually used by the Aborigines since their settlement Australia. The leavfiMr§|athered in August wln^,Hp^|nts are in flower. uf^gft ||g up to dry or roasted overafireTThey are eitherchewed as Pituri or smoked in cigarettes rolled with alkaline substances.

Duboisia hopwoodii contains a variety of powerful and stimulating but toxic alkaloids: pitur-ine, dubosine, D-nor-nicotine and nicotine. The hallucinogenic iropane alkaloids hyoscyamine and scopolamine have been discovered in the roots.

ECHINOCEREUS Engelm (75)

EPITHELANTHA Weber (3)

ex Britt. et Rose

The Tarahumara Indians of Chihuahua consider two species as false Peyotes or Hikuri of the mountainous areas. They are not so strong as Ariocarpus, Coryphantha, Epitheiantha Mammiilaria, or Lophophora. Echinocereus saimdyckianus is a low, caespitose cactus with decumbent, yellow-green stems %-1 Vz in. (2-4 cm) in diameter. The ribs number 7 to 9. The 8 or 9 radial spines are yellow (1 cm) long, central spine solitary and longer than radials. The orange-colored flowers measure ®-4in. (8-10cm) long and have oblanceolate to spathulate perianth segments. This species is native to Chihuahua and Durango in Mexico Echinocereus trigiochidiatus differs in having deep green stems, fewer radial spines, which turn grayish with age, and scarlet flowers 2-21/4 in. (5-7cm) long A tryptamine derivative has been reported from Echinocereus trigiochidiatus (3-hyd:oxy-4 meihoxyphenethylamine)

This spiny cactus, one of the so-called false Peyotes of the Tara humara Indians of Chihuahua has acidic, edble fruit called Chilitos. Medicine men take Hikuli Mulato to make their sight clearer and to permit them to commune with sorcerers. It is taken by runners as a stimulant and "protector," and the Indians believe that it prolongs life. It is reportedly able to drive evil people to insanity or throw them from cliffs

Alkaloids and triterpenes have been reported from Epitheiantha mlcromeris. This very small globular cactus grows to a diameter of 2Vz in. (6cm). The low tubercles, 1/ie in. (2 mm) long, are arranged in many spirals. The numerous white spines almost hide the tubercles. The lower radial spines measure Vie in. (2 mm) long, the upper about % in. (1 cm). The small flowers, which arise from the center cf the plant in a tuft of wool and spines, are whitish to pink, 1A in. (5 mm) broad. The clavate fruit, %-1/2 in (9-13 mm) long, bears rather large, shining black seeds, 1/ie in (2 mm) across.

Echinocereus trigiochidiatus Engelm

Pitallito Cactus

Epitheiantha micromeris (Engelm.) Weber ex Britt. et Rose Hikuli Mulato

Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North 32 America, Mexico

Cactaceae (Cactus Family) Southwestern North 33 America, Mexico

FRYTHRINAL. (110)

Erythrina amer'cana Mill. Coral Tree i_eguminosae (Pea Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 34 both hemispheres

GALBULIMIMAF. M. Baiiey

Galbulimima belgraveana (F. v. Muell.) Sprague Agara

Himantandraceae

Northeast Australia,

35 Malaysia

i_eguminosae (Pea Family)

Tropical and warm zones of 34 both hemispheres

Tzompanquahultl of the ancient Aztecs may have been from the many species in the genus Erythrina, the seeds of which are believed to have been employed as a medicine and hallucinogen. In Guatemala the beans are employed in divination

The beans of Erythrina flabel-liformis constitute a Tarahumara Indian medicinal plant of many varied uses, which may have been utilized as a hallucinogen

Erythrina flabelliformis is a shrub or small tree wth spiny branches. The leaflets are 31/2 in. (3-6cm) long, usually broader than long The densely many-flowered racemes bear red flowers 1 Vs-TA in (3-6cm) long. Sometimes attaining a length of 1 ft (30cm), the pods, shallowly constricted between the seeds, contain from two to many dark red beans This spe cies is common in the hot, dry regions of northern and central Mexico and the American Southwest.

Natives in Papua boil the bark and leaves of this tree with a species of Homalomena to prepare a tea that causes an intoxication leading to a deep slumber, during which Visions are experienced.

This tree of northeastern Australia Papua, and Molucca is unbuttressed, attaining a height of 90ft (27m). The highly aromatic grav brownish, scaly bark measures Viin. (1 cm) in thickness. The elliptic, entire leaves are a gloss metallic green above brown beneath, and are normally 41/2—6 in. (11-15cm) long and 2-2% in. (5-7cm) wide. Lacking sepals and petals but with many conspicuous stamens, the flowers have a pale yellow or brownish yellow hue with a rusty brown calyx. The ellipsoidal or globose fruit is fleshy-fibrous, reddish, 2A in (2cm) in diameter

Although 28 alkaloids have been isolated from Galbulimima belgraveana, a psychoactive principle has not yet been found in the plant.

HEIMIA Link et Otto (3)

Heimia salicifolia (H.B.K.) Linket Otto Sinicuichi

Lythraceae (Loosestrife Family)

Southern North America to 36 Argentina, West Indies

HEUCHRYSUM Mill (500)

Heiichrysum (L.) Moench. Straw Flower

Compositae (Sunflower Family) Europe, Africa, Asia

37 Australia

Compositae (Sunflower Family) Europe, Africa, Asia

37 Australia

This genus has three very similar species, and all play important roles in folk medicine. Sev eral vernacular names reported from Brazil seem to indicate knowledge of psychoactive e.g., Abre-o-soi ("sun-opener") and Herva da Vida ("herb of life").

Sinicuichi (Heimia salicifolia) is 2-6ft (60cm-1 8m) tall with lanceolate leaves 3A-31/2 in. (2-9cm) long The yellow flowers are borne singly in the leaf axils; the persistent bell-shaped calyx develops long hornlike appendages. The shrub grows abundantly in moist places and along streams in the highlands.

In the Mexican highlands, the leaves of H. salicifolia are slightly wiltea, crushed in water, and the preparation is then allowed to ferment into an intoxicating drink. Although it is believed that excessive use of Simcuichi may be physically harmful, there are usually no uncomfortable artereffects. This plant contains quinolizidine al kaloids (lythrine, cryogenine, ly foline, nesidine)

Two species are used by witch doctors in Zululand "tor inhaling to induce trance^." It is presumed that the plants are smoked for these effects.

Helichrysum foetidum is a tall erect branching herb 10—12in. (25-30 cm) in height. It is slightly woody near the base and is very strongly scented. The lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate, basally lobed, entire leaves, measuring up to 1*2 in. (9 cm) long and % In. (2 cm) wide, basally enclasp the stem; they are gray woolly beneath and glandular above. The flowers occur in loose, terminal, corymbose clusters of several stalked heads %-11/2 in. (2-4cm) in dimeter, subtended by cream-co lorec; or golden yellow bracts These species of Helichrysum are some of the plants known in English as Everlasting

Coumarine and diterpenes have been reported from the genus but no constituents with hallucinogenic properties have been isolated.

H3MAL0MENA Schott

Homalomena lauterbachii Engl treriba

Araceae (Arum Family)

South America, tropical 39 zones of Asia

HYOSCYAMUS L. (20)

Hyoscyamus niger L. Black Henbane Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Europe, northern Africa, ¿J 1 soJthwestern and central Asia

Takini is a saci ed tree of the Guianas. From the red sap" of the bark a mildly poisonous intoxicant is prepared. Extracts from the inner bark of two trees elicit central nervous system depressant effects similar to those pro duced by Cannabis sativa. The two species responsible for this hallucinogen are H. pedunculata and H. tomentosa.

These two species of trees are similar. Both are cylindrical or very slightly buttressed forest giants 75ft (23 m) tal1 with grayish brown bark; the latex is pale yei-'ow or cream-colored. The leathery lanceolate-elliptic leaves attain a length of 7 in. (18cm) and a width of 3 in. (8cm). The fleshy, pistillate flowers are borne in glo ■jose cauliflorous heads

Very little is known about these trees and they are rarely studied. The hallucinogen could theoretically originate from either of the related genera Brosimum or Pir-atinera Extracts from the inner bark of both trees have been pharmacologically studied; they have a softening or dampening effect, similar to Cannabis sativa.

HELICOS] ais Trecul (12)

HYOSCYAMUS L. (10-20)

Hyoscyamus albus L Yellow Henbane Solanaceae (Nightshade Family)

Mediterranean, Near East

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